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THE SURVEY 



OF 



WESTERN PALESTINE. 



MEMOIRS 



TOPOGRAPHY, OROGRAPHY, HYDROGRAPHY, 



ARCHyEOLOGY. 



EY 

CAPT. C. R. CONDER, R.E., AND CAPT. H. H. KITCHENER, R.E. 



VOLUME III. SHEETS XVII.-XXVI. 

JUD.^A. 






EDITED WITH ADDITIONS BY 

E. H. PALMER, M.A., AND WALTER BESANT, M.A., 

FOR 

THE COMMITTEE OF THE PALESTINE EXPLORATION FUND, 
I, ADAM STREET, ADELPHI, LONDON, W.C. 

iSS.r 



PREFACE 



This volume completes the publication of the Memoirs drawn up by 
Captain Conder and Captain Kitchener for their Survey of Western 
Palestine. The information concerning Topography, Hydrography, 
Orography, Archaeology, etc., is so separated as to be easily looked out 
under the various sections of each Sheet. But to facilitate the work of 
reference, an index is now being prepared, and will be issued as soon as 
the whole work is completed. 

As regards the illustrations, with a few exceptions they have all been 
taken from the drawings and plans drawn on the spot. 

The Memoirs of this volume have had the advantage of being recorded 
by Captain Conder on the spot. He has revisited many of the sites with 
the proofs in his hands. 

The name of my lamented colleague. Professor Palmer, still appears 
upon the title-page ; but his illness in the spring, his departure for Egypt 
last July, and his tragic death in August, laid the whole work of editing 
this volume upon myself. If there are errors, therefore, they must not be 
charged upon him. 



W. B. 



I, Adam Street, Adelphi, 
March i, 1883. 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



•*-<x- 



PAGE 

Frescoes ....... Frontispiece. 

Bethany ....... To face page 28 

'Amwas — Plan of ruined church ; pavejient ; capitals with inscription ; 

masons' marks ; tomb of a Santon ; Hebrew-Samaritan and 

Greek inscriptions; subterranean vault 
Anata — Plan . . ■ . 

Beit Lahm — Plan of Constantine's Basilica ; graffiti representing crests 

OF knights, with mottoes .... 
BiR Beit Bassa — Plans and sections of loculi 

BiREH — Plan of ruined church, capitals of pillars, and masons' marks 
Pools of Solomon (Lower Pool) .... Tufac 

Deir et Tahuneh — Sketches of lintel stones . 
El Habs — Sketch of Latin stone altar 

El JtB — View of the city ; plan of tomb, with elevations of walls 
El KabO — Plan of ruined church .... 
Kab^r el Beni IsraIm — Sketches and sections of rude stone monUxMents 
Khurbet 'Adaseh — Plans and sections of tombs and underground aque 

duct ..... 
Khurbet 'Ain el KenIseh — Plan of ruined chapel 
Khurbet Beit Skaria — Sketches of pillar capitals 
Khurbet el BeitOni — Plan of cave . 
Khurbet el Burj — Plan of tower 

Khurbet Ikbala — Plan of ruined convent; masons' marks 
Khurbet el Mahmeh — Sections of masonry 
Khurbet Medbes— Plan of great cave 
Khurbet el Murussus — Plan of ruined monastery 
Khurbet Samm^nieh — Plan of hill-top, with cisterns and well 
Rachel's tomb near Bethlehem 

El Kubeibeh — Plan of ruined Crusading church ; masons' marks 
KOlat el GhOleh — Sketch of block of rock . 



63-71 


82 


84,85 


87 


88,89 


page 89 


92 


93 


95-98 


100 



105 

106 
loS 
109 
1 10 
lis 

119 

120 

122 
124 

To face page 129 
131 



VI 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



PAGE 

Ruined church, Kurvet el 'Enab .... To face page 132 
KuRYET EL 'Enab — Plan of ruined church of St. Jeremiah; masons' 

MARKS ...... ■ 132- 133 

KuRYET SaIDEH — SKETCH OF LINTEL STONE WITH INSCRIPTION . .134 

Mugharet BIr el Hasuta — Plan of entrance shaft; masons' marks . 137 

Mugharet el Jai — Plan of cave . . . . .138 

Mugharet Umm et TOeimIn — Sketches of exterior and interior, and 

plan ....... 146-148 

Neey SamwIl — Plan of church, with masons' marks; sketch of the tomb 

of Samuel; plan of modern village; sketch of Neby Samw!l . 149-152 
Neby TurfIni — Sketch of door of limestone, with lions' and bulls' 

HEADS 

Er Ram — Sketch of lintel stone 

Tell el FOl — Plan of monument 

TelIlia — Plan of camp inclosure 

Ravine of Wady Kelt 

'AiN Feshkah (Dead Sea) 

Deir el Kelt — Plan of ruined monastery; sketch of door, wit 

TiON IN Arabic and Greek 
Jebel Kuruntul — Plans of chapels . 
Khan HathrOrah — Plan 
Kusr Hajlah — Plan of main chapel . 
Kusr el YehOd — Plan of chapel ; inscription . 
Aqueducts near Jerico 
Aqueducts across Wady en Nueiameh 
Wady Kelt — Plan of aqueduct 
ASKALAN ..... 
Interor of church of St. John, Ga2a 
AsKALAN — Masons' marks 

West door of the church of St. John, Gaza . 

Deir el Belah — Sketches of stones, with crosses and 

Ghuzzeh — Plan .... 

Sheikh Rashed — Inscription on tomb . 

Tell el 'Ajj(jl — Sketch of great statue 

Arak el Kheil — Plan of caverns, and sketches of bas-reliefs 

Beit JibrIn — Inscription in great cave ; bas-relief on wall of cave ; 

PLAN of fortifications NORTH OF VILLAGE; MASONS' MARKS . 267-27 1 

Details of arcade at Beit JibrIn .... To face page 270 

El KenIseh — Plan of church of Sandahannah . . .276 

KeratIya — Plans of Kulat el Fenish . . . .277 

Es SOk — Plan of excavation; sketch of interior . . .289,290 

Tell Sandahannah— Plan of caverns . . . .291 



153 
155 
159 
160 
To face page 167 
,, 171 

H INSCRIP- 

192-196 

201 

208 
214 

217 
To face page 222 

„ „ 225 

228 

To face page 237 

!) n 240 

240 

To face page 242 



inscriptions 



248 
249 

253 
254 
265 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



PAGE 
321 

To face page 322 

-7 2 3 

33° 

•334,335 

To face page 336 

,' " 35- 

355 



Beit 'Auwa — Plan and section of font 

Ramet el KhulIl, Abr.\ham's house near Hebron 

Beit el KhulIl — Plan of remains 

Deir el ArbaJn — Plan, showing tombs of Jesse and Ruth 

Jebel FureidIs — Plan of hill-top, etc. 

El Haram (Hebron) — Plan, with section and cornice . 

South-east angle and entrance to Haram (Hebron) 

Plan of the vicinity of Hebron . . . • „ 

Khurbet el J6f — Sketch of cornice ..... 

Khurbet Khoreisa — Plan of ruin, and sketch of lintel stone with 

inscription ...... 356 

Wady Khureitun ...... To face page 357 

Adullam — showing the c.wes . . . • ,, ,1 361 

Khurbet Tekua — Plan of font, with sketches of designs on side; plan 

of rock-cut stable .... 

Khurbet Umm el 'Amed — Plan of ruined convent 

El Kurmul — Plan of the castle .... 

Kusr IslaIyIn — Plan of remains .... 

Mdgharet M.4sa — Plan of cave .... 

El Muntar — Plan ...... 

Es Si.MiA — Plan of rock-cut tomb, with sketch of porch 

'AiN JiDY (EnGEDI) ...... 

'Anab — Plan ...... 

Edh Dhaheriyeh — View of the vill.vge, and plan of the tower 
Khurbet ZanOta —Sketch of wall .... 

Es SemI^a — 'Plan of building ; sketch of pillars and details of pilaster 
S6siEH — Plan of the ruin ; lintels, cornices and mouldings 
Masada — general plan .... 

Tyre — Plan of Es StJR 

Masada — scale ..... 

Masada — from the north-west 



368,369 

370 



373 
374 
375 
377 
378 

38s 

393 

407 

410 

413 

414.415 
To face page 417 

424 

To face page 419 

,, ,, 420 



THE 

SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 



SHEET XVII.— SECTION A. 

Orography. — This Sheet contains 3717 square miles of the country 
round Jerusalem. It is naturally divided into four districts, viz. : 
(i) the Watershed Hills; (2) the hills west of Wady Beit 
Hanina; (3) the 'Arkub; (4) the Shephelah. 

I. The Watershed Hills. — The main watershed ot the 
country runs south from Tell 'As^lr (Sheet XIV.), by Beitin to 
Bireh, where it is about 2,920 feet above the Mediterranean. From 
this point it runs as a narrow ridge with a shallow parallel valley on the 
west. The average elevation is about 2,700 to 2,600 feet for 7 miles to 
the R a s el M e s h a r i f, about a mile from Jerusalem. The city is 
first visible from near Shafat, 2 miles away, and from the conical 
Tell el Fill (2,754 feet above the sea), 2f miles away. 

In the neighbourhood of the city the watershed is Hat and broad, 
running west of the sloping spurs on which the modern Jerusalem is 
built. It is about half a mile wide, and runs in a curve, returning towards 
the east on the south of the city. The elevation decreases gradually from 
2,680, north and west of the city, to 2,440 near Sir Moses Montefiore's 
almshouses. Jerusalem may be generally described as built on the 
eastern slope of a plateau, the western slopes of which extend in parallel 
ridges to Wady Beit Hanina, 4 miles from the city. 

South of Jerusalem is the flat plain called el Bukeia, or el 
M e i d a n, extending nearly two miles north and south, and about a mile 

VOL. III. I 



2 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

broad, with an average elevation of about 2,500 feet above the sea. The 
watershed continues from this plain to Bethlehem, the ground to the west 
being flat and open, whilst spurs with valleys, which deepen rapidly, exist 
to the east. Bethlehem stands on one of these eastern spurs, and the 
watershed curves away westwards, being very narrow, with a flat valley 
(Wady J i r i u s) on the west, running north. 

On reaching the rounded hill of Shukfan, above Urtas, the 
shed drops rapidly to a saddle immediately west of the B u r a k, and has 
an elevation of a little over 2,600 feet. It then rises again further west 
into the high and conspicuous ridge, running north and south, called R a s 
esh Sherifeh (3,258 feet above the sea), the highest point on the 
Sheet. The western slopes from this ridge are steep, but on the east 
there is a small flat plot of ground in the neighbourhood of the B u r a k. 
The eastern spurs are, however, equally rugged with those on the west, 
and the pass immediately south of the Burak and east of the ridge of 
Ras esh Sherifeh is very narrow and difficult. 

The valleys which break down east of the watershed towards the 
Dead Sea are all steep and fall rapidly ; the spurs between them are 
generally flat, with rounded outlines, and precipices below. The tojjs of 
the hills are of soft chalky limestone, but a hard crystalline formation 
appears beneath. The most important valleys are Wady Suweinit, 
and Wady e r R e d e i d y, which are the two heads of W a d y 
Farah (Sheet XVIII.). A third valley (Wady Ruabeh) running 
north-east from the Mount of Olives, joins the same great valley (Wady 
Farah), which thus receives the drainage of all the country east of the 
watershed from Bethel to Jerusalem. 

The sides of these three valleys are precipitous and impassable ; 
Wady Suweinit is especially rugged, with cliffs 300 to 400 feet high. 
The hills above are very bare, but there is corn-land in the low ground at 
the valley heads. 

The Mount of Olives is an important spur, running out of the water- 
shed north of Jerusalem and curving round eastwards. The elevation of 
the ridge is about equal to that of the watershed (2,600 to 2,680 feet 
above the sea). 

Another important valley, W a d y c n N a r, has its head south of the 
Ras el M e s h a r i f, and runs east of Jerusalem, separating it from the 



[SHEET XVII.] OROGRAPHY. 3 

Mount of Olives. Thence it runs south-east for 4 miles, when it bends 
suddenly east, running towards Mar Saba (Sheet XVIII.). This 
valley (the ancient brook Kedron) is tlanked by rounded hills, and is 
open and easily passable. 

The valleys south of Jerusalem and east of the watershed run generally 
towards the south-east ; the ridges between are narrow, with steep slopes ; 
the whole district is extremely barren, consisting of white chalky lime- 
stone. 

II. Wad y Beit H a n i n a. — One of the principal valleys in 
the centre of Palestine; has its head near Bireh. It runs south 
for 6 miles close to the watershed, gradually becoming deeper and 
narrower. South of Beit H a n i n a it is joined by a second valley 
of the same character, which runs almost parallel to it on the west, 
having its head at Ram-Allah. About i-^ miles from the junction, 
the valley becomes (in the neighbourhood of Lifta) an important 
natural feature. Thence it runs irregularly westwards to K li 1 6 n i e h, 
where its bed is i,Soo feet above the sea, the mountains rising some 
700 to 800 feet above it. The valley runs from K li 1 6 n i e h in a 
southerly direction under 'A i n Karim, and is here broad and flat, 
with steep ridges on either side. Gradually turning west, it becomes yet 
deeper and narrower, forming a very important natural feature. Near 
'A k u r the bed is about 1,400 feet below the northern ridge, and 1,297 feet 
above the Mediterranean. North of Deir el Hawa the valley is a 
narrow gorge, with precipices on its northern side. It here emerges from 
the high hills into the S hep he 1 ah, and becomes a broad corn valley 
(W a d y e s S li r a r). This valley, divides the 'Ark u b on the south 
from the hill ranges to the north, and divides also the S h e p h e 1 a h into 
two districts. 

The northern hills west of the watershed extend about 5 miles west- 
wards, in a series of narrow parallel ridges, the average elevation being 
from 2,600 feet above the sea on the east, to 2,000 on the west. These 
spurs have very steep western slopes, a sudden drop occurring, as, for 
instance, at Beit 'U r, where the fall along the ridge from Beit 'U r 
el Foka to Beit 'Ur et Tahta is 700 feet in a mile and a half. 
To the south the spurs are longer. Thus at Bab el W a d, where the 
sudden descent of 700 feet occurs in about a mile the distance from the 

I — 2 



4 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

watershed is 1 1 miles, and so also in W a d y e s S li r a r the end of the 
higher hills occurs 1 1 miles west of the w-atershed. 

The ground is open in the neighbourhood of B e i t u n i a, e r Ram 
and el Jib, where three small plains occur. The first, south of the 
village, extends some 3 miles, and is about \ mile wide. It runs into the 
plain, which extends for 2 miles west of e 1 Jib, which village stands on 
a high hill above it. The third plain, immediately west of the watershed 
and east of the other two, is sejoarated from them by a ridge running 
north and south, and extends about a mile either way. 

The principal valleys which run to the Mediterranean in this district 
are W a d y S e 1 m a n and W a d y 'A 1 y, the first rising about a mile 
west of el Jib, the second west of Saris, and both uniting at 
K u b a b in the Shephelah. A third important valley has its head in 
the open ground between S 6 b a and K li r y e t el 'E n a b, and thence 
runs south-west to join W a d y es Stirar, the junction occurring 
near 'Art u f. 

W a d y S e 1 m a n is a narrow valley with steep sides, some 700 feet 
deep, and bare and stony. W a d y ' A 1 y is of the same character, but not 
so long ; in about 3 miles it has a fall of 1,100 feet. 

The hills in this district are of hard crystalline limestone, with 
steep sides. They are clothed with brushwood, and have a less barren 
appearance than the hills along the watershed ; from the western ends 
of the ridges good views are obtained over the low hills and maritime 
plain. 

III. The 'Arkub is a long ridge running out of the watershed 
north of R i s e s h S h e r i f e h ; on the north is Wady es Stirar; 
on the south Wady M u s i r r. The former valley is joined by Wady 
A h m e d, which rises near the B u r a k, and runs away east of Beit 
Jala as an open valley, and thence round to B i 1 1 i r, in which neigh- 
bourhood it becomes a deep gorge ; thence it runs west to join W a d y 
e s S u r d r, near 'A k u r. Thus a triangular district is enclosed be- 
tween W a d y A h m e d and Wady Sura r, and a ridge runs out 
from the Hat hills west of Jerusalem, and is enclosed between the two 
valleys, rising 1,000 to 1,200 feet above them. 

The ridge of the 'A r k u b runs out some 8 miles from the watershed, 
and has an elevation of 2,600 feet towards the east, and 1,800 feet on the 



[SHEET XVII.] OROGRAPHY. S 

west. Smaller spurs run out from it. W a d y M u s i r r, which bounds 
it on the south, runs into Wady es Sunt. It breaks down rapidly 
from the high ridge of R a s e s h S h e r i f e h, and becomes almost im- 
mediately a narrow and deep valley. 

The 'A r k u b is bounded on the west by an open valley, Wady en 
N a j i 1, which runs north, separating off the lower hills from the higher. 
This peculiar feature is again found further south. (See Sheet XXI., 
Wady es Sfint.) In general character the 'Arkub resembles the 
last-mentioned hills in the second district, being of hard crystalline lime- 
stone with steep slopes, and covered with brushwood, which in parts is 
very thick. 

IV. The Shephela h. — The low hills to the west of those already 
described form an entirely distinct district, to which in the Talmud the 
name Shephelah is applied. 

The western higher ridges break down suddenly, as above explained, 
and the lower hills are very flat, with open valleys between. This district 
measures about 9 miles across, east and west, the elevation being about 
1,000 feet on the east and 600 to 500 feet on the west. The hills are of 
soft chalky limestone, and the valleys are fertile, with good soil. 

South of Wady es Siirar these hills are, on an average, somewhat 
higher, and covered with scrub. The valley is nearly a mile wide, and 
cultivated with corn. The white hills to the north of it are about 200 feet 
high, with steep sides ; those immediately to the south are of about equal 
elevation, but rise into the prominent peak of e 1 K h e i s h u m (1,245 ^^^t 
above the sea), which is a conspicuous feature. The southern block of 
the Shephelah hills is connected with the 'Arkub by a narrow ridge 
near Beit Nettif; but the valley before noticed, Wady en Najil, 
almost separates them, and forms a marked division between the two 
districts. 

Hydrography. — The water-supply of the Judean hills on this Sheet 
is inferior to that further north (Sheets XI. and VIII.), and Jerusalem 
itself is remarkable for its insufficient supply, having only one spring 
('A i n U m m e d D e raj). In the watershed hills the supply is princi- 
pally from deep wells, cisterns, and rock-cut tanks. South of Bethlehem 

A. 

there are, however, in the neighbourhood of U r t a s, three moderate 



6 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

springs ('A i n tj r t a s, 'A i n S a 1 e h, 'A i n 'A t a n), which feed the 
Jerusalem aqueduct. East of Bethany there is also a good spring in the 
valley, by the main road to Jericho — 'A in H a u d. 

The hills west of the watershed are better supplied, the springs being 
numerous, though not very large. Between Neby Samwil and Beit 
H a n i n a a group of six springs occurs — 'A in Abu Z i a d, 'A i n el 
Emir, ' A i n J a k u k, ' A i n ]\I a 1 a k a h, 'A i n e s h S h a t i r, 'A i n 
e t T u w a 1 y. 

The springs in the neighbourhood of K fi 1 6 n i e h also give a good 
supply of water, and a stream runs down the valley in the wet season. 
Between S 6 b a and K li r y e t el 'E n a b there is also a good supply, 
and the valley becomes swampy in winter. 

The 'Arkub is also a district abounding in springs of moderate size. 
In W a d y el W e r d, south-west of Jerusalem, are the two good springs, 
'A in Yalo and 'A i n Hanniyeh; and further down, in the neigh- 
bourhood of e 1 Welej eh, there is a group of five springs within about 
\ mile of one another, The remaining springs of this district are noticed 
with the neighbouring villages. 

The Shephelah district is supplied almost entirely by spring-wells, the 
water running; beneath the surface. In the neighbourhood of K h li r b et 
Kefr Urieh there are several fine groups of springs, including 'A i n 
S u w e i d e h, 'A y u n e t T i n e h, 'A y u n Abu M e h a r i b, 'Ay u n 
el Kharjeh. In the valley north of K h f i r b e t el Yarmuk there 
is also a succession of springs, which How from excavations called 
Hiifiyir en Neby Bulus. 

The great spring-wells are often of apparently great antiquity, as, for 
instance, that near Z a k a r i y a, which is very large. 

Cultivation. — The watershed hills are cultivated with barley and 
other crops, but the soil is poor, and the crops inferior to those in the plain 
and Shephelah. In the neighbourhood of Jerusalem olives and vines are 
cultivated over an area of 9 square miles. Round Bethlehem the cultiva- 
tion is similar, the vineyards being to the north and west. 

The cultivation in the western hills round the villacfes is of similar 
character, but the vine-cultivation is less extensive than near Hebron or 
in the north. 



[SHEET XVIL] TOPOGRAPHY. 7 

In the Shcphelah the corn-cultivation is more extensive than in the 
hills, and in W a d y e s S li r a r especially the barley is very fine. 

The olives in the hills are grown on terraces which have been built up 
with stone retaining-walls. These terraces are sometimes found in parts 
not now cultivated, and there can be no question that the cultivation might 
be very much extended, especially in the district of the 'A r k u b. 

\V a d y el \V e r d, west of Jerusalem, is so named from the fields of 
roses which extend for over a mile along the bottom of the valley from 
M a 1 h a h to 'A i n Y a 1 o. They are used for rose-water and sherbet in 
Jerusalem. 

Topography. — There are (including Jerusalem) one hundred inhabited 
towns and villages on the Sheet belonofinfr to various Government divisions 
of the country under the M u t a s e r r i f of Jerusalem. These may be 
enumerated according to the districts. 

I. — Beni Haritii el Kieliyeh. 

1. 'A i n 'A r i k (L s). — A small stone hamlet in a deep valley with 
a Greek church, the inhabitants being Greek Christians. There is a good 
spring to the west with a small stream. The place is surrounded with 
olives, and there are lemons and other trees round the water in a thick 
grove. This place is probably Archi, on the boundary of Benjamin, 
between Bethel and Beth Horon (Joshua xvi. 2). It is also marked 
as Arecha on the map of Marino Sanuto, 1321 a.d. 

2. D e i r I b 2 i a.— (See Sheet XIV.) 

3. S tiff a (K s). — A small village standing high on a ridge, with a 
well to the east and a sacred ^^lace to the south. 

II. — Jebel el Kuds. 

I. 'A n.a t a (N t). — A village of moderate size, the houses of stone : 
it stands on a high ridge commanding a fine view to the north and east. 
The view extends as far as T a i y i b e h ; and e r Ram, J e b a, and 
H i z m e h are visible. There are a few olives round the village, and a 
well on the west and another on the south-east. 'A n a t a is the ancient 
Anathoth of Benjamin (Joshua xxi. 18). It was known to Eusebius as 



8 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

about 3 Roman miles north of Jerusalem, and is described by Josephus 
as 20 stadia (Ant. x. 7, 3) from the city. The distance is 2\ English 
miles from 'A n a t a to the nearest part of Jerusalem. (Cf. Section B.) 

2. Beit H a n i n a (M t). — A village of moderate size, of stone 
houses, standing on very rocky ground on the ridge between two valleys. 
It is surrounded with olives, and has springs to the west at some little 
distance. Vineyards also occur near the village. This place is apparently 
the ancient Ananiah of Benjamin near Hazor (Neh. xi. 32). Khurbet 
H a z z {i r is immediately west of the village. 

3. Beit Iksa (L s). — A village on a ridge above the deep 

Wady Beit Hani n a. It is of moderate size, with stone houses, 

and a well on the north, near which is the sacred tree of N e b y 

L e i m i^i n. There are a few olives round the village. 

' The men of Beit Iksa told me that their village bears also the name of Umm el Ela ; 
another of those double names that I have so often pointed out. The present inhabitants 
belong to the Beni Zeid, and come from the north ; they obtained possession of Umm el Ela, 
and gave it the new name of Beit Iksa. The ethnical name to which Iksa belongs is 
Keswani, in the plural Kesawne^B e i t I k s a n or I k s w a n. We must, therefore, in 
Palestine topography, keep account of the migration of names transported with the population 
from one place to another.' — C. Clermont Ganneau. 

4. Beit Unia (L r). — A good-sized village ot stone, surrounded 
by olives, standing high on a flat rocky ridge, with a plain to the east. 
To the east are cisterns, wine-presses, and a pond (el Baliia), which 
contains water in winter. On the north and east are rock-cut tombs 
with well-cut entrances, but blocked up. 

5. Bir Nebala (L s).— A village of moderate size, standing high, 
with a valley to the west. There are a few olives round the place. 

6. B ireh (M s). — A village standing high on the watershed, to the 
east of the main road. The village is of good size, and the houses are 
fairly well built. Towards the south are remains of a K h a n, with a 
sloping revetement to the outer wall. South-east and north-east of the 
village are large quarries. Vineyards and olive groves surround the 
place. One house has an old ornamented lintel over its door, with three 
rosettes in relief. The most conspicuous building is a tower, partly 
ancient, on the north. The threshing-floors are on the west. 



[SHEET XVII.] TOPOGRAPHY. 9 

Outside the village on the south-west is a good spring, with a sacred 
place built over it and a trough on the east side. Towards the north-east 
are the ruins of the Crusading Church (Section B). The ground round 
the place is rocky, with a few olives. 

This village is the ancient Beeroth of Benjamin (Joshua ix. 1 7). In the 
Middle Ages the place was called La Grande INIahomerie (Cart, de S. Sep.). 
It is mentioned under this name by William of Tyre. The church, with 
a hospice attached, was completed by the Templars (to whom the place 
belonged) in 1146 a.d. (Cart, de S. Sep.). (See Du Vogue, ' Eglises de 
Terre Sainte,' p. 339.) 

The population of B i r e h is about 800, including a few Orthodox 
Greeks. 

7. Burkah (j\I s). — A good-sized village standing high on a bare 
hill-side, with a spring in the valley to the south. 

8. Deir Diwan (N s). — A large and well-built stone village, 
standing on flat ground, with a rugged valley to the north and open 
ground to the south. There are a few scattered olives round the place. 
The inhabitants are partly Christian. 

9. H i z m e h (N s). — A small stone village, standing high on a 
prominent hill, the slopes of which are covered with olives. It has a 
well to the west. This place is the ancient Azmaveth (Neh. vii. 28). 

10. J eba (N s). — A village of moderate size standing on a rocky 
knoll. On the north is a deep valley (W a d y S u w e i n i t) ; on the south 
the ground falls less abruptly, but is very rocky ; on the west the ridge is 
Hat; and on the east is a plain extending for about i^- miles, and about 
^ mile wide north and south. This plain is open arable land, extending 
to the brink of the precipitous cliffs on the north. The village has caves 
beneath, at the foot of the knoll (see Section B), and there are olives on 
the west, north, and south. There is a central high house like a tower in 
the village. 

The view embraces M li k h m a s and extends as far as the neigh- 
bourhood of Deir Diwan and Taiyibeh. On the south 'Anat a 
and H i z m e h are seen. The north end of the Dead Sea is also 
visible. J e b ^ is the ancient Geba of Benjamin (Joshua xxi. 17). 

11. Jedireh (Ms). — A small village on a slope, surrounded by 
VOL. in. 2 



10 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

figs and olives, and with rock-cut tombs to the north. This place is 
probably Gederah of Benjamin (i Chron. xii. 4). 

12. El Jib (M s). — The village stands on the end of a hill, rising 
300 feet above the valley. On the south is a narrow plain, and there is 
an open valley on the east, whilst to the north and west there is also a 
flat plain. The hill is thus isolated, and a position naturally of great 
strength. The houses cover the northern part of the hill. The village is 
of moderate size, the houses of stone, with a central tower, and massive 
foundations exist among the modern buildinsfs. 

On the east, rather lower than the village and a little below the top of 
the ridge, is the spring, which issues from a cave. Below it are remains 
of a good-sized reservoir. There are many springs on the south and west, 
and caves in the southern side of the hill. Olives, figs, pears, apples, 
and vines are cultivated round the village and in the plain ; there are 
also extensive corn-fields in the low ground. (See Section B.) 

El J i b is the ancient Gibeon (Joshua ix. 3). One of the most curious 
features of the scenery is the great regularity with which the horizontal 
strata of rock occur, the hills being stepped with natural terraces, which 
give them the appearance of being contoured as seen from the summit 
of N e b y S a m w i 1. 

Three ancient roads join at el Jib, coming from the maritime plain. 
The site seems to have been known in the Middle Ages, and to have been 
then called Gran David (Benjamin of Tudela). 

' The present village is situated on the northern and smaller top of the double hill which, 
shaped like a figure 8, lies in a kind of basin north of Neby Samwil. This basin is a tract of 
fertile ground — producing pears, grapes, figs, almonds, etc., in addition to the usual ground- 
crops and olives — formed by an eccentric watershed, which, beginning at the end of Wady 
Selaian, in the first instance flows due east; then turning southwards, round Bir Nabala, 
passes Lifta and 'Ain Karim, and eventually reaches the Mediterranean near Yabneh. The 
heads of this Wady to the north of el Jib are called Wady Askar and Wady Hammud, which 
latter comes down from the north-east of Beitunia, divided by a low watershed from an 
upper valley, a rise in the bed of which forms a barrage. Above this a pool, covering some 
6 to 8 acres to a depth of 20 feet, is formed during the winter. It is termed "el Balu'a" 
("The Sink")'.— C. F. Tyrwhitt Drake, 'Quarterly Statement,' 1872, p. 174. 

13. Kefr 'Akab (M s). — A small hamlet on the slope of a hill- 
side, with a few olives. 

14. Kulundia (M s). — A small village on a swell, surrounded by 



{SHEET XVII.] 



TOPOGRAPHY. 



n 



olives, with quarries to the west. Ancient tomlas occur here. This was 
one of twenty-one villages given by King Godfrey to the Canons of the 
Holy Sepulchre.* 

* The villages (Casales) given as fiefs to the Holy Sepulchre Cathedral by Godfrey were 
as below (see ' Cartulary of H. Sej).') : 



Ainquine . 








'Ain Kanieh 


Armotieh . 








Arnutieh 


Kefreachab 








Kcfr 'Akab 


Kcfredil . 










Bubil 










Hubim . 








Hub in 


Aram 








or Ram 


Kalandie . 








Kulundia 


Bet Digge 








Beit Uukku 


Mahomeria Major 








Bireh 


Sabaiet , 








Soba 


Uniet 








Beitunia 


Zenum 










Helmule . 










Beithelamus 








Beit Lahm 


Barithmeta 










Beithumen 








Beit Anan 


Beitfuteier 










Beit Surie (Parva Mahomeria) 






Beit Surik 


Aineseins (Valdecurs) 








. 'Ain Sinia 



To these were added by Baldwin I., in the same district, the Castle of .St. Lazarus in Bethany, 
afterwards exchanged for Tekoa and the villages of 



Benehatie 
Benehabeth 
Ragabam 
Roma 

which are nearer Nablus than the preceding. 



Beni Harith 

Rujib 

Rumeh 



Baldwin V. added other gifts, viz., the villages of 

Bethel 
Odermamel 
Der Sabeb 
Corteis 
Deir Musin 
Huetdebes 

all sold by Hugh of Ybclin to the Canons. 



Beitin 

Deir Shabib 
Deir Muheisin 



2 — 2 



12 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

15. Mukhmas (N s). — A small stone village on the slope of a 
ridge. The houses are poor and scattered. The water supply is from 
cisterns. It has a well to the east, and some scattered figs to the west. 
On the north are rock-cut tombs ; an ancient road leads past the place. 
There are foundations and remains of former buildings in the village ; 
on the south a steep slope leads clown to the great valley, W a d y 
Suweinit. This place is the ancient Michmash, which is placed by 
the ' Onomasticon ' (s. v. Machmas) 9 Roman miles from Jerusalem. The 
distance is 71 English or 8 Roman rniles in a line. (See Section B.) 

16. Neby Samwil (Ms). — A small hamlet of mud hovels; is 
perched on the top of the ridge, amid the remains of the Crusading ruins. 
There is a spring to the north (A in el Belled). 

This place is apparently first mentioned by Procopius as St. Samuel 
(De iEdific. Just, V. 9) ; in the Middle Ages it went by the same name, and 
was also identified with Shiloh (Benjamin of Tudela), and called Mount 
Joy (' Citez de Jherusalem '). The church was finished in 1157A.D. (see 
Du Vogue ' Eglises,' p. 339). The distance from Betenuble (B e i t Nuba, 
is given in 1187 ('Citez de Jherusalem') as 5 leagues, and 3 leagues 
from the north gate of Jerusalem. In later times the place was supposed 
to be Ramathaim Zophim (Ouaresmius, 1620 a.d.), but this latter site was 
shown as late as the fourteenth century at Ramleh (Marino Sanuto, 
1 32 1 A.D.). Benjamin of Tudela speaks of the removal of the bones of 
Samuel from Ramleh to Neby Samwil at the time of the taking of the 
former place by the Crusaders. In the twelfth century the place was a 
fief of the Holy Sepulchre. 

' The view from this place, which is usually identified with Mizpeh, is extensive. It 
includes Mount Gerizim and the promontory of Carmcl to the north ; Jaffa, Ramleh, and 
a wide stretch of the maritime plain to the west ; Jebel Furaydis (the so-called Frank 
mountain), the far distant mountains of Jebal, the town of Kcrak, Jebel Shihan (the highest 

In the I.ydda district the Church possessed 

Capharuth ..... Kefr Rflt 

Gith ...... Jett 

Porphilia ...... Berfilia 

Kefrescilta ..... Kefr Shilta 

Bermanaym ..... Bir M'ain 

In the Nablus district they also held Kefr Malik and exchanged it for Megina (Umm Jlna) 
and Mezera (Mezr'ah). They had other towns in Thilistia, Galilee, I'hojnicia, etc., making 
sixty-four villages in all. — C.R.C. 



[SHEET XVJI.] TOPOGRAPHY. 13 

point in Moab), are seen to the south and south-east ; the continuation of the trans-Jordanic 
plateau, with slightly undulating outline, stretches to the east and north-east. This reputed 
tomb of Samuel has naturally formed an important trigonometrical station, and is one of the 
few points known to me whence Jaffa and Jerusalem are both visible.' — C. F. Tyrwhitt Drake, 
'Quarterly Statement,' 1S72, p. 174. 

17. E r Ram (iM s). — A small village in a conspicuous position on 
the top of a high white hill, with olives. It has a well to the south. 
This place is the ancient Ramah of Benjamin (Joshua xviii. 25), mentioned 
by Jerome {' Comm. in Hosea,' v. 8) as near Gabaa (J e b d), and 7 Roman 
miles from Jerusalem. The true distance is 5 English miles. It is 
marked on the map of INIarino Sanuto, and was a fief of the Holy 
Sepulchre Church. The houses are of stone, partly built from old 
materials, as described in Section B. 

18. Ram -All ah (M g). — A large Christian village, of well-built 
stone houses, standing on a high ridge, with a view on the west extending 
to the sea. It stands amongst gardens and olive-yards, and has three 
springs to the south and one on the west ; on the north there are three 
more, within a mile from the village. On the east there is a well. 

There are rock-cut tombs to the north-east with well-cut entrances, 
but completely blocked with rubbish. In the village is a Greek church, 
and on the east a Latin convent and a Protestant schoolhouse, all modern 
buildings. The village lands are IVakuf, or ecclesiastical property, 
belonging to the Haram of Jerusalem. About a quarter of the inhabitants 
are Roman Catholics, the rest Orthodox Greeks. This place is one of the 
possible sites for Ramathaim Zophim. 

19. Ra-fat (J t). — A small hamlet on a ridge, with a spring to 
the west, and many rock-cut tombs. The name is radically connected 
with that of Irpeel of Benjamin (Joshua xviii. 27). (See Section B.) 

20. Shafat (M t). — A small village, standing on a flat spur im- 
mediately west of the watershed, surrounded with olive-trees. It has 
wells to the north. There is a sacred chapel of Sultan Ibrahim in the 
village. 

This place is suggested as the site of the ancient Mizpah of Benjamin 
(Joshua xviii. 26), 'over against Jerusalem' (i Mace. iii. 46), a place 
possibly identical with Nob. The modern name is derived from the 
Hebrew Jehoshaphat, but may perhaps be a corruption of the old 



14 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

Mizpeh or Sapha. Jerusalem is visible from the neighbourhood of the 

village. There are ancient tombs to the south, on the sides of the valley. 

' This name contains the radicals of the Hebrew Jehoshaphat, and the natives of the 
place state it to have been named after a king of Jerusalem. A place of the name 
Jehoshaphat is noticed near Jerusalem by Marino Sanuto, and Fetellus in his account of the 
city describes the Church of St. Stephen as between Jerusalem and Jehoshaphat. This church 
was outside the Damascus gate, and it would seem that Fetellus means S h 'a f a t by 
Jehoshaphat. The name of this town was perhaps altered by the Crusaders, or slightly 
modified from the word S h 'a f (in the plural S h 'a f a t), meaning a " mountain top," or any 
high place, like the Hebrew Nob.' — C. R. C, 'Quarterly Statement,' 1S77, p. 141. 



III. — Bexi 'Amir or Beni Humar, 

A district under the Governor of Jaffa, who is again under the Muta- 
serriff of Jerusalem ; contains the following (see also Sheet XIV.) : 

1. 'Am was (J s).— A mud village, of moderate size, built against 
the slope of the hill. On the south side of the village is a spring, 'A i n 
N i n i ; on the west a well, B i r e t T a a u n. There are ruins to the 
north, which show the place to have been forrnerly much larger. Rock- 
cut tombs exist to the south-east. This place is the famous Emmaus 
Nicopolis; and if the longer distance of 160 furlongs found in the Sinaitic 
MS. of Luke xxiv. 13 be accepted, it is probably the Emmaus of the Nev/ 
Testament. This is, however, doubtful, as mentioned later in the present 
Section under the head Emmaus. (See Section B.) 

2. 'A n n a b e h (J s). — A village of moderate size, on high ground, 
surrounded with olives, with a well to the south. The houses are of mud. 
It is mentioned by Jerome (' Onomasticon,' s. v., Anob) as 4 Roman miles 
east of Lydda, and as called Betho Annaba. The distance fits almost 
exactly. 

3. Beit NCiba (K s). — A good-sized village on flat ground, with 
a well to the north. It is mentioned under the name Beth Annabam 
(' Onomasticon,' s. v. Anob) as 8 Roman miles from Lydda. The true 
distance is about 9 English miles. Jerome (Epit. S. Paula-) makes it the 
site of Nob. Benjamin of Tudela (i 163 a.p.) makes the same statement. 
In Crusading times the place was commonly called Betenuble (William of 
Tyre, etc.). 



[SBEET XVII.] TOPOGRAPHY. 15 

4. B e r f i 1 y a (J s). — A small hamlet on rising ground, some 200 feet 
above the valley, with a few olives. In the twelfth century it was a fief of 
the Holy Sepulchre. 

5. Bir Main (K s). — A small hamlet on high ground, with a well 
about half a mile south-cast. It was a fief of the Holy Sepulchre Church 
in the twelfth century. 

6. El Burj (K s). — A small village on a hill-top, with open ground 
beneath on all sides. There are remains of a Crusading fortress (K u 1 a t 
e t T a n t u r a h), and the position is a strong one, near the main road to 
Lydda. It is possible that this is the site of the Castellum Arnoldi, near 
Nobe (Beit Nub a), ' in primis auspiciis campestrum,' built in 1 131 a.d. 
by the Patriarch of Jerusalem, to protect the approach to that city 
(William of Tyre). 

7. D e i r E y u b (K t). — A very small hamlet on the hill-side. There 
Is a fine spring-well (Bir E y u b) about half a mile south-west by the 
main road, lower down the hill. The water comes up In a circular 
masonry shaft. 

8. Khurbetha Ibnes Seba (K s). — A small village on a 
ridge, with a well to the east. 

9. Kubab (J s). — A small mud village on rising ground, by the 
main road. It Is surrounded with prickly-pear hedges and olives. The 
ground Is rocky. The water-supply is from the fine spring of 'A I n 
Yerdeh (Sheet XVI.). This spring is i-^ miles from the village, yet is 
the only source whence water Is obtained. 

10. Latron (J s). — A few mud hovels among the ruins of a 
mediaeval fortress. This place Is mentioned by Foucher of Chartres 
(about 1 100 A.D.) under the name Castellum Emmaus, and appears to be 
the Toron de los Cabaleros of Benjamin of Tudela. The former authority 
speaks of Modin and GIbeon as being close to it. Ouaresmius (1620 a.d.) 
speaks of a church dedicated to the Maccabees Immediately north of 
Latron, which was then called Castellum boni Latronis. Marino 
Sanuto (132 1 A.D.) also mentions the tombs of the Maccabees apparently 
near Latron. In the earlier chronicles before the Crusades the place is 
not noticed. The position Is a strong one, commanding the road, with a 



1 6 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

Steep slope on the west. The road descends again on the east. On the 
south, in the low ground, is a good spring-well surrounded with masonry 
(Bir el Helu). (See Section B.) 

IV.— Beni Malik. 

1. El 'A m m u r (L t). — A small hamlet on the slope above a deep 
valley. There is a fine perennial spring below on the south ('A i n 
M a h t u s h). There are olives beneath the village. 

2. Beit 'A nan (L s). — A small village on the top of a flat ridge; 
near a main road to the west are remains of a Khan with water, and 
about a mile to the east is a spring. It was a fief of the Holy Sepulchre 
in the twelfth century. 

3. Beit Dukku (L s). — A village of moderate size, standing 
high on a ridge, with a spring to the north-west and olives to the north. 
This was also a fief like the preceding. 

4. Beit Izza (L s). — A village of moderate size on a hill with a 
spring at some distance to the west. 

5. Beit L i k i a (K s). — A small village on a main road at the foot 
of the hills, supplied by cisterns. There are ancient foundations among 
the houses. The name suggests the identity with E 1 1 e k e h, a border 
town of Dan (Joshua xix. 44), and the position is suitable, as being near 
the boundary between that tribe and Benjamin. 

6. Beit M ah sir (K t). — A village of moderate size, standing on 
a hill at the end of the higher spurs overlooking the lower hills on the 
west. It has olives to the north and a spring to the north-east. 

7. Beit Nakuba (L t). — A small village on the slope, north of 
the main road and of the fine perennial spring of 'A i n D i 1 b c h. 

8. Beit Sir a (K s). — A small village on a swell in the low hills. 
A main road passes through it. The water supply is artificial. 

9. Beit Surik (L t). — A small stone village on a hill-top. To 
the east in a flat valley is a spring with lemon and other trees. The 
place appears to be ancient, having rock-cut tombs near the spring. It 
was a fief of the Holy Sepulchre in the twelfth century. 



[SHEET XVTI.] TOPOGRAPHY. 17 

10. Beit 'Ur el Foka (Ls). — A small village built of stone at the end 
of a spur on a knoll. The ground falls very steeply to the west. The 
water supply is artificial, and on the north and south are deep valleys. 
(See Section B.) The west view is very extensive, including the sea, 
the plains of Lydda and Ramleh, and part of the valley of Ajalon. 

11. Beit 'Ur et Tahta (K s). — A village of moderate size on 
a low rido-e with wells to the west. In the middle of the villacre is the 
sacred place of Neby 'Or, with a palm tree in the courtyard: near it is a 
well in the street. (See Section B for antiquities.) This, with the last, 
represent the Upper and Lower Beth Horon (Joshua xviii. 13, 14). The 
distance from Jerusalem is given in the ' Onomasticon ' (s. v. Bethoron) 
as just {ferine) 12 Roman miles. Josephus makes Beth Horon 50 stadia 
from Gibeon (el Jib), and 100 stadia (12^ Roman miles) from Jerusalem 
(B. J. ii. 19, i). The distances are 5 English miles and 10 English miles 
byroad from the upper village to el Jib and Jerusalem. The two 
villages are i^ miles apart, with a descent of 700 feet to Beit 'Ur 
et Tahta. (See Section B.) The name occurs in the twelfth century 
as a fief of the Holy Sepulchre. 

12. Biddu (L s). — A village on a rocky hill, with a well to the 
north east. It is of moderate size. 

13. Katanneh (L t). — A small village in a deep, narrow, rocky 
valley, surrounded by fine groves of olives and vegetable gardens. 

14. El Kubeibeh (L s). — A village of moderate size, standing on 
a flat ridge with a few olives to the west. It commands a fine view- 
to the north over the low hills. To the west is a monastery of Latin 
monks, established in 1862. In the grounds are remains of a Crusading 
Church. (See Section B.) This place has been the traditional site of 
the Emmaus of the New Testament from the sixteenth century. 

15. Kfilonieh (L t). — A stone village of moderate size, perched 
on the slope of the hill 300 feet above the valley, in which is a good 
spring surrounded with orange, lemon, and other trees. By the road is a 
small restaurant, quite modern. This place is apparently mentioned in 
the Talmud (Tal. Bab. Succah, 45 a), being close to Motza {perhaps 
Khiirbet Beit Mizzeh). It is also the Culon of the Septuagint. 
(Joshua XV. 59, inserted verse.) 

VOL. III. 3 



i8 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

1 6. Kiiryet el 'Enab (L t). — A large well-built stone village 
on a flat hill, with low open ground to the north and east. The low 
ground is cultivated with vines and olives. The most conspicuous object 
is the fine ruined church of St. Jeremiah, below the village on the north. 
(See Section B.) A palm grows near it. 

This place was supposed in the fourth century to be Kirjath Jearim. 
The ' Onomasticon ' places it 9 or 10 Roman miles from Jerusalem. The 
true distance is 7 English miles. A late tradition identifies it with 
Anathoth. The place is generally called either Abu Ghosh, from 
the native family of the name who lived there, or el K u r y e h, very 
rarely Kijryet el 'Enab. The second name suggests the identity 
of Kirjath of Benjamin (Joshua xviii. 28), and the place is in a suitable 
position, near Gibeah (J e b a), the next name on the list. 

17. K II s t u 1 (L t). — A small stone village in a conspicuous position 
on a rocky hill-top. There are springs beneath the main-road to the east, 
about \ mile from the village. 

18. Lifta (M t). — A village of moderate size, perched on the side 
of a steep hill, with a spring to the south, on which side are rock-cut 
tombs. The spring is large. This place is most probably Eleph of 
Benjamin (Joshua xviii. 28). 

19. Saris (K t). — A stone village of moderate size on a hill above 
the main road. On the north beneath the village is a spring. There are 
olive groves on the slopes on this side. This is possibly the Sores of the 
Septuagint (Joshua xv.), (see Reland's ' Palestine,' p. 644), and possibly the 
Saris of Josephus (Ant. vi. 12, 4). 

20. S 6 b a (L t). — A stone village of moderate size, in a very con- 
spicuous position on the top of a steep conical hill. It has a high central 
house. The knoll is surrounded with olive groves and vineyards. There 
arc rock-cut tombs both on the north and on the south. The hill stands 
up 700 or 800 feet above the valley on the north. There is a good spring 
in the valley on this side, and another ('A in S 6 b a) in the valley to the 
south-west. There are remains of a Crusading fortress, which was de- 
stroyed by Ibrahim Pasha. The place was at one time a fortress of the 
Abu Ghosh family. S u b a was considered at one time to be Modin. 
Brocardus (1283 a.d.) makes Modin 6 leagues east of Beth Shcmesh 



[SHEET XVII.] TOPOGRAPHY. 19 

('Ain Shems). The village or the district appears to have been called 
Belmont in the twelfth century ; and Soba was apparendy a fief of the 
Holy Sepulchre (see Theodoricus 11 72, a.d., and the Cartulary of the 
Holy Sepulchre). (See Section B.) 

21. T ireh (L s). — A small hamlet on a ridge, with a large sacred 
tree to the north-east (Sheikh Hasan), and a spring ('Ain Jufna) 
in the valley to the south-west. 

22. Yalo (K s). — A small village on the slope of a low spur, with 
an open valley or small plain to the north. There is a spring to the east, 
where a branch valley runs down north, and on the east side of this valley 
are caves. The village stands 250 feet above the northern basin. 
Yalo is the ancient Aijalon of Dan (Joshua xix. 42). 

The open basin to the north — part of a valley which comes down from 
Beth Horon — is the valley of Aijalon (Joshua x. 12). In the 'Onomasticon' 
the place is mentioned as 2 Roman miles from Nicopolis ('Am was), 
on the way to Jerusalem. The true distance is 3^ English miles, but 
Jerome is speaking only from report. The identity of the place with 
Aijalon was not then recognised, though known to the Jews. (See 
Aijalon, Sheet XIV., Section A.) 

V. — Beni Hasan. 

I. 'Ain Karim (L t). — A flourishing village of about 600 in- 
habitants, 100 being Latin Christians. It stands on a sort of natural 
terrace projecting from the higher hills on the east of it, with a broad ilat 
valley below on the west. On the south below the village is a fine spring 
('Ain S i 1 1 i M i r i a m), with a vaulted place for prayer over it. The 
water issues from a spout into a trough. 

To the east of the village is the Franciscan Church of the Magnificat, 
in a convent. It has a domed roof, which is a conspicuous object, and 
the church has a grotto beneath, where St. John the Baptist is supposed to 
have been born. There is also on the west of the village an establishment 
of the Sisters of Sion, with cypress trees in the garden. To the south- 
west, opposite the village, and separated by a ravine, is the chapel, built 
in 1862 on older ruins, supposed to mark the site of the country-house of 
Zacharias, and the scene of the Visitation. (See Section B.) 



20 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

The Church of St. John or of the Magnificat is mentioned in 
1 1 13 A.D. ; it was rebuilt in 1621. The Franciscans have established a 
school for boys, and the Sisters of Sion a school and orphanage for girls. 
The place has a flourishing appearance. A new Russian hospice was 
being built in 1882, just west of the country house of Zacharias, above 
mentioned. 

'Ain Karim is the ancient Karem (Septuagint, Joshua xv. 59), and 
possibly the Biblical Beth Car (i Samuel vii. 11). It seems probable that 
'Ain Karim is also the true site of Beth-haccerem (' house of the vine- 
yard '), Neh. iii. 14, Jer. vi. i, although Jerome, in commenting on the 
latter passages, places the site near Tekoa. It is frequently mentioned 
in the mediaeval chronicles as the birth-place of St. John. John of 
Witzburg makes it 4 miles south of Jerusalem, and Fetellus 5 miles, these 
being the earliest notices. 

2. Beit Jala (M u). — A large and flourishing village of white 
well-built stone houses, on the slope of a steep hill. The water supply is 
artificial, with a well in the valley below. The population is said by 
Pere Lievin to amount to 3,000, of whom 420 are Catholics, and the rest 
Orthodox Greeks. There is a Greek and a Latin church in the villaoe. 

o 

There are remarkably fine groves of olives round and beneath the village, 
and the hill above is covered with vineyards which belong to the place. 
Beit Jala is the Galemor Gallim of the Septuagint (Joshua xv. 59, possibly 
also in i Samuel xxv. 44, Isaiah x. 30). 

3. Beit S li f a f a (M u). — A small village in flat open ground, with 
a well to the north. 

4. B i 1 1 i r (L u). — A village of moderate size on the precipitous 
slope of a deep valley, which bends sharply, the hill on which the place 
stands projecting at the bend of the valley. The houses stand upon rock 
terraces, and there is a rocky scarp below ; thus from the north the place 
is very strong, whilst on the south a narrow neck between two ravine 
heads connects the hill with the main ridge. The valleys east and west 
are steep and deep. The spring above the village is large and good ; 
the water is conducted down from it west of the houses in a cement-lined 
channel, and runs into a large reservoir, the aqueduct ending suddenly at 
a broken arch, of modern masonry and pointed form, the pier being over 



[SHEET XVII.] TOPOGRAPHY. 21 

the east wall of the reservoir, so that the water pours down from it in a 
cascade. From the reservoir the water finds its way to neat vegetable 
gardens in the valley beneath ; these occupy all the space under the rocky 
scarps at the junction of the main northern valley with the steep ravine 
(west of the village) in which the reservoir is built. Near the spring are 
caves and niches, with an effaced Greek inscription. 

The village is badly built of stone, and contains two Mukams. There 
are rock-cut tombs about a mile to the east. 

This place is probably the famous Bether of the Talmud where Bar 
Cocheba was slain, and the Bether (or Thether) of the Septuagint 
(Joshua XV. 59). (See Reland's ' Palestine,' p. 639.) 

5. Deir Yes in (M t). — A small stone village on a flat ridge, 
commanding a fine view to the west over the deep valley. Its houses 
are badly built of stone, and there is a well to the north, and two springs 
on the north and south -^ and f mile respectively from the village. The 
ground is bare, and very rocky in the neighbourhood of the village. 
This place was a fief of the Holy Sepulchre Church in the twelfth 
century. 

6. E 1 J u r a h (L t). — A small hamlet on the slope of the ridge, 
with olives below it, and a spring in the valley, about f mile to the 
north. 

7. Khiirbet el Loz (L t). — A village of moderate size on the 
slope of a high ridge near the summit. It has a sort of terrace below it, 
and stands some 800 feet above the southern valley. There are rock-cut 
tombs at the place. 

8. M a 1 h a h (L t). — A stone village of moderate size, standing high 
on a flat ridge. The water supply is from the fine spring of 'A i n 
Y a 1 o, to the south, in the valley. The immediate neighbourhood of the 
village is bare, but there are vineyards to the east, and on the south olives 
and roses are cultivated. 

Malhah is the Manocho of the Septuagint (Joshuaxv. 59, inserted verse), 
and probably the Biblical Manahath, which was in IdumaL'a, according to 
the Chaldee Targum (i Chron. viii. 6). There are rock-cut tombs east of 
the village, which indicate its antiquity. (See Section B.) 



22 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

9. S e t a f (L t). — A village of moderate size, of stone houses, perched 
on the steep side of a valley. It has a spring lower down, on the north. 

10. Sherafat (M u). — A village of moderate size, on a low hill. 
The houses are of stone. The water-supply is from 'A i n Y a 1 o, 300 feet 
beneath, in the valley to the west. 

11. El Welejeh (L u). — A good-sized village on the slope of the 
hill, in a sort of recess formed by a steep ravine running down immedi- 
ately north of the houses. There are vegetable-gardens in this ravine 
below the village, and vineyards and olives in the neighbourhood, which 
has a good water-supply, five groups of sjDrings occurring round the village. 
It is known to the Latins as St. Philip's, in connection with the tradition 
that the neighbouring 'A i n H a n n i y e h is the fountain where St. Philip 
baptised the Eunuch (see Bethzur, Sheet XXL), a tradition apparently 
not older than the fourteenth century. 

VI.— El 'Arkub. 

1. 'A k u r (K t). — A small village on a ledge of the ridge, surrounded 
by very rugged ground. There is a good spring on the north-east, about 
a mile from the village, on the same ridge. 

2. 'Artuf (J t). — A small village on a low hill, with an open valley 
to the west. There is a pool (H u f i r e t 'Art u f) in the valley, whence 
the village obtains its water. Olive trees occur round the place. 

3. Beit 'A tab (K t). — A small village, standing on a remarkable 
knoll of rock which rises some 60 to 100 feet above the surrounding hilly 
ridge. The knoll is extremely bare and rugged. There are cisterns 
among the houses, but the main water-supply is from ' A i n H a u d, near 
which, north-east of the village, the Survey camp was fixed. There are 
here a few olives on a terrace above a deep valley which runs north of 
the village. A little further west is another small spring ('A in el 
Khanzireh), by which is a rock-cut tomb. A third small spring 
('A in Beit 'A t a b) exists south-east of the village, coming out of a 
rock. A remarkable cavern (Miigharet Bir el Has Utah) runs 
beneath the houses. (See Section B.) The place is built of stone, witli 
a central high house, and one or two others of two stories. It was at 
one time the scat of a native family called Beit L c h h a m. 



{SHEET AT//] TOPOGRAPHY. 23 

The position of the place, and the existence of a cave or ' cleft,' suggest 
the identity of Beit 'A tab with the 'Rock Etam ' (Judges xv.). In 
the twelfth century Beit 'Atab was a fief of the Holy Sepulchre. 

In preparing the nomenclature of this Sheet, I was led to search for 
the meaning of the name Bir el Has Utah, which is given to this 
curious cave at Beit 'Atab. It has not, as far as I can find, any meaning 
in Arabic, but it corresponds with the Hebrew word, rninn, Hasutah, 
which is translated ' a place of refuge.' Thus the name seems to indicate 
that this place has been used from a very early time as a lurking or hiding 
place, as we gather it to have been in the time of Samson. 

Beit 'Atab is a modern village, though there are traces of antiquity 
about it, including a rock-cut tomb. It seems probable that in the time 
of Samson no town existed here, as it would in such a case most probably 
have been mentioned with the fourteen Shephelah towns in its neighbour- 
hood. Etam has been confounded with the Etam of Solomon, which was 
situate farther east, probably near the so-called pools of Solomon. This 
name has been recovered in the modern 'A i n 'A t a n, to the east of 
the pools. 

Beit 'Atab stands, as has been previously explained, on a rocky knoll, 
answerino: well to the meanino; of the Hebrew word translated ' rock,' 
quite bare of trees and consisting almost entirely of hard, barren lime- 
stone. This peculiar summit stands up from a plateau on the cast, where 
is a good olive grove and a spring, by which we encamped. On the west 
the ground falls rapidly, and thus, though not really at a great elevation 
as compared with the surrounding hills, Beit 'Atab is very conspicuous on 
all sides. 

The cavern is in all some 250 feet long, running in a south-south-west 
direction. Its average height is about 5 to 8 feet, and its width about 
18 feet. The west end of the tunnel is supposed to be about the centre 
of the modern village, but is now closed, as is another entrance about half- 
way along. The east end leads to a vertical shaft 6 feet by 5 feet and 
10 feet deep, in the sides of which are niches, as if for lamps. It is from 
this shaft that the cavern has been called B i r, or ' well' The shaft is 
about sixty yards from the spring which supplies the village with water, 
and which is called 'A i n H a u d. The whole cave is rudely hewn in 
the rock. (See Section B.) 



24 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

The site so chosen is close to Zorah and Eshtaol, and on the border 
of the mountain country of Judah. The site of Ramoth Lehi is to be 
sought in the same district. 

4. Beit el Jemal (J u). — A small village on a low flat ridge. 
There is a spring three quarters of a mile to the east. To the south are 
caves, in one of which is a mill owned by a Christian, and lately 
established. Cn revisiting the place, in 1S81, a Latin convent was found 
in process of construction. 

This place is perhaps the ancient Caphar Gamala, 20 miles from 
Jerusalem, where, according to the early Christian tradition, St. Stephen 
was buried. (See Reland's 'Palestine,' p. 688.) The place is about 16 
English miles from Jerusalem. About half a mile south of it is a Mukam, 
named after St. Paul, which may be connected with this tradition. 

5. Beit Nettif{J u). — A village of fair size, standing high on a 
flat-topped ridge between two broad valleys. On the south, about 400 feet 
below, is a spring ('A in el K e z b e h), and on the north a rock-cut 
tomb was found. There are fine olive-groves round the place, and the 
open valleys are very fertile in corn. 

The ' valley' of Beth Netopha (Mishnah Sheviith ix. 5), famous for its 
oil, may probably have been the open ground (as expressed by the Hebrew 
word nppD, translated 'valley,' but more properly 'plain') beneath the 
village, which is still famous for its olive-groves. Possibly also this place 
may be the Biblical Netophah (Ezra ii. 22, Nehemiah vii. 26), but see 
below under that head. 

6. Deir 'A ban (K u). — A large village on the lower slope ot a 
high ridge, with a well to the north, and olives on the east, west, and 
north. This place no doubt represents the fourth century site of Ebenezer 
(i Samuel iv. i), which is mentioned in the ' Onomasticon' (s. v. Ebenezer) 
as near Beth Shemesh. The village is 2 miles east of 'A i n She m s. 

7. Deir el H a w a (K t). — A village standing high, on a knoll 
rising from a high ridge, with a deep valley to the north. It has several 
high houses in it. On the west is a good spring. The ground is covered 
with brushwood all round the place. 

8. Deir csh Sheikh (K t). — A small village on the slope of a 
rugged valley, with a spring to the west. It was found deserted in 1881. 



{SHEET XF//.] TOPOGRAPHY. 25 

On the east is a small mosque, with a large dome, and a second smaller, 
it is named after Sultan Bedr ; a large palm grows in the courtyard. On 
the south-west of the villao-e is a rock-cut tomb and a rock-hewn well. 

g. 'Ellar (K t). — A small village on the slope of a ridge, with a 
well to the south. On the north are rock-cut tombs. 

10. Eshua (J t). — A small village near the foot of the hill, with a 
well to the west, and olives beneath. The proximity to S li r a h or 
Zorah suggests its identity with Eshtaol (Joshua xv. ^i'^. In the 
' Onomasticon,' Esthaul of Dan is placed 10 Roman miles north of 
Eleutheropolis. The place is 3 English miles north of Beit Jibrin (or 
Eleutheropolis), but the distance given by Eusebius is only approximate. 
(Compare Siarih, below.) 

11. Hausan (L u). — A small stone village on a flat ridge, with a 
steep valley to the north ; on the south is a well. There is a large and 
conspicuous oak south-west of the village. 

12. Jeba (K u). — A small village standing upon a high, narrow 
ridge, with a steep valley to the north. The houses are of stone. To the 
east are caves in the face of the rock. 

This place is possibly Gibeah of Judah (Joshua xv. 57), mentioned with 
Timnah, which is perhaps the ruin of Tibna, 2 miles north-west. In 
the ' Onomasticon,' Gabatha is mentioned 12 Roman miles from Eleuthero- 
polis, and containing the tomb of Habakkuk. The village is about 
12 English miles from Eleutheropolis (Beit Jibrin). A ruin called 
H a b e i k exists near it on the west. 

13. J erash (K u). — A small village on a spur, with olives below. 

14. El Kabu (L u). — A village of moderate size, on a high hill. 
The houses are of stone. There are two springs in the valley to the 
west, and a ruined church on the hill-side, south-west of the place. 

15. K e f r S 6 m (L u). — A small stone village on a hill ; to the east 
in a small valley is a good spring, with a rock-cut tomb beside it. 

16. Kesla (K t). — A small stone village in a conspicuous position 
on the top of a rugged ridge, with a deep valley to the north. There is 
a spring to the east, and two more in a valley to the south. This is the 

VOL. III. 4 



2 6 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

site of Chesalon, on the boundary of Judah (Joshua xv. lo). The thickets 
which cover the ridge fully correspond with the old title of Jearim. 

17. El K h li d r (L u). — A village of moderate size on a hill-saddle, 
with open ground to the north and a steep ridge to the south. Rock-cut 
tombs exist to the north ; vineyards and olives surround the place. The 
ground in the neighbourhood is very rocky. The inhabitants are Moslems 
and Greek Orthodox Christians. There is a Greek church and convent 
in the village. This place is mentioned by the name of St. George in 
1422 by John Poloner as on a hill near Bethlehem. The tradition that 
St. George was here imprisoned is not, however, found earlier than the 
fifteenth century. 

18. Nehhalin (L u). — A village of moderate size, on a kind of 
natural terrace on the side of a ridge, with a great valley to the north. 
To the east is a Mukam, with two large oak-trees, sacred to Haj 'Aleiyan. 
(See Section C.) To the north is a spring in the valley ; there is also a 
second spring to the south. 

19. Ras (Abu 'A m m a r) (L u). — A large stone village on a 
spur, with a fine spring in the valley to the north-west. The hill has 
only a little scrub on it, but the valley, which is open and rather ilat, has 
olives in it. 

20. Es Sifleh (K u). — A small village on a narrow ridge, which 
falls rapidly from Beit 'A t a b. On the south-east is a fine spring 
('A in Sitti Hasna) coming out of a cleft in the rocks. 

21. Surah (J t). — A village of moderate size on a low hill. The 
hill is bare and white, but there are olives lower down the slopes to the 
north and east. On the north in a tributary valley is a well. On the 
south side of the village is a small Mukam, with a dome, standing in a 
conspicuous position above the broad Hat valley (W a d y e s S u r a r). 
It is dedicated to Neby Sam at. There are rock-cut tombs to the 
north-east and south of the village. The village obtains its water supply 
from a spring called 'Ain el Mardum, half a mile to the south, at the foot 
of the hill. Surah is the ancient Zorah (Joshua xv. ^i), the home of 
Samson. Traditions connect Neby Samat with Samson (see Section 
C), and the tomb seems to be that shown to Isaac Chelo as Samson's in 
1334 A.D. Zorah is placed by the ' Onomasticon' (s.v. Saara) about 



[SHEET XVII.] TOPOGRAPHY. 27 

10 Roman miles north of Eleutheropolis. Surah is about 12 EngHsh 
miles from Beit Jibrin (Eleutheropolis). 

22. Urtas (M u). — A small village perched against a hill-side. It 
is badly built of stone, with a good spring beneath it, whence an aqueduct 
formerly led to J e b e 1 F u r e i d i s. (Sheet XXI.) There are gardens 
of oranges and other trees in the valley below to the south, where are 
remains of a reservoir (H li m m a m Suleiman). There are vineyards 
to the north on the hill, and on the west is a rock-cut tomb. 

23. Wad Fukin (L u). — A small stone village on the side of a 
hill, with a good spring in the valley below on the south-west. There are 
gardens of oranges and lemons near the spring. To the west of the 
village there are rock-cut tombs. To the east is a second spring, 'A i n 
el K e n i s e h. 

24. Zakariya (J u). — A small village with a palm-tree growing 
in it, standing on the slope above the flat broad valley (Wady es 
S u n t), south of it. A large ancient masonry spring well exists at the 
foot of the hill ; to the east of this is a fine oak tree. The place is 
surrounded with extensive olive groves, and the ground is fertile in the 
valley. This place appears to be the Caphar Zachariah, mentioned by 
Sozomen (Hist. ix. 17), where the body of the father of St. John the 
Baptist was said to have been found. The place is stated to have been 
in the district of Eleutheropolis. There is a Mukam in the present 
village sacred to Neby Zakariya. 

VII. — El Keradiyeh. 

r. Abu Dis (N t). — A village of moderate size in a conspicuous 
position on a bare flat ridge, with deep valleys round it. The water- 
supply is from cisterns. Rock-cut tombs exist to the west. 

2. El 'Aisawiyeh (M t). — A small village on the eastern slope 
of the chain of Olivet, with a spring to the south and a few olives 
round it. 

3. El 'Aziriyeh (N t). — The modern name of Bethany, a village 
on the side of a hill, with a ravine running down on the east side of it. 
The houses are ill-built of stone. The village is dominated by the 

4—2 



28 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

remains of a Crusading building with a square tower. This appears to 
have been part of the convent here, founded by Queen MeHsende in 
1 138 A.D. (See Du Vogtie, ' Eglises de Terre Sainte,' p. 337.) The 
building is now called the Castle of Lazarus, and is so called by Maun- 
drell, 1697 A.D. At a place now shown as the house of Lazarus remains 
of a building with Gothic fraraients exist north of the tower. The tomb 
of Lazarus has been shown in Bethany since the fourth century, when a 
church stood over it. It is now shown north-east of the castle, in a vault 
of rock and masonry, reached by 26 steps. The chamber has a small 
antechamber in front of it. The antechamber is about 1 5 paces square, 
with three very small apses on the east. The chamber is 10 feet square 
with a tunnel vault, and is two steps below the antechamber and north 
of it. Evidently the present site is that of a small subterranean chapel 
of early date. This vault is sacred to Christians and Moslems alike. A 
mosque with a white dome is built over it. Mass is sometimes celebrated 
in it. East of Bethany there are rock-cut tombs by the main road, now 
blocked. The ground is rocky, but carefully terraced all round the village, 
and cultivated with figs, olives, and other trees. There is a second small 
mosque, dedicated to Sheikh Ahmed, just south of the village by the main 
road. (See Lieutenant Kitchener's Photograph, No. 10.) 

4. Beit Lahm — BETHLEHEM (M u).— A well-built stone 
town, standing on a narrow ridge, which runs east and west. The 
western part is highest, and a sort of saddle joins this swell to a second 
on the east. The valleys on the north and south are deep, the sides 
carefully terraced, vines, and olives, figs, and other trees are grown along 
the slopes. The soil is a very white chalk, and the houses also, when 
new, are very white. Towards the east is the open market-place, and 
beyond this the convent, in which is the fourth century Church of St. 
Mary, including the Grotto of the Nativity beneath the main apse. The 
open square, with pillar bases, is all that remains of the Atrium, which 
originally stood before the narthex of the basilica. 

Bethlehem has no natural water supply. North-west of the town are 
three ancient and extensive cisterns on a flat rock-terrace which are called 
B i r D i {l d, traditionally the well by the gate of Bethlehem (2 Samuel 
xxiii. 14-16). There is still water here at times. About 5 mile east 
of the convent there is also a small spring, but the main supply is from a 



[SHEET XVIL] TOPOGRAPHY. 29 

well-mouth over the tunnel of the Jerusalem aqueduct on the south side of 
the hill. There are also cisterns in the town, and a large well in the 
monastery. The population is about 5,000 souls, which are thus enumerated 
by two authorities. 





Prof. Socin. 


PfiRE LlEVIN 


Latins 


) 


2,500 


Greeks 


> 4.650 


1,700 


Armenians 


) 


700 


Protestants 


50 


15 


Moslems . 


300 


85 




5,000 


5,000 



There are 15 Franciscan monks in the monastery. The Armenian and 
Greek monasteries are joined to the Latin, so that the three form one 
large building. The Franciscans have a boys' school and the Sisters of 
St. Joseph a girls' school. There is also a German Protestant school in 
the town. The number of new houses and institutions is constantly 
increasing. 

The inhabitants are rich and industrious. They have numerous flocks 
and herds, and the wine of the extensive vineyards is considered some of 
the best in the country. The principal industry is the manufacture of 
fancy articles of mother-of-pearl, and of the black ' stink stone ' from 
Neby Musa. 

5. Beit Sahiir (M u). — This village is a sort of suburb of Beth- 
lehem, situate on the same ridge, with a broad plateau east of it known as 
the Shepherd's Plain, in which stands the small Greek Church of the 
Grotto of the Shepherds (K e n i s e t e r R i w a t), a subterranean chapel 
reached by 20 steps, containing pictures and mosaic. Above the vault 
are ruins with a Latin altar. (See Section B.) Beit Sahur contains a 
well-built modern house belonging to the Latin cure, and is surrounded 
with olives and vines. 

6. Beit T'amir (M u). — A small village on a hill with wells and 
a few olives. The name is that of an Arab tribe which was originally 



30 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

settled in the place. The village contains a small mosque named after 
the Khalif Omar. 

7. S ilwan (M t). — A village perched on a precipice and badly built 

of stone. The water is brought from 'A i n Umm ed Deraj. There 

are numerous caves among and behind the houses, which are used as 

stables by the inhabitants. 

' The constant communications which I have with the Silwan people have brought to my 
knowledge a curious fact. Among the inhabitants of the village there are a hundred or so, 
domiciled for the most part in the lower quarter, and forming a group apart from the rest, 
called Dhihbiye, i.e., men of Dhiban. It appears that at some remote period a colony 
from the capital of King Mesha crossed the Jordan, and fixed itself at the gates of Jerusalem 
at Silwan. The memory of this migration is still preserved, and I am assured by the people 
themselves that many of their number are installed in other villages round Jerusalem.' — 
C. Clermont Ganneau, ' Quarterly Statement,' 1S74, p. 141. 

8. S 1^1 r Bahir (M u). — A stone village of moderate size, on a bare 
hill. On the north is a well in the valley, and there are rock-cut tombs 
above it to the west. The name is sometimes pronounced S u r B a h 1 1. 

9. E t Tor (M t). — A small straggling village on the top of Olivet. 
The houses are built of stone, but low and mean. The church of the Ascen- 
sion, now a mosque, stands towards the west at the brow of the hill. 

In addition to the above-mentioned places various ruins have been 
identified as below. 

Biblical Sites. 

Adasa. — Thirty stadia from Beth Horon (Ant. xli. 10, 5), men- 
tioned in the ' Onomastlcon' as near Gufna (Jufna), appears to be the 
present ruin of 'Ad as eh, 6.^ English miles from the UjDioer Beth Horon 
on the road to Jerusalem. 

A i. — East of Bethel (Joshua xii. 9), by Bethaven (Joshua vii. 2), also 
called Hal (Gen. xii. S), and by Josephus AIna. It had a valley on the 
north and another on the west, with a plain on the east. This descrip- 
tion points to the neighbourhood of the modern Deir Diwan, and 
immediately south of this village is a ruin called H a i y a n. (See 
Section B.) The names H ai and Haiyeh further south resemble that 



[SHEET XVIL] BIBLICAL SITES. 31 

of Hai, but these ruins do not so well fit the description of the peculiar 
position of Ai. 

On the site of Ai a great deal lias been written. The following was written in 1S69 by 
Captain Wilson, R.E. : 

'In the spring of 1S66 several days were spent by Lieutenant Anderson and myself in 
examining the mountain district east of Beitin (Bethel), with the view of fixing, if possible, 
the site of Ai, and the position of the mountain on which Abraham pitched his tent and built 
his second altar to Jehovah after entering the Promised Land. The examination consisted 
in personally visiting every hill-top and almost every acre of ground for several miles, east, 
north, and south of Bethel, and the result was most satisfactory, for we were able with great 
certainty to identify Ai with et Tell, and the mountain of the altar with a prominent hill 
between et Tell and Beitin. Several previous travellers appear to have identified Ai with the 
quasi-isolated hill of et Tell, but their descriptions of it are vague and unsatisfactory, its 
position is , constantly changing on their maps, and it appears as Tell el Hajar, " the Heap of 
Stones," Tell er Rijmeh, " the Heap of Ruins," names which were probably given by the Arabs 
in answer to the question, " What Tell ?" when the traveller was not satisfied with the first 
simple answer that he received — that it was et Tell, " the Heap." After close questioning we 
could never obtain any other name than that of et Tell, and it was with great pleasure that, 
after our return to England, I learnt from the Rev. G. Williams that in the original text of 
Joshua viii. 28, Joshua is said to have " burnt Ai and made it a Tell for ever," and that the 
word " Tell " only occurs in four other passages of the Bible, among which are Deut. xiii. 16, 
and Joshua xi. 13. Mr. Williams's identification of Ai with et Tell, which I was not aware of 
at the time, was described by him in a paper read before the Church Congress at Dublin in 
1868. 

'The topography of Ai is as minutely described as that of any other place in the Bible ; it 
lay to the east of Bethel, it had a valley on the north, and another on the west, in which the 
five thousand men were placed in ambush ; it also had a plain in front of, or on the east 
side of it, over which the Israelites were pursued by the men of Ai. (See Joshua vii. 2, 
and viii. 11 — 14.) These features are all found in connection with et Tell, and with no 
other place in the neighbourhood of Bethel. The ground, which at first breaks down rapidly 
from the great ridge that forms the backbone of Palestine, swells out into a small plain -J of a 
mile broad before commencing its abrupt descent to the Jordan valley, and at the head or 
western end of this plain, on a projecting spur which has almost the appearance of an isolated 
hill, are the ruins known as et Tell. A short distance west of the mound, and entirely con- 
cealed from it by rising ground, is a small ravine well suited for an ambush, one of the 
branches of the main valley which runs close to et Tell and protects its northern face, the 
same into which the army of the Israelites descended the night before the capture of the 
city. On the hills to the north beyond the valley, Joshua encamped before making his 
final arrangements for the attack (viii. ir, 12), and it seems probable that he took his stand 
at some point on the same hill-side whilst the battle was raging, for there is a most com- 
manding view over the whole scene, not only up the lateral valley in which the ambush was 
placed, but also down the way of the wilderness. He would thus be able at the same time 
to control the feigned flight of the IsraeUtes, and signal the ambush to rise up quickly and 
seize the city. The site of Ai is now covered from head to foot with heaps of stones and 
ruins ; there are a large number of rock-hewn cisterns and the remains of ancient terraces. 



32 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

some of which are cultivated by the fellahin of the neighbouring villages. On the top of the 
hill is a small circular space with a few olive trees, which are blown on one side by the 
westerly gales like the well-known "Judas tree" at Jerusalem, and form a prominent object 
in the landscape for miles round, as the towers of Ai may have done before Joshua made 
them a Tell for ever. It may be mentioned here that there is no practicable road up the beds 
of the Wadies from Jericho to Bethel. The present track crosses the plain mentioned above 
as lying below et Tell ; and the old road, the ascent by which Elisha " went up " to Bethel, 
must have followed the same course. Ai lying thus between the ravine on the north and the 
gorge on which Michmash stands (the "passage" of Isaiah x. 29) on the south, would lie 
directly in the way of an army advancing from the Jordan valley to the interior of Palestine.' 
— 'Quarterly Statement,' 1869, p. 123. 

Of the same site Lieutenant Conder wrote the following description : 

' Near to Deir Diwan is the extremely interesting site of et Tell, which has been identified 
by Major Wilson with Ai. My first inquiries, put in every variety of form to various inhabi- 
tants on and around the spot, were directed to determining whether the name was simply 
et Tell, or whether some descriptive adjunct, such as Tell el Hajar, was added. The replies 
of more than a dozen separate witnesses fully corroborated Major Wilson's former conclusion 
that the name is et Tell, " the Heap," which is used in that passage of the Bible (and in only 
three others) where Joshua is said to have made Ai " a heap for ever." 

' The present condition of the site is interesting ; conspicuous from a distance, the long 
mound, dipping in the same direction with the strata towards the east, stands out in contrast 
of grey stone from the rich brown soil of the fields. A few ancient olive trees stand on its 
summit, surrounded by huge mounds of broken stone and shingle 10 feet high. On the 
east a steep slope of 15 or 20 feet is covered with the same debris in that part where the fort 
of the town would seem to exist. The town must literally have been pounded small, and the 
fury of its destruction is still evidenced by its completeness. The interest which will, to my 
mind, attach to other sites, where the similar appearance of broken masonry is observable, 
will be very great a.% possible marks of Jewish invasion ; these, though not numerous, are very 
remarkable, and they have been noted in each case on the Survey. 

' The north side of the town is protected by the deep valley (Wady el 'Asas) which runs 
straight down to the Jordan valley. On the west, however, there is a curious conformation. 
A steep knoll of rocky masses, called Burjmus, rises to a narrow summit, and is divided from 
ct Tell by the head of a valley down which the ancient road from Bethel passes. The result 
is that on this side the view is entirely cut off. Another feature noticeable is that the valleys 
here run nearly due south for many miles, to meet Wady Suweinit. The deduction from 
these facts is evident. The party for the ambush, following the ancient causeway from Bethel 
to Jordan (which we have recovered throughout its entire length) as far as Michmash, would 
then easily ascend the great Wady west of Ai, and arrive within about a quarter of a mile of 
the city, without having ever come in sight of it. Here, hidden by the knoll of Burjmus and 
the high ground near it, a force of almost any magnitude might lie in wait unsuspected. The 
main body, in the meanwhile, without diverging from the road, would ascend up the gently 
sloping valley and appear before the town on the open battle-field which stretches away to 
its cast and south. From the knoll the figure of Joshua would be plainly visible to either 
l)arty, with his spear stretched against the sky. It is interesting to remark that the name 
Wady el Medineh, a name we have never met before, " Valley of the City," is appHed to this 
great valley, forming the natural approach to Ai. There arc no other ruins of sufficient 



[SHEET X I'll] BIBLICAL SITES. 33 

magnitude to which such a name could be appHed, and the natural conclusion is that et Tell 
was the city so commemorated. In the Wady, about A a mile from the town, are ancient 
rock-cut tombs, seemingly as old as any I have yet seen, and extensive quarries. Farther up, 
three great rock-cut reservoirs, 36, 15, and 46 paces long respectively, and, I am informed, of 
great depth (they were then full of water), are grouped together. They are known as el 
Jahran. Numerous other cisterns exist near the ruins, and mill-stones of unusual size. 

' The view from this point eastwards was extremely striking. The rocky desert of the 
Judaean hills, grey-furrowed ledges of hard and water-roughened limestone, with red 
patches of the rich but stone-cumbered soil, stretched away to the white chalky peaks of 
the low hills near Jericho. The plain beyond, green with grass, stretched to the brown 
feet of the trans-Jordanic chain. Heavy cloud-wreaths hung over these, but their slopes 
gleamed yellow and pink in that wonderful beauty with which they are ever clothed by the 
sinking sun. The calm water of the " salt sea," with a light mist brooding above, added to 
the charm of the view. Well might Lot, who from nearly this very spot looked down on this 
green valley, contrast it favourably with the steep passes and stormy hills which he relinquished 
to Abraham. Half the breadth of sea and plain was visible ; the western half is hidden by 
the hills. The cities of the plain, placed, as we conclude, at a distance from the "mountain" 
to which Lot could not fly, and in the vale of .Siddim, "which is the salt sea" (Genesis xiv. 3), 
were therefore in all probability visible in gleaming contrast with their green palm groves, 
now, alas! extinct, but still standing in the times of Arculphus (a.d. 700), thus resembling 
Damascus in its oasis of trees.' — 'Quarterly Statement,' 1S74, pp, 62 — 64. 

In 1877 Lieutenant Kitchener suggested a newly-found site, the Khiirbet Haiy, for Ai. 
On this subject the following communication was received from the Rev. W. F. Birch : 

' Lieutenant Kitchener's suggested identification of Aiwith Khiirbet Haiy, i mile east 
of Miikhmas, has much to recommend it. 

' I. Ai was on the east of Bethel (Joshua vii. 2) and of Abraham's tent (Genesis xli. 8). 
As the Orientals call every wind an east wind which blows from any point between east and 
north and east and south (Jahn, "Antiq.," p. 17), "this extensive meaning of east favours 
equally any position for Ai in any degree east of Bethel. 

' 2. "The Israelites pitched on the north side of Ai ; now there was a valley (Hebr. gai) 
between them and Ai. . . . (13) Joshua went that night into the midst of the valley (Hebr. 
^W(?,(') " (Joshua \;iii. 11-13). 

'With Ai placed at et Tell or Khiirbet Haiydn, Lieutenant Kitchener well observes on 
the peculiarity of a force after approaching the city from the east crossing an almost impracti- 
cable valley, to be recrossed the next day. The valley north of et Tell might suitably be 
described as the gai, but we have also to find another wider valley answering to emek ; for 
the two different words cannot here well mean exactly the same valley. The ^^ plain to the 
north of Khiirbet Haiy " would, however, just suit the expression emek ; and possibly the 
gai may be a ravine interposed between the liers-in-wait and Ai, unless the gai was the 
bed of a water-course in the emek (see i Samuel xvii. 2, 3, 40). 

' 3. As all the men of Bethel assisted Ai, it is strange that the former city was not taken 
at the same time, for the Israelites would be close to it, if Ai = et Tell or Khiirbet Haiyan. 
That the two cities were not taken together seems clear from Joshua xii. 9, 16. 

' 4. But putting Ai at Khurbet Haiy, where it commanded the road into the interior, its 
capture becomes essential to further progress. 

VOL. Ill, 5 



34 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALES TIiXE. 

'5. From the order of the names, Michmash, Ai, Bethel, in Neh. xi. 31, it is natural 
to look for Ai between the other two, but in Neh. vii. 31, 32 they are classed differently. 
"The men of Michmash, 122. The men of Bethel and Ai, 123." Clearly there is no geo- 
graphical order here. Probably, however, the places are grouped in Neh. vii. according 
to other considerations. In verse 29 the three Gibeonite cities, Kirjathjearim, Chephirah, 
and Beeroth are joined together; Gibeon (25th verse) being, as it seems likely, not the town 
of that name in Benjamin, but some Gibeah in Judea. So likewise the political connection 
first seen existing between Bethel and Ai (in Joshua viii.) may have led to these two places 
being always named together (Joshua xviii. 22, 23 ; and Neh. vii., xii. above). In 
Esdras v. 21, the two places are curiously \Yelded into one — viz., B^iro/./w, though Michmash 
was afterwards built between them, a possible origin of the apocryphal (BsruXoua) Bethulia. 

' 6. If Sennacherib invaded Juda;a from the east, as did Joshua, then he would naturally 
come to Ai (Khiirbet Haiy), and we escape the difficulty of having to account for his 
diverging from the central north road, so as to get to et Tell or Khiirbet Haiyan. 

' 7. The theory that all the places in Isaiah x. 28 — 32 (except Jerusalem) are visible from 
Jeb'a is unaffected by Khiirbet Haiy being Ai. I may rather say it receives a finishing 
touch from the identification. Lieutenant Kitchener ascertained, on the revision of the Survey, 
that not only et Tell was visible from Jeb'a, but also Khurbet Haiy. Taking Migron {i.e., 
the precipice) in Isaiah x. 28 to be the hill forming the north cliff" of the passage to Michmash, 
the proper order of the names with Ai at et Tell or Khurbet Haiyan ought to be Aiath, 
Michmash, Migron ; but with Ai at Khurbet Haiy the order as seen by a spectator from 
Jeb'a would be exactly as in Isaiah : Aiath, Migron, Michmash. Supposing Jeb'a to be the 
centre or axle of a wheel, and straight lines drawn from it to the various places named 
(Isaiah x. 28 — 31) to be the different spokes, all the places will be found to be named exactly 
in geographical order, without one exception. This is the perfect result given by the new 
map. I may add, on the same authority, that Anathoth is visible from Jeb'a, and so also 
must be Laish, since the relative heights are Jeb'a, 2,220 feet; Anathoth, 2,225 feet; and a 
mile farther south, Laish, 2,390 feet. As to the other places I have no further information. 

' It seems to me highly desirable for Khurbet Haiy to be visible from the site of Abraham's 
encampment on the east of Bethel, and I should think it certainly is.'— ' Quarterly Statement,' 
1878, p. 132. 

And Rummon has been suggested by the Rev. T. H. Guest. lie thus sums up the chief 
points in favour of his suggestion : 

' I. It is due east from Beitin, and thus corresponds exactly to the dcscriiition in 
Genesis xii. 8, Joshua vii. 2, as well as Joshua viii. 9, to be referred to by-and-by. 

' 2. In Joshua xii. 9, Ai is described as beside Bethel. " The idea is that of near 
distance, of being just off from, Xhz firope abesse ah . . . aliijua re." (Gesenius,Gram. p. 220.) 

' 3. In Joshua vii. 2 it is beside Bethaven. This indication is of little value until we know 
where Bethaven was. But, taking it as identified with Dcir Diwan, the description is suffi- 
ciently near. But the passage should probably be rendered thus : " And Joshua sent men 
from Jericho to Ai, which, together 7vith Bethaven, is on the east side of Bethel." The 
Vatican Sepluagint omits the clause, " beside Bethaven," altogether. 

' 4. The identification of Ai with Runnnon renders the narrative of the capture of the 
l)lace very clear and intelligible. The Israelites are encamped in the " plain " of the Jordan, 
the "^;;|; of viii. 14, and close by Jericho, vii. 2. 



[SHEET XVIL] BIBLICAL SITES. 



35 



'An army about to attack Rumnion would probably make its way along the road which 
runs from Ain I)uk to et Taiyibeh, and so make its appearance on the north of the threatened 
place. Now we find (viii. ii) that Joshua did lead his main army to a camp on "the 
north side of x\i, with a valley between them and Ai. The Septuagint reads, " and 
as they were going they came opposite the city on the east," a clause which is strikingly in 
harmony with the supposed route. The ravine may be identified with the upper part of Wady 
Rubeiych, the encampment being about south south-east of et Taiyibeh. 

'During the night Joshua had prepared his ambush, which (v. 9) "abode between 
Bethel and Ai, on the west side of Ai." Exactly so situated we find a Wady above the "Wady 
es Sik, and in continuation of it, under the names of Wady el Muteh and AVady el 'Ain. 
Here they were bidden, while scattering themselves as far as necessary for concealment, not 
to go far from the city (v. 4). 

' For this ambush must do the work of destruction. The main army came forth only to show 
themselves, and then by a feigned retreat to challenge the people of Ai to a second pursuit. 

' As soon, then, as the latter perceived that the Israelites were gone by the way they came, 
into the midst of the valley (Heb. pw, v. 13), the wide lower land over which they had 
passed, they started in pursuit. There was a feint of battle "before the plain" (Heb. 
J^^^yn <ja':), in immediate sight of the open expanse of the low lands by the Jordan. The 
Israelites made as if they were again beaten, and fled by the way of the "wilderness." The 
sequel is well known, and further details have little to bear upon our present question. Ai 
was made " an heap (Heb. ipn) for ever, even a desolation unto this day." And if Rummon 
be the spot, its veiy name is gone.' — ' Quarterly Statement,' 1S78, p. 195. 

Alemeth (i Chron. vi. 60) or Almon (Joshua xxi. 18). — A city 
of Benjamin, is the present laiin of 'A 1 m i t. The Targum of Jonathan 
identifies the place with Bahurim. The position seems suitable, being 
near an old road to Jericho. 

A t a r o t h A d d a r (Joshua xviii. 1 3), near the hill on the south side 
of the nether Beth Horon. This is the jDOsition of the present ruin, 
K h 11 r b e t D a r i e h. The place may also perhaps be the Addara of 
the ' Onomasticon,' east of Lydda. 

Beth P e o r (Septuagint, Joshua xv. 59, inserted verse), is the present 
ruin, K h u r b e t F a g h u r. 

Beth Shemesh (Joshua xv. 10), near Timnah (Tib neh, Sheet XVI). 
In the lower hills is the present ruin of 'A in S h e m s. 

Beth Zacharias (i Mace. vi. 32). — Seventy stadia from Bethzur 
(Ant. xii. 9, 4), on the way to Jerusalem, is the present ruin of Beit 
S k a r i a, the position of which agrees well with Josephus's account. The 
place is mentioned also by Willibald (724 a.d.), who distinguishes it from 
the home of the father of John Baptist (at 'Ain K a r i m), and places it 

5—2 



36 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

between St. Matthew (Beit Urn mar, Sheet XXI.) and Jerusalem. 
(See Section B.) 

B e z e k (Judges i. 5), may perhaps be the present ruin of B e z k a h. 

Char a shim (Valley) (Neh. xi. 35), was apparently near Lydda. 
The name K h u r b e t H i r s h a applied to a ruin east of Y a 1 o may 
perhaps retain a trace of the title. 

C h e p h i r a h, a town of Benjamin (Joshua xviii. 26), is the present 
ruin of K e f i r e h. 

A c h z i b (or C h e z i b). — A town of Judah in the Shephelah (Joshua 
XV. 44), is probably the Chazbi of the ' Onomasticon ': 'a deserted 
place near Adullam, in the district of Eleutheropolis.' At Beit Nettif, 
about 2\ miles from Adullam, is a spring called 'A i n K e z b e h, which 
may probably retain the name of Chazbi, and is in a probable position for 
Chezib. 

E leas a (i Mace. ix. 5), or according to another reading Adasa. 
A ruin called K h li r b e t I 1 a s a exists near Beit 'Ur. 

Emmaus (Luke xxiv. 13, 'Wars' vii. 7, 6). — This place was 
apparently 60 stadia from Jerusalem, or 7^ Roman miles. In the 
' Onomasticon ' it is identified with Emmaus Nicopolis ('A m w a s), but 
the latter is 160 stadia from Jerusalem (which agrees with the reading of 
the Sinaitic MS.). A possible site is Khurbet el Khamasa, 8 English miles 
from Jerusalem. 

Emmaus is apparently a later corruption of the ancient Hebrew form 
Hammath, derived from the existence of a thermal spring. Thus 
Hammath of Naphtali was called later Emmaus, and the connection 
between the two names is noticed by Josephus. ' Now Emmaus, if it 
be interpreted, may be rendered "a warm bath," useful for healing' 
(B. J. iv. I, 3, and Ant. xviii. 2, 3). And again, Emmaus Nicopolis, the 
modern 'Amwas, was celebrated for its healing spring in early Christian 
times, and the memory of this is probably preserved in the name B i r 
c t T a i il n, or ' W' ell of the Plague,' still applying to a well in the 
village. 

Thus in modern Arabic the name Hammath, or Ammaus, might occur 
under various forms, according as it preserved the original Hebrew 



[SHEET XVIL] BIBLICAL SITES. 37 



guttural represented by the Arabic H e or K h c, or transformed it to 
the 'A i n, and according as it preserved the Hebrew terminal or 
reproduced the later final letter. The forms thus obtained would be 
H a m m a t a, or even H a m m a m (' a hot bath' in Arabic), K h a m a t a, 
Hamasa, K ham as a, 'Amata, or 'Am was, of which it will be 
seen the form K h a m a s a is not the most corrupt, as compared with the 
original. 

So much, then, as regards the name ; it remains to inquire whether 
other requisites arc also fulfilled. 

The only indications of position furnished us are as regards distance 
from Jerusalem. Thus we read (Luke xxiv. 13), 'And, behold, two of 
them went that same day to a village called Emmaus, which was from 
Jerusalem about threescore furlongs.' The more general account in 
St. Mark's gospel giving only, ' as they walked and went into the 
country' (Mark xvi. 12). 

Josephus appears clearly to intend the same place in his account of 
the sale of Judaea (B. J. vii. 6, 6) by the orders of Vespasian. 

' However, he assigned a place for 800 men only, whom he dismissed 
from his army, which he gave them for their habitation ; it is called 
Emmaus, and is distant from Jerusalem threescore furlongs.' 

The distance of the ruin of Khamasa from Jerusalem is about S miles, 
which is sufficiently close to the ;i miles which are represented by the 
60 stadia to satisfy the expression 'about threescore furlongs.' It is close 
beside one of the ancient Roman roads leading from the capital to the 
plain near Beit Jibrin. 

There is, further, no doubt that the site is ancient. The ruin exists 
close to the modern village of W a d y F u k i n, and on the ledges imme- 
diately west of the houses there are still to be found the remains of 
Jewish rock-cut sepulchres, whilst on the east, beside the spring, is the 
ruin of a little church called K h li r b e t 'A i n el K e n i s e h, ' ruin of 
the fountain of the church.' The meaning of the name seems to be lost, 
and, as far as I am able to discover, the word has no known signification. 
It was, indeed, in endeavouring to discover whether the name had a 
Hebrew origin that I found the connection which probably existed with 
the forms Emmaus and Hammath, and thus was naturally led to inquire 
whether the distance agreed with that of the New Testament Emmaus. 



38 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

The notes taken on the spot descriptive of the site were made in 
ignorance of its identity, and are similar to those which are collected of 
every ruined site irrespective of its historical imj^ortance. 

The extreme prominence of the situation of the Maccabean town 
Emmaus Nicopolis caused it immediately to be assumed, in the fourth 
century, as identical with the New Testament site, without reference to 
its distance from Jerusalem, which is about 20 miles, or 160 stadia. Some 
of the later MSS. of the New Testament do indeed read 160 instead of 
60 furlongs, and on the strength of these readings Dr. Robinson has 
endeavoured to support the early Christian view ; but the best authorities, 
excepting the Sinaitic MSS., read 60, and Mr. Grove has clearly 
pointed out that the narrative of the events renders it highly improbable 
that the longer distance should be correct, as the disciples, leaving Emmaus 
after sunset, arrived in Jerusalem to find the eleven still gathered together. 
The time required for a distance of 8 miles would be about three hours, 
but the distance from Jerusalem to Emmaus Nicopolis and back would 
be considerably over the ordinary day's journey of a modern native of 
Palestine, requiring at least sixteen hours. 

In the fourteenth century the site of Emmaus was changed, and fixed 
at the village of Kubeibeh, 7 miles from Jerusalem towards the 
north-west. The origin of this late tradition is unknown, but a fine 
church of twelfth or thirteenth century architecture has lately been 
uncovered in the grounds, where a new monastery and hospice for 
travellers are being erected. 

It remains to give some description of the site now proposed as 
representing the Scriptural Emmaus, which is so hidden away in a 
corner that nothing short of systematic survey would have ensured its 
recovery. 

Descending towards the great plain by the fine Roman road which 
passes by Solomon's Pool and runs along a narrow ridge south of Beit 
'Atab, before arriving at the ruined village of Hubin, the traveller obtains 
a peep at a narrow valley well watered and filled with shady gardens of 
orange and lemon. On the west slope stands the village of Wad 
r' i\ k i n, and the hill rises behind it bare and rocky, pierced by ancient 
sepulchres now used as storehouses. A low spur extends between this 
valley and a small tributary on the east ; upon this slope lie the ruins of 



[SHEET XVIL] BIBLICAL SITES. 39 

Khamasa. In the tributary valley is a low precipice of rock, and 
under this a spring of clear water and a little pool. Just below the spring 
are the remains of a little church standing close to the rocky ledge. This 
is called K h u r b e t 'A i n el K e n i s e h, ' ruin of the fountain of the 
church.' A little lower down the valley are other ruins called K h u r b e t 
K u d e i s, probably meaning ' ruin of the sacred place,' or ' sanctuary ' 
(in the diminutive form). 

The church or chapel measures t,T) feet in length by i8 feet in breadth 
(interior), having an apse at the east end 12 feet diameter. It is not well 
oriented, bearing 66° mag. in the diameter of its length. The walls are 
standing to the height of some 6 or 8 feet, but no arches remain. The 
masonry throughout is very rough, and somewhat resembles that of 
another small church a few miles farther north, at a place called e I 
K a b u, where the arches are pointed. The ashlar is only rudely 
squared, and averages about ij to 2 feet in length of the stones. Upon 
one stone a rude boss was observed. There were no masons' marks 
visible, and indeed in this style they do not appear ever to occur. The 
interior of the apse, which was domed, was covered with a hard cement. 
These indications seem to point to the chapel having been built in the 
twelfth or thirteenth century, as it resembles in general character the 
church of St. Jeremiah at Abu Ghosh. Two rude caves exist some 50 
yards west of the chapel, in the side of the precipice. The ruins of 
Khamasa consist of scattered stones and of the remains of a rectangular 
building measuring 24 feet by 34 feet. The masonry in this is similar to 
that of the church. 

The existence of these medi?eval ruins is interesting. The site 
evidently has been regarded as sacred in Christian times, but, as far as 
our present information goes, it cannot have been ever the traditional 
Emmaus, for down to the fourteenth century all geographers placed the 
Scriptural site at 'Am was (Emmaus Nicopolis), and since that period 
tradition has pointed to Kubeibeh, 7 miles from Jerusalem, where the 
remains of a splendid Crusading church still exist. It is possible that 
some tradition might be obtained on the spot, but of this we heard 
nothing at the time, and as the identification did not then present itself 
to my mind, I contented myself with sketching and planning the ruins. 

The proximity to the main Roman road, and the choice character of 



40 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

the immediately surrounding territory, render this a very probable site for 
the home of the disbanded Roman soldiery. The name and distance 
agree, as shown, with the requirements of the case, and as no other site 
has been found by us bearing any title approaching to that of Emmaus, 
the identification Is evidently the most satisfactory yet proposed for this 
interesting place. 

Kulonieh was proposed by Canon Williams for the site of Emmaus. Another suggestion 
has been made by the Rev. W. F. Birth. He says : 

' Now among the sites of Benjamin, Joshua (xviii. 26) speaks of Musah, as we read it, but 
in Hebrew ni'-jn Hammosah, ' The Mosah.' Fiirst gives Musah the meaning ' place of 
reeds,' but it seems more probable that it is equivalent to k-^id^ a spring. Be this as it may, 
the Talmud says that this Musah, or Mauza, is the place whence willows were brought to 
adorn the Altar at the Feast of Tabernacles, and this suggests a valley ; and elsewhere again 
the Talmud says that it was made a colony. (See Caspari § 242.) 

' But Josephus tells us in the well-known passage, that his Ammaus was colonized by the 
assignment of the place by Titus to Soo discharged veterans. 

'We have thus side by side these statements from totally dififerent sources : first, that a 
place called by Joshua Hammusah became a Roman colony ; secondly, that ."Vmmaus became 
a Roman colony. Hammusah is therefore in all probability identical with Ammaus. 

' We now turn to the map. We find a well-known place on the main road from Jerusalem 
to the west, called Kiilonich, manifestly from Colonia, and about i mile to the north of this> 
looking down on a valley which trends at that point south and west toward Kulonieh, a ruin 
called Beit Mizza. 

' Here we have another linking of these two, Hammusah, the fountain, and a Roman 
colony, and we must be near the place we are looking for. 

' But now let us pass up from Kidonieh along the valley, under Beit Mizza, and pursue 
our way along the whole length of the valley (Wady Buwai) up to its head. We are then 
some 3 miles from Kiilonieh, and about i mile further, on the hill, in Kubeibeh, which it is 
said the Crusaders were informed was the site of Emmaus. 

' Now the head of this valley is as near as may be 60 stadia from Jerusalem. And it 
would seem probable that the original Emmaus, or the principal part of its population, 
originally laid around the head of the valley, giving its name, however, more or less exactly, 
to the whole : that this valley, and especially its upper part, was originally the Colonia of 
the discharged soldiers of Titus, but that as time went on the chief part of the population 
gravitated down to the Roman road, not at the nearest point to Jerusalem, but at the junction 
of the valley with that road. 

' Travellers from Jerusalem to the upper valley of Emmaus would not pass through 
Kulonieh, but would leave the main road about 2 miles from that place, and descend into 
the Wady Buwai just where the roads from Kulonieh on the left, and fiom I.ifta on the 
right, converge upon it. At such a point as this we may well imagine that the two disciples 
encountered their veiled and risen I.ord, and as they went along that upland path towards 
what was then the chief part at least of Emmaus, the fountains of a new life were opened 
out to them. 

'Joshua and the Talmud, St. Luke and Josephus, the traditions heard by the Crusaders, 



[SHEET X I'//.] BIBLICAL SITES. 41 

and the stern requirements of a modern survej-, fixing distances beyond possibility of mistake, 
seem all harmonized by the identification thus proposed.' 

Robinson thus presents the question of Emmaus : 

' For thirteen centuries did the interpretation current in the whole Church regard the 
Emmaus of the New Testament as identical with Nicopolis. This was not the voice of mere 
tradition, but the well-considered judgment of men of learning and critical skill, resident in 
the country, acquainted with the places in question, and occupied in investigating and 
describing the Scriptural topography of the Holy Land. The objections which lie against 
this view have been well presented by Reland and others, and are the four following : 

' I St. The express statement of Luke, that Emmaus was distant from Jerusalem 60 
stadia. Such is indeed the present reading, as found in all the editions and in most of the 
manuscripts of the New Testament that have come down to us. But it is no less true, that 
several manuscripts, and some of them of high authority, read here cne hundred and sixty, 
and thus point to Nicopolis. This may then have been the current reading in the days of 
Eusebius and Jerome. There seems, indeed, to be a strong probability that it actually was 
so ; since otherwise those fathers, in searching for the Emmaus of Luke, had only to seek at 
the distance of 60 stadia from Jerusalem in order to find it. A\'e therefore may draw at 
least this definite conclusion, viz., that in their day such an Emmaus was unknown, and, also, 
that probably their copies read 160 stadia. It may have been that the word or numeral 
letter signifying a hundred had early begun to be dropped from the text by a lapse of 
transcribers, and that this was increased as copies were multiplied in other lands, by cojiyists 
who knew nothing of Palestine ; until at length by degrees the omission became current in 
the manuscripts. Indeed, i^tw', if any, of the manuscripts now extant were written in 
Palestine. There exist likewise in the New Testament other examples of erroneous readings, 
which have doubtless, in like manner, crept in through the error of transcribers. 

' and. Josephus relates that Vespasian (or Titus) assigned in Palestine a place of habita- 
tion for 800 men, whom he had dismissed from his army ; it was called Emmaus, and was 
distant from Jerusalem 60 stadia. This, it is said, confirms the present reading of the New 
Testament. But since, as is well known, the works of Josephus were copied in a later age 
almost exclusively by Christian transcribers, this passage would very naturally be conformed 
to the current reading in Luke ; while it is also true that several manuscripts of Josephus still 
read here tJiirty stadia. This at least shows the reading to be variable, and therefore doubtful ; 
so that it can have no weight in determining the text of the New Testament. Indeed, the 
original of it may just as well have been 160. 

' 3rd. The Emmaus of Luke and Josephus, it is said, is called a village ; while Nicopolis 
was a city. But the word employed by Luke signifies strictly a town without walls, a country- 
town, as distinguished from a fortified city; and that used by Josephus denotes a place, and 
is also put for a fortified post or town. Emmaus had been laid in ashes by Varus shortly after 
the death of Herod, and would seem not to have been fully rebuilt until the third century, 
when it received the name of Nicopolis. AVhen Luke wrote, therefore, it was probably still 
a place partially in ruins and without walls ; a fitting post for a colony of disbanded soldiers. 
' 4th. The distance of Nicopolis from Jerusalem is too great, it is said, to admit of the 
return of the two disciples the same evening, so as to meet the assembled Apostles. This, 
however, would depend, not so much upon the distance, as upon the time when they set off. 
They "rose up the same hour," and naturally returned in haste to make known their glad tidings; 
VOL. III. 6 



42 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

although, with all their haste, they could not well have traversed the distance in less than five 
hours. It was not yet evening when they arrived at Emmaus ; and if they set off to return 
even as late as six o'clock, which at that season would be about sunset, they might reach the 
city by eleven o'clock. The Apostles were assembled and the doors were shut " for fear of 
the Jews ;" they had indeed partaken of an evening meal, but this had already been long 
ended ; for Jesus afterwards inquires if they have there any food. It was evidently late. 
There is therefore nothing impossible or improbable in the supposition that the t\vo had 
hastened back a long distance, late at night, perhaps with much bodily effort, to declare to 
their brethren the wonderful things of which they had been witnesses. A like amount of 
travel, on an extraordinary occasion, would be nothing strange even at the present day. 

' The case, then, may be thus presented. On the one hand, the reading of good manu- 
scripts gives the distance of Emmaus from Jerusalem at 1 60 stadia; at which point there 
was a place called Emmaus, which still exists as the village 'Amwas ; and all this is further 
supported by the critical judgment of learned men residing in the country near the time ; as 
also by the unbroken tradition of the first thirteen centuries. On the other hand, there is the 
current reading of 60 stadia in most of the present manuscripts, written out of Palestine ; 
supported only by a doubtful reading of Josephus ; but with no place existing, either now 
or at the end of the third century, to which this specification can be referred. So far as it 
regards the New Testament, it is a question between two various readings ; one, now the 
current one in manuscripts and editions, but with no other valid support ; the other sup- 
ported in like manner by manuscripts, as also by facts, by the judgment of early scholars, 
and by early and unbroken tradition. After long and repeated consideration, I am disposed 
to acquiesce in the judgment of Eusebius and Jerome.' 

En G a n n i m (Joshua xv. 34). — A town of Judah in the Shephelah, 
near Zanoah and Tappuah. This appears to be the present ruin of 
U m m J i n a, 3 miles north-west of Z a n u a. 

En She mesh (Joshua xv. 7). — A spring near the Mount of OHves, 
and En Rogel ('A in Umm ed Deraj). This appears to be the 
present 'A i n Hand. About i^ miles north-east is a cliff called 
'Arak esh Shems, which may preserve the name. 

'Now remain en Shemesh and en Rogel. Of the former name no trace remains, unless it 
be in Mugharet esh Shems ("Cave of the Sun") ; but this lies north of Wady Kelt, and on the 
other side of the watershed. I should not have mentioned it, but for a rather curious 
expression used by an Arab with regard to it. I asked him, while talking of the cave, 
whether there was no 'Ain esh Shems ("Spring of the Sun"), to which he replied, " This is 'Ain 
esh Shems;" and on my making him explain himself, he said they sometimes called the cave 
the "P"yc of the Sun" ('(//« being a spring or an eye), because the rising sun shone directly into 
it — that it looked directly in the eye of the sun. En Shemesh is, however, more probably 
'Ain Haud, east of el Azariyeh, beside the high road, or else the neighbouring well of 
Bir cl 'Add, which contains a never-failing spring. The much-disputed en Rogel I am in 
favour of putting at the so-called Virgin's Fount, and if this be the case, the boundary-line 
from the edge of the Ghor would just correspond with the present high road from Jerusalem 
to Eriha.' — C. E. Tyrwhitt Drake, 'Quarterly Statement,' 1S74, p. 70. 



[SHEET XVn\ BIBLICAL SITES. 43 

E t a m. — The town of Judah, so named, mentioned as near Bethlehem 
(Septuagint, Joshua xv. 59, inserted verse), and the site of Solomon's 
Gardens (Ant. viii. 7, 3), was 50 stadia from Jerusalem, and was fortified 
by Rehoboam (2 Chron. xi. 6). The aqueduct to the Temple came from 
it, and it was thought to be the highest place in Palestine (Tal. Bab. 
Zebachim, 54 d). These indications point to the neighbourhood of 
Urtas, where the name is retained in that of 'A i n 'A tan. Accord- 
ing to the Talmud (Tal. Bab. Yoma, 31 a), this place is the Biblical 
Nephtoah (Joshua xv. 9), which would reconcile the boundary of Benjamin 
with the account in i Sam. x. 2. 

Gederah is the Shephelah (Joshua xv. 36), mentioned with Socoh. 
It is probably the Gedrus of the ' Onomasticon' (s.v. Gahedur), 10 miles 
from Diospolis (Liidd) on the road to Eleutheropolis (Beit Jibrin). 
This agrees with the position of the ruin of Jed ir eh, 9 English miles 
south of L i^i d d. 

Gibeah, a town of Benjamin, distinct from the more famous place 
of the name, mentioned with Kirjath (probably Kuryet el 'Enab) 
(Joshua xviii. 28), is probably the ruin of J i b i a or J u b e i a h, 3 miles 
north of K li rye t el 'Enab. 

H azor, a town of Benjamin (Neh. xi. 2)2,)' apparently north of Jeru- 
salem, is probably the present ruined site of Hazzur, in the direction 
indicated by the other names noticed in the same passage. 

Jethlah, a town of Dan (Joshua xix. 42), mentioned with Aijalon 
(Y a 1 o), is probably the present ruin of Beit T u 1, 3 miles south-east 
of the latter town. 

Kirjath J e a r i m. — The site which appears to me best to suit this 
important town is Khurbet 'Erma. 

Kirjath Jearim is first mentioned in the Book of Joshua as identical 
with Kirjath Baal, a town of Judah (Joshua xv. 60). It was on the boun- 
dary between the tribes of Judah and Benjamin (verse 9), and from the 
peculiar expressions used in the descriptions of the border line (Joshua 
xviii. 15, XV. 10), it appears that the town must have stood at an angle, 
from which the line ran in two directions, one being eastwards towards 
Nephtoah, the other northwards towards Kesla, which is Chesalon, on the 
north side. 

6—2 



44 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

The next appearance of the city is in the Book of Judges, when the 
men of Dan, who had no inheritance (Judges xviii. i), went up to the 
Mahaneh Dan, which was ' behind ' (or more correctly, west of) Kirjath 
Jearim. Of the position of this Mahaneh Dan, or ' Camp of Dan,' we 
have a further indication in the history of Samson, in which it is mentioned 
as 'between Zorah (Surah) and Eshtaol ' (Eshua) (Judges xiii. 25). 
The term Mahaneh is identical with M u k h n a h, ' camp,' a title now 
applied to the plain east of Shechem, and it seems to be properly indi- 
cative of a plain fit for camping ground. We can therefore have little 
hesitation in placing the Mahaneh Dan in the broad Wady Surar, near the 
recognised sites of Zorah and Eshtaol ; and the site of Kirjath Jearim 
should thus apparently be sought east of this natural camping ground. 

Kirjath Jearim is again mentioned as the place where the Ark 
remained for twenty years after the destruction of the men of Beth 
Shemesh (i Samuel vi. 19, vii. i). From this passage it appears that 
Kirjath Jearim was in the mountains above Beth Shemesh ; yet Josephus, 
who may be supposed to have known the real site, states that the two 
cities were near one another (Ant. vi. i, 4). 

At a late period David went down to Baalah (or Kirjath Jearim) to 
bring up the Ark to Jerusalem. It was found in the house of Abinadab 
' in Gibeah ' (the hill or knoll), but this place would appear to have been 
in or part of the city of Baalah. This is the last mention of the city 
except its enumeration in the lists of Ezra, where the name appears under 
the abbreviated form, Kirjath Arim (Ezra ii. 25). 

From these various notices we may sum up the apparent requisites 
which should be satisfied in any site proposed as identical with this 
important town. 

1. The name Arim or Jearim ('thickets') should be recovered, and 
the site should present such thickets. 

2. It must be east of the Mahaneh Dan, which lay between Zorah and 
Eshtaol. 

3. It must be south of Chesalon, identified with the modern Kesla. 

4. It must be near Beth Shemesh (now 'Ain Shems), which agrees 
with the second indication. 

5. It must be in the mountains above the last-mentioned site. 

6. It must be at the south-west angle of the border line of Benjamin. 



{SHEET XVII.] BIBLICAL SITES. 45 

7. Its position must agree with that of Nephtoah and Rachel's tomb 
(cf. Joshua XV. 9, and i Samuel x. 2), so as to allow of an intelligible line 
being drawn for the south border of Benjamin. 

8. The name Baalah indicates either that a high place of Baal existed 
at the city, or else that the position was elevated (taking Baal in a wider 
geographical sense, as some authorities are inclined to do). 

9. A rounded hillock or humped knoll of some kind seems indicated 
by the term Gibeah occurring in connection with the site of the city. 

The usual site shown as representing Kirjath Jearim is the village of 
Kuryet el 'Enab (' Town of Grapes '), better known as Abu Ghosh, on the 
road from Jaffa to Jerusalem. This town is called simply el Kiiryeh by 
the fellahin, and appears to be the ancient Kirjath of Benjamin (Joshua 
xviii. 28), a place apparently distinct from Kirjath Jearim, and situated in 
the Lot of Benjamin, whereas the latter belonged to Judah. There is no 
doubt that in the fifth century Abu Ghosh was believed to be Kirjath 
Jearim, and the only argument which Dr. Robinson has adduced in favour 
of this identification appears to be founded on the early Christian tradition, 
which he too often quotes in favour of his own views, even against his 
own canon of criticism condemning such traditions as of no value. The 
site thus commonly pointed out to travellers does not, however, fulfil the 
requisites enumerated. The name of Arim is not found at Abu Ghosh, 
the site of which lies 9 miles north-west of 'Ain Shems, and 3^ miles 
north-west of Chesalon. The border line of Benjamin cannot be drawn 
through Abu Ghosh and also through Rachel's tomb, without being so 
twisted as to be practically improbable, while no special features occur 
which would serve to explain the names Gibeah and Baalah, connected 
with that of Kirjath Jearim. 

These objections have been so far recognised by various writers as to 
induce some archaeologists to prefer the conspicuous village of Soba, as 
proposed by Dr. Chaplin, a site answering better to the requirements of 
the name Baalah or Gibeah. Soba is the Bel-Mont of the Crusaders, and 
is undoubtedly an ancient Jewish site. In the Septuagint of Joshua xv. 
(verse inserted after 60) it seems to be mentioned, according to some 
MSS., under the form Thobes. It lies, however, 4 miles east of Chesalon, 
and is separated by 10 miles of rugged inountains from Beth Shemesh, 
No trace of the name Kirjath Jearim has been found in its vicinity, and 



46 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTEVE. 

the difficulties witli regard to the boundary of Judah and Benjamin are 
not removed by the choice of this site. 

The ruin discovered by the Survey party in 1873 seems in every 
respect to answer better than any previously proposed to the nine require- 
ments enumerated above. 

1. The three principal letters (nip) of the name Jearim, or of the later 
abbreviated form Arim, occur in the proper order in the modern Arabic 
'Erma (spelt with the guttural Ain) ; the site is moreover surrounded and 
concealed by the thickets of lentisk, oak, hawthorn, and other shrubs, 
which properly represent the Hebrew word 'garim ' (nir) from a root 
signifying to be ' tangled ' or confused. 

2. The ruin is due east of the open plain formed by the junction ol 
Wady Ismain with Wadyel Mutluk, extending from Beth Shemesh on the 
south-west to Eshtaol on the north-east, and to the hill of Zorah on the 
north-west, representing the ancient Mahaneh Dan. 

3. It is 2^ miles south of Chesalon or Kesla. 

4. It is only 4 miles from Beth Shemesh, and an ancient road descends 
north of the ruin into Wady Ismiin, and thus leads to Beth Shemesh 
direct along the valley banks. 

5. The site of 'Erma is nevertheless in the mountain proper, and 
about 1,000 feet higher than that of Beth Shemesh. 

6. The identification of the sites of Ataroth Adar (ed Darieh), Gibeah 
(Jibia), and Kirjath (Kuryet el 'Enab), belonging to Benjamin ; of Jethlah 
(Beit Tul) and Eltekeh (Beit Likia) belonging to Dan, as proposed by the 
Survey party, all agree with the supposition that the west border of Ben- 
jamin ran south, from near the Nether Beth-horon, along the crests of the 
spurs which sink so suddenly from the level of the mountain proper (Har) 
to the distinct region of the Shephelah. This natural boundary, excluding 
on the west the Vale of Ajalon, which belonged to Dan, cannot be recon- 
ciled with the proposed identifications of Kirjath Jearim at Abu Ghosh or 
at Soba, but agrees perfectly with the wording of the Biblical 
description : ' The border was drawn hence, and compassed the western 
side southwards, and the goings out thereof were at Kirjath Baal, which is 
Kirjath Jearim, a city of the children of Judah. This was the west 
quarter. And the south quarter was from the end of Kirjath Jearim {i.e., 
the end of the spur on which the city stood), and the border went out on 



[SHEET XVII.] BIBLICAL SITES. 47 

the west {i.e., west side), and went out (eastwards) to the Springs of 
Nephtoah ' (Joshua xviii. 14, 15). 

Again, it agrees also with the other description : ' And the border 
compassed from Baalah on the west (or looking west) unto Mount Seir, 
and passed along unto the shoulder of Mount Jearim, which is Chesalon, 
on the north side, and went down unto Beth Shemesh ' (Joshua xv. 10). 

If this argument has been followed by help of the map it will be seen 
what line is indicated. 'Erma is on the south or Judah side of the great 
valley, with a spur (perhaps ' the end of Kirjath Jearim ') running out 
northwards. Here, on the north side, are the precipices of a remarkably 
rocky hill burrowed with hermits' caves, to which the word Seir (' rough ') 
might very well apply. 

On the same northern ridge, moreover, the name S a g h i r, which is 
radically the same as Seir, may be found marked rather further east. The 
line running due north along Mount Jearim (which appears from the text 
to have been on the opposite side of the valley to Kirjath Jearim, as the 
expression iDr, rendered ' passed along,' means strictly ' crossed over,' 
a river or valley) arrives at Kesla or Chesalon, and thence follows the 
important valley called Wady Ghurab, which joins Wady Ismain and 
flows past Beth Shemesh. The position of 'Erma is thus naturally placed 
at the south-west angle of the border of Benjamin. 

7. The common boundary of Judah and Benjamin may be drawn from 
the new site of Kirjath Jearim in a direction which agrees with various 
other indications. It would follow the crest of a long spur to the water- 
shed at 'Ain 'Atan (near Solomon's jdooIs), the en Etam which, according 
to the Talmudlsts, was the same as Nephtoah (Tal. Bab. Yoma, 31, a). 
Thence it would pass along a watershed northwards by Rachel's tomb 
(i Samuel x. 2) to the Emek Rephaim, which, according to Josephus, 
extended from Jerusalem towards Bethlehem (7 Ant. xii. 4). 

Lifta is thus left to be identified with Eleph of Benjamin (Joshua 
xviii. 2S) rather than with Nephtoah. The identification of Lifta and 
Nephtoah has always seemed unsatisfactory, not only on account of the 
difficulties. which result in drawing the boundary line, but also because no 
great spring or group of springs such as seems to be implied by the expression 
I'l'o, M ' a i n, occurs at this spot. The modern Arabic name is, moreover, 
deficient in the guttural of the Hebrew. 



48 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

8. The expression Baalah would refer very properly to the situation of 
'Erma, overlooking- the great valley, while, as will be explained imme- 
diately, the traces of what may have been an ancient ' high place ' (Bamah) 
still remain. 

9. A central knoll, such as would account for the name Gibeah, occurs 
at the ruin of 'Erma. 

Although the indications of identity thus appear very strong, they 
could not be considered as conclusive if the site proved to be insignificant, 
with modern ruins in an inconspicuous situation. I was therefore anxious 
to revisit the spot, and was much pleased to find that an evidently ancient 
and important ruin exists still in this position. Riding down the great 
gorge which, under various names, runs down from near Gibeon to Beth 
Shemesh, we gradually ascended the southern slopes in the vicinity of the 
little ruined village of Deir esh Sheikh. Before us was the notable 
peaked knoll of Khtirbet Sammunieh, a conspicuous feature of the view 
up the valley from Surih, and leaving this on the right we followed an 
ancient road along the slope of the mountain. Here and there remains ot 
side walls are visible, and there can be little doubt that this is a branch of 
the Roman road from the vicinity of Bethlehem leading to Beth Shemesh. 

In front of us, far beneath, we saw the white bed of the torrent twistino- 
in bold bends between the steep slopes, which rise fully 1,000 feet to the 
hill-tops. Both slopes were rocky and rugged, both, but especially that 
to the south, were clothed with a dense brushwood of lentisk, arbutus, 
oak, hawthorn, cornel, khariib, and other shrubs, while in the open glades 
the thyme, sage, citizus and bclhin carpeted the ledges with a thick 
fragrant undergrowth. 

A bold spur running northwards from the southern ridge was 
characterized by a small natural turret or platform of rock, rising from 
a knoll which stood covered with fallen masonry above a group of olives, 
beneath which again the thickets clothed the mountain. This knoll 
represented the ruin of 'Erma, which on closer inspection proved to be 
a site undoubtedly ancient, and presenting the aspect of an old ruined 
town. Some; of the walls, rudely built in mortar, may belong to the Arab 
period, but the rude blocks built up against scarps, natural or artificial, 
which occur in various directions, resemble the old masonry of the vine- 
yard towers, which date back to a very early period. 



[SHEET XriL] BIBLICAL SITES. 49 

On the east is a fine rock-cut wine-press ; on the soutli a great cistern 
covered by a huge hollowed stone, which forms the well-mouth, and 
which, from its size and its weather-beaten appearance, must evidently be 
very ancient. 

Rude caves also occur, and the ground is strewn with fragments of 
ancient pottery. But the most curious feature of the site is the platform 
of rock, which has all the appearance of an ancient high-place or central 
shrine. The area is about 50 feet north and south by 30 feet east and 
west, the surface, which appears to be artificially levelled, being some 
10 feet above the ground outside. The scarping of the sides seems 
mainly natural, but a foundation has been sunk on three sides, in which 
rudely squared blocks of stone have been fitted as the base of a wall. 
On the east this wall consisted of rock to a height of 3^^ feet, with a 
thickness of 7 feet. There is an outer platform, about 10 feet wide, 
traceable on the south and south-cast, and a flight of steps 3 feet wide, 
each step being i foot high and i foot broad, leads up to this lower level 
at the south-east angles. There is a small cave under the platform, and 
the ruined houses extend along the spur principally north and south of 
this remarkable rocky tower. 

The view from the ruin on the west is also worthy ol notice. The 
valley is seen winding 600 or 700 feet beneath, and the cliffs and caves of 
the northern ridge form unusually accentuated features. Beyond these 
the broad corn-vale of Sorek (the Mahaneh Dan) is seen extending 
beneath the rounded hill on which gleams the white dome of Neby 
Samit, close to Zoreah. The actual site of Beth Shemesh is hidden by 
the southern ridge, but the valley-bed north of the ruin is visible. 

On the hill to the south stand the houses of Deir el Hawa, and to the 
east the peak of Sammunieh hides the further course of the valley. 

Standing on the rocky tower we saw clearly how well the Mahaneh 
Dan might be described as 'west' of Kirjath Jearim — how naturally 
the Ark might have been sent from the lowlands of Beth Shemesh to this 
neighbouring city, so strongly posted in the rude hills of Judah. 

In the central platform we might perhaps recognise the high-place of 
Baal, whence the city took its name, or the Gibeah where the Ark was 
kept ; for Kirjath Jearim is not the only sacred city of Palestine in which 
the altars of Jehovah and of Baal once stood side by side. The instances 

VOL. III. 7 



so THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

of Carmel and of Bethel will recur to the reader's mhid, with other indi- 
cations of a similar kind. 

Here, then, at 'Erma, we seem to find in a remarkable manner the 
numerous requisites of the site of Kirjath Jearim fulfilled. The name, 
the position, the character of the ruin, the view thence, the surrounding 
thickets which half cover the site, the situation close to the edge of the 
higher hills and to the mouth of the great gorge, the proximity to Beth 
Shemesh, and the relative positions of Chesalon and the Mahaneh Dan, 
all seem to agree in fixing 'E r m a as the true site of the important 
boundary town where the Ark was kept for twenty years. 

Having studied the question carefully on the spot, and having ascer- 
tained the importance and antiquity of the site, I cannot but look upon 
this identification as one of the most valuable which has yet resulted from 
the Survey of Western Palestine. 

' The exact position of Kirjath Jearim is of great importance for the right understanding of 
several Biblical narratives. Fortunately we have several statements as to its position rela- 
tively to known places. Thus Judges xviii. 12 tells that it lay ra^/ of Beth Shemesh ; and 
from I Samuel vi. 21, vii. i, we learn that in relation to that same place it lay " up," and was 
on, or by, a hill (Gibea). These indications lead us to look for it at the head of the great 
valley of Siirar, in which Beth Shemesh lies. 

' Chesalon (Kesla) lies up eastward from Beth Shemesh, and we know from Joshua xv. 10 
that Kirjath Jearim must be sought still farther east, or .w///'/^east. 

' Again, Psalm cxxxii. 6, though obscure, manifestly implies that the Ark while at 
Kirjath Jearim, or when on its way thence to Sion (2 Samuel vi.), was near Bethlehem 
Ephratah. 

'Further, the description in Joshua xv. S-io of the boundary of Judah tells us that it ran 
up from the ravine of Hinnom to the top of the mountain lying west of that ravine and at 
the north end of the valley of Rephaim ; that thence it reached along from the top of the 
ridge to the fountain of the water of Nephtoah, and went out to the cities of Mount Ephron, 
and reached to Kirjath Jearim, whence the border curved westward to Mount Seir, and 
passed over to the north shoulder of Har Jearim, which is Chesalon. 

' Of this boundary line the extremities, Hinnom and Kesla, are known. 

'A curious feature of it appears in Joshua xviii. 15, where the southern boundary of 
Benjamin (and northern of Judah), while traced from the west eastwards, is said to go from 
Kirjath Jearim westward. The cities of Mount Ephron, or the last of the group, must there- 
fore have lain to the south or south-east of Kirjath Jearim. The line could not have gone to 
the north-west, or it would have formed the western, not the southern, boundary of Benjamin, 
and the borders of Judah and Benjamin would have touched to the west of Kirjath Jearim, 
contrary to Joshua xviii. 14. 

'Just such a line would be described if we trace the boundary of Judah from the valley of 
Hinnom, due westward, and not u]) by the north-west side of Jerusalem, sweeping around 
the valley of Reiihaim so as to enclose it, coming thus near Rachel's Sepulchre ( i Samuel .x. 2), 



[SHEET XVJL] BIBLICAL SITES. 51 

and thence westward a little, then stretching back in a north-easterly direction towards 'Ain 
Karim, and so out westward by Kesla. 

' Or it might be drawn, I think, so as to exclude the valley of Rephaim, giving that to 
Benjamin. The boundary would then run by the A\'ady el Werd, and Rachel's Tomb would 
be literally on the border of Benjamin. 

' The identification of Lifta with Nephtoah is no doubt conclusive against such a proposal, 
if it could be relied on. But does not Lifta rather represent Eleph of Joshua xviii. 28? 
And though the proposal to identify Nephtoah and Netophah has been condemned, there is 
not a little to be said for it. Nephtoah is only named in Joshua xv. 9, xviii. 15, while Neto- 
phah does not occur earlier than 2 Samuel xxiii. 28, 29. We read only of " the shining of 
the water of Nephtoah," not of a town of that name. There was a Wady Beth Netophah, 
and presumably "a water" in the Wady of the same name. Netophah was applied to a 
considerable district : there were "villages of the Netophathites" (i Chron. i.x. 16, Neh. xii. 28). 
It lay not far from Bethlehem (i Chron. ii. 54, Neh. vii. 26, Esdras v. 17, 18); and the form 
of the name Anetophah has been recognised in Autubeh, to the nortli of Bethlehem, while 
Beth Netophah has been identified with Beit Nettif some miles to the west. Notably the 
name of Netophah is found in the Greek both as Nsrsojta and Ksfwra, illustrating the 
very transposition of consonants required ; while the change of Tcth for Tan in the Hebrew 
cannot be accounted of much moment, considering the age of the record in Joshua, and 
that the " / " — sometimes " fli " — disappears altogether in " Nehopas," yet another form 
of Netophah. 

' As to the valley of Rephaim, it is not certain where precisely it lay, whether to the 
north or south of the boundary line, though probably to the south. From 2 Samuel xxiii. 13 
we gather that at least its southern extremity lay west of Bethlehem, and so interposed between 
it and Adullam. The statement of i Samuel x. 2 may perhaps thus be explained ; it is 
certainly precise as to the sepulchre of Rachel being on the border of Benjamin, while the 
description in Genesis xxxv. seems to fix it pretty conclusively. It would scarce be counted 
strange if the boundary here made even some detour to enclose the birthplace of Benjamin 
in the inheritance of his children. 

' May not 'Ain K a r i m preserve the sound if not the site of Kirjath Jearim ? It Is 
written in Ezra ii. 25 'Ar i m {possibly that is the correct reading in Joshua xviii. 28, whereas 
in I Samuel vii. i, we find it Hnked with a G i b e a). When the " city of the woods " 
became a ruin, the " well " would remain ; and as the neighbouring Beth Shemesh became 
'Ain S h e m s, Kirjath 'Arim would become 'Ain Karim. That the Ain should take this 
Ca/t/i sound is nothing unusual. The proposed identification of 'Ain Karim with Rekem 
is a possible one, no doubt ; but, if accepted, it would surely throw the boundary of Benjamin 
too far south to admit of locating Kirjath Jearim at Kuryet el 'Enab. And as the proper 
name of that place is simply K ar i e t (" Quarterly Statement," 1876, p. 80), it is more pro- 
bably Kirjath of Joshua xviii. 28. 'Ain Karim has been identified also with Kerem of the 
Septuagint, Joshua xv. 59, and with Bethcar, so that it seems yet undetermined. 

' Since the probability of 'Ain Karim being the site of Kirjath Jearim had occurred to me, 

1 have met with the interesting announcement in the January number of the " Statement," 
p. 19, of the discovery of K h u r b e t 'E r m a, "a ruin on the brink of the great valley 

2 miles south of Kesla or Chesalon." Here may be the true sight of Kirjath Jearim ; and the 
boundary may not have " reached along" so far north as 'Ain Karim. This is a matter to be 
j udged of only on the spot, or by one intimately acquainted with the contour of the ground ; 



52 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE 

but I venture to suggest that the boundary Hne should go thus, much farther south than is 
usually drawn, by the AVady Bittir down into the Wady Surar. 

' Such a line would fit the Biblical narratives. The men of Beth-Shemesh would send 
the Ark up the valley eastward, as its easiest road back to Shiloh. There is no trace of any 
road ever having led over to Kiiryet el 'Enab. When, after its resting there, it was removed 
to Sion, it would pass not far from Ephratah (Psalm cxxxii. 6), and of it, as there, David 
must have known as a boy at Bethlehem, and so would naturally describe one going out to 
seek the lost Ark coming on its track, so to say, " hearing of it " there. Again, it is more 
than probable that the gathering of Israel to M i z peh (i Samuel vii.) was to the neighbour- 
hood of the Ark ; that this was the place where Samuel judged Israel, and where Saul found 
him in the land of Zunh, whence he returned by Rachel's sepulchre (i Samuel ix. ii, 25 ; x. 2). 
Might not this be recognised in Soba ? Placing Mizpeh here, we could better understand the 
story of Israel's victory when they drove the Israelites to below Beth Car. Beth Car (or Beth 
Chor) seems to be identified in the narrative with "Shen" (i Samuel vii. 11, 12); for which 
we should rather read Ha-shen, probably for Ashan. The Septuagint reads Yasan, and the 
Peshito, Syriac, and Arabic versions render both words (Smith's "Dictionary") by Beth Jasan. 
That they were two names for one place, or the names of places so close as to be practically 
one, is also rendered more than probable by their conjunction inChorashan, i Samuel xxx. 30, 
as a district not far from Ziglag, somewhere south of Beit Jibrin and east of Gaza. If Ha-slien 
is the Ashan of Joshua xv. 38, this must have been its locality. If the defeated Philistines 
were chased down the valley past Gath, Ebenezer, which was set up between Mizpeh and 
Beth Car, might be sought for in that neighbourhood ; and the locality of the earlier battle, 
when " the Ark of God was taken," would be fixed thereabouts, for the Israelites pitched in 
Ebenezer (i Samuel iv.) and the Philistines in Aphek. 

' This suggested removal southward of all those scenes in Samuel's life — which follows the 
abandonment of Neby Samwil for Soba as the Mizpeh of i Samuel (not the Maspha of later 
times) — seems to accord better, not only with these narratives, but also with vii. 16, as the 
places of judging are more equally distributed ; with xv. 12, which implies that Samuel's 
house was not very far from Carmel ; with viii. 2, as his sons at Beersheba were not so 
removed from him as otherwise might seem ; and we would thus understand why David 
clung so tenaciously to a neighbourhood hostile and treacherous to him (as Keilah), because 
of Samuel's frequent presence there.' — Archibald Henderson, ' Quarterly Statement,' 1878, 
pp. 196—199. 

N e p h t o a h (see above, Etam). 

N e t o p h a h (Nch. vii. 26) appears to be tlie ruin of U m m Tub a, 
or possibly Beit Ncttif. 

Scchu. — A place between Gibeah of Saul and Ramathaim Zophim 
( I Samuel xix. 20), with a well at it. The name Khi^irbet Suweikeh 
occurs between Jebi and Ram-Allah. 

Shaalabbin (Joshua xix. 42). — A town of Dan, mentioned next 
to Aijalon. It appears to be the Selebi of Jerome (' Commentary on 



{SHEET XVII.] BIBLICAL SITES. S3 

Ezekiel,' xlviii. 22) mentioned with Allon and Emmaus. This points to 
the identity of the ruin of S e 1 b i t, 2 miles north of 'A ni w a s. 

Socoh (Joshua XV. 35) was known in the fourth century as 8 org 
Roman miles from Eleutheropolis (Beit Jibrin), on the road to 
Jerusalem. This agrees with the position of K h u r b e t S h u w c i k e h. 

Sorek (Valley) (Judges xvi. 4). — A town called Caphar Sorech is 
mentioned in the ' Onomasticon ' as near Saraa (Surah), evidendy the 
present ruin of Khurbet Surik. This would point to Wady es 
S u r a r as the Valley of Sorek ; and this valley is still inhabited by 
Bedawin, much as the Philistines probably lived in it amongst the settled 
Jewish population. 

Timnah. — A town of Judah (Joshua xv. 5;), mentioned with 
Gibeah. There is a ruin called Tibna near Jeba, in the higher hills 
of the 'Arkub, distinct from Tibneh (Sheet XVI.), which represents 
the Timnah of Joshua xv. 10. 

Zoheleth (Stone) (i Kings i. 9) was by en Rogel ('A i n Umm 
ed Deraj). This points to Zahweileh, the cliff on which the village 
of S i 1 w a n stands, the names being almost identical in meaning and 
form. 

' Nearly in the centre of the hne along which stretches the village of Siloam, there exists 
a rocky plateau surrounded by Arab buildings, which mask its true form and extent : the 
western face, cut perpendicularly, slightly overhangs the valley. Steps rudely cut in the 
rock enable one to climb it, not without difficulty, and so to penetrate directly from the 
valley to the midst of the village. By this road, troublesome, and even dangerous, pass 
habitually the women of Siloam, who come to fill their vessels at the so-called " Virgin's 
Fount " ('Ain Sitti Miriam, Immed-deraj). Now, this passage and the ledge of rock in which 
it is cut are called by the fellahin " Ez Zeh\vh;le." It is impossible not to be struck with the 
absolute identity which this name offers with that of the s/one of Zodcth, which the Bible 
( I Kings i. 9) places near (S:iX) en Rogel. The vocal type itself is exactly reproduced, 
putting aside an insignificant inversion of the sound C, which in Hebrew precedes, and in 
Arabic follows, the consonant n- A homogeneous transcript will present us with this identity 
in still clearer manner : Hebrew, Zohdct ; Arabic, Zehohelet. 

' I believe, then, that we can consider the situation of the stones of Zoheleth definitely 
determined. This point fixed with certainty can serve to determine the position of many 
others of the highest interest. At present I can only indicate a few, proposing to return to 
the question at length at some future time. For example, it becomes extremely probable 
that we must put en Rogel at the Virgin's Fountain, and not at Bir Eyub. In fact, Bir 
Eyub is 700 metres distant from Zehwfel^, and the Pool of Siloam is 400 metres ; while the 
Virgin's Fountain, situated exactly opposite Zehwele, is only separated from it by the breadth 



54 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

of the valley, about 60 metres. I call attention to the importance of this result in tracing the 
line separating the territories of Benjamin and Judah, which passed by en Rogel, and the 
support which it affords to Captain Warren's ingenious theory of the direction of this line. 

' I must advance another fact which appears to me intimately connected with this remark, 
and to confirm it in a certain measure. We know the multiplicity of denominations under 
which the great western valley of Jerusalem, so commonly called the Kcdron, is known. 
The fellahin of Siloam divide it into three sections, which are, proceeding from north to 
south, ist, AVady Sitti Miriam ; 2nd, Wady Fer'aun ; 3rd, Wady Eyub. The name of the 
intermediate part, which extends from the south-east angle of the Haram to the confluence at 
the north of Bir Eyub, is remarkable : Wady Fer'aun, that is, Pharaoh's Valley. Now, it is 
well known that to the Arabs, the name of Pharaoh simply indicates the idea of something or 
other of ancient times, and it is found with this vague meaning in a crowd of places which 
have nothing to do with Egypt, very much as in France, where all Roman camps are, for the 
vulgar, Cxsar's camps. Wady Fer'aun signifies, then, the valley of the king, and the region 
to which this name is applied is precisely that which the King's Gardens of the Bible used to 
occupy.' — C. Clermont Ganneau, 'Quarterly Statement,' 1869, p. 252. 



NoN-BiLLicAL Sites. 

A rath is mentioned in the ' Onomasticon ' as west of Jerusalem — 
possibly the present Khurbet Haras h, near K u 1 6 n i e h. 

Ceperaria. — A place shown in the Peutinger Tables (393 a.d.), 
12 Roman miles from Eleutheropolis, 24 from Jerusalem. The distances 
point to the large ruin of K e f r U r i e h. 

S i o r, between Jerusalem and Eleutheropolis ('Onomasticon'), would 
seem to be the present ruin of S a i r e h, beside one of the Roman roads. 

St. Cyprian is mentioned as early as 1422 by John Poloner, south 
of Jerusalem. The name H a u d K i b r i y a n (' Cyprian's Trough ') 
perhaps indicates the neighbourhood of this monastery, which may have 
stood at the ruin of K e b a r, on the hill above. 

St. Elias (the present Mar Elia.s) is mentioned as early as 11 87 a.d. 
(' Citez de Jherusalem'). The modern traditions connected with the place, 
as well as that of the field of pease immediately south, also date back to 
the Middle Ages. (See Section C.) 

Tomb of Rachel. — This site has been shown from the fourth 
century to the present time in the same place. In 700 a.d. it is men- 
tioned as surmounted by a pyramid. In i too a.d. the same description 
is given. In 1422 a Moslem building is noticed as standing over the 



[SHEET Xl'IL] NON-BIBLICAL SITES. 55 

place. The surrounding; ground is called Cabra by Origcn (see Reland's 
' Palestine,' p. 704), and the same title (founded on a mistranslation) often 
occurs in later writings — as, for instance, in iioo a.d., when John of 
Wirtzburg calls the place Chabratha. (See Section B.) 

Tower of Eder Is said by Jerome to have been a mile from 
Bethlehem (' Onomasticon,' s. v. Bethlehem), probably near the ruined 
monastery of Sir el Ghanem, the two titles having a similar mean- 
ing — ' Tower of the Flock' and ' Fold of the Flock.' 

Roads. — There are nine main lines of communication on this Sheet, 
eight of which are ancient : 

I. The Watershed Road. — Coming from Bethel, the road 
descends gradually after passing Bireh, following an open valley for 
4 miles. It then ascends again some 200 feet per mile to the plateau near 
Shafat. A Roman milestone fallen beside the road (as marked on the 
map) is inscribed as below : 

IbAOTIBT 
IMPANTONINI 
IMPHADRIANI 
IMPTRAIANPARTHOR 

IMPNERYAE 

The list being that of the names of the Antonine Emperors. 

The road descends from the plateau towards Jerusalem, entering by 
the north gate. 

Leaving the capital by the west gate, and crossing the valley, the road 
ascends somewhat steeply to the B u k e i a plateau, and follows the shed, 
with only one large bend to avoid the head ofWady ed Dashish. 

Leaving Bethlehem on the east, the road runs south-west to the low 
ground round the Burak. It then ascends sharply through a narrow 
pass, having the ridge of Ras esh Sherifeh on the west, and the 
gorge of Wad y el Biar on the east. Its further course is noticed on 
Sheet XXI. The pass is described by Josephus (Ant. xii. 9, 4). 

2. Jerusalem to Jaffa. — The main road at present in use 
ascends gradually to Kubab. It then descends into a shallow valley, 



S6 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

and crosses the bed by a modern bridge. The course is flat from this 
point for if miles to the foot of the hill of L a t r 6 n. The ascent is here 
made between low side-banks of rock, and the road again falls gradually- 
east of the ruins, and follows the course of Wady 'Aly for 2\ miles to 
the Bab el Wad, where it enters a narrow pass between high hills. 
It then ascends the valley, having a rise of 1,400 feet in 3-2- miles. Here, 
from a point just east of Saris, the last view is obtained of the plain 
through a gap. The course is tolerably flat for i^ miles to K u r y e t el 
'Enab, whence there is a descent of about 380 feet in a mile to the 
spring of 'A i n D i 1 b e h. The road then rises again 250 feet to the 
ridge just beneath Kustul, and again descends 630 feet in a mile to 
the bridge over the valley at K u 1 6 n i e h. The road then ascends again 
by a steep and winding course to the plateau west of Jerusalem, reaching an 
elevation of 2,685 feet above the sea, or 850 feet above the K li 1 6 n i e h 
bridge, at a point 2\ miles from it. Here the view over the great valley 
just passed, as far as Kustul on the west, is fine. The road descends 
180 feet in the last i\ miles to the Jaffa Gate. 

This line was once carefully made, but the drainage being imperfect, 
it was destroyed by the winter rains, and is now often impassable by 
wheeled vehicles. 

The road does not appear to have been an ancient main line, but an 
old Roman road from Y a 1 o runs south nearly to B a b el Wad, then, 
turning east, ascends 1,400 feet in 4 miles, and joins the modern road 
west of Kiiryet el 'Enab. A milestone lies beside the path on the 
ascent. The road descends the hill at Kiiryet el 'Enab, and then 
again diverges from the modern main line, running north-east to B i d d u, 
with an ascent of some 500 feet. It joins No. 3. 

3. Jerusalem to Lydd a. — This road descends past the so-called 
' Tombs of the Judges,' and crosses Wady Beit H a n i n a, climbing up 
again by a steep ascent to Beit I k s a. It then runs along a ridge for 
about 6 miles in a north-east direction, with a fall of 900 feet. East of 
K u b e i b e h an ancient milestone lies fallen by the side of the way. The 
course gradually changes to due west near K h u r b e t el J e d e i r, and the 
road descends 900 feet in 2 miles, crossing Wady S e 1 m a n, and 
entering the district of the low undulating hills, across which it runs north- 
west, with a total fall of 300 feet in about 5 miles. 



[SHEET XVII.] ROADS. 57 

A cross communication with No. 4 branches off from No. 3, and runs 
up the course of Wady Selman, rising 1,440 feet in about 8 miles 
along the line, and reaching the open plain of c 1 Jib, the steepest gradient 
being some 200 feet in the last quarter of a mile. 

4. Jerusalem to Lydda (Northern Route). — This road leaves 
No. I half a mile north of T e 1 1 el F u 1, and runs north-west, descend- 
ing in f mile 150 feet, and crossing Wady ed Dumm. It then rises 
again 200 feet in a mile, and crossing the swell, descends 150 
feet to cross the second open valley. Leaving el Jib to the left, it rises 
200 feet in the next 2 miles, and then follows a ridge to Beit 'Or el 
F 6 k a, the ridge falling 500 feet in less than 4 miles. The road now 
descends sharply, and shows evident signs of antiquity. In half a mile the 
fall is 500 feet. The course runs westwards, gradually descending 150 
feet in the next 4 miles. The rest of the course (Sheets XIII., XIV.) 
has a gradual descent to the plain, joining No. 3 west of J i m z u. At 
Beit'Ur etTahta another ancient line runs from No. 4 west to Beit 
S i r a, and then, turning due south, follows Wady el M i k t e 1 y, de- 
scending gradually, and running across the low hills to Beit Nuba and 
Y a 1 o, with a branch over the open plain to A m w a s. 

5. Bethel to Jerich o. — The old line running down from B e i t i n 
follows the ridge south-east of that place, gradually descending to the 
open plateau of D e i r D i w a n, passing on the south slope of the 
great mound of e t Tell. From D e i r D i w d n the old line ran to 
M li k h m a s, falling gradually 600 feet in 2 J miles ; thence it runs east 
to the ridge of Ras et Tawil. (See further, Sheet XVIII.) 

6. Jerusalem to Jerich o. — There are two lines which both join 
in the open valley west of T a 1 'd t ed Dumm (Sheet XVIII.). The 
one to the north ascends the Mount of Olives, rising 350 feet in about 
■^ mile. Thence it runs north-east for about 4 miles, with a gradual 
descent along the 'side of the ridge, and then descends into the valley, 
running east to join the second line. 

The southern line passes south of the summit of Olivet, ascending only 
100 feet, and running round the contour of the hill to Bethany. East of 
that village a sharp descent of 500 feet leads down into the valley at 

VOL. III. 8 



58 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

'A i n H a u d. The line then runs north-east, descending gradually along 
the valley, falling 500 feet in 2\ miles. 

7. Jerusalem to Mar Sab a. — The road runs down W a d y en 
N a r, and crossing a low saddle, avoids the great bend of that valley, and 
runs south-east, descending 850 feet in about 5 miles ; numerous ancient 
wells occur along the course, and this road seems to be that which led to 
Zuk. (See Roman road, Sheet XVIII.) 

8. Jerusalem to Enged i. — An ancient line leaves No. i 
on the plain south of Jerusalem, and runs along a ridge south- 
east for 5 miles in a line, reaching the high hill of Umm et Tala, 
east of Bethlehem, where an old cross-road from Bethlehem to Mar 
Saba passes across it. It then has a descent of about 800 feet in 
half a mile to the K a b r G h a n n a m, from which point the fall is more 
gradual. 

9. Jerusalem to Jamnia. — The mainline leaves No. i at the 
B u r a k, and runs north-west to el K h li d r ; by a gradual ascent it 
reaches the saddle north of the sfreat ridge of Ras esh Sherifeh, 
and there are here numerous Mesha-hed, or piles of stones erected 
by pilgrims. Thence, with a gradual descent, the road runs west along 
the ridge to H u b i n. About a mile east of that ruin a milestone lies 
beside it. It here bifurcates, the southern branch having a milestone 
2 Roman miles from the last mentioned, and descending due west into 
the open valley below Beit Nettif, where the main line from Hebron 
(Sheet XXL, No. 5) down Wady es Sunt joins it. An old line 
runs due north from the hill of Beit Nettif, along the ridge, to join 
the northern branch about to be described. The line along Wady e s 
Sunt, westwards, is probably also a main ancient line of communication. 

The northern branch from H u b i n runs along the ridge to Beit 
'A t a b, and then descends sharply, having a fall of 800 feet in 2\ miles. 
It reaches the broad open valley of Wady es Surar, which it 
follows (Sheet XVI.). 

There arc traces of the pavement and side walls along the greater 
part of the length of this ancient line, which forms the easiest ascent to 
Jerusalem from the plain. 



SHEET XVII.— SECTION B. 



ARCHEOLOGY. 



Abu el 'A i n e i n (L s). — A modern ruined Kubbeh with a fir- 
tree. To the east are traces of ruins. 

'A i n H a u d (K u). — The spring has a building over It with a trough, 
which appears modern. Near it is a ruined Khan, apparently not very old. 

'A i n Hanniyeh (L t). — A modern tradiiion makes this the 
fountain where Philip baptized the eunuch. The spring flows out in the 
wall of a little platform, with a kind of apse facing southwards. The floor 
of the platform is 8 feet above the level of the road. The apse is 7^ feet 
diameter, and 5 feet to the back. It is flanked by two pilasters, i foot 
2 inches wide, having Corinthian capitals. The apse has a niche in it at 
the back, 2 feet 9 inches above the floor. The niche is 3 feet high, i foot 
6 inches wide, i foot 3 inches deep. The total height of the apse is 
9 feet 6 inches above the floor to the tops of the pillar capitals. The 
wall in which the apse is formed has a length of about 20 feet, and faces 
north. The water of the spring is now caught in a stone trough. A fig- 
tree grows over the wall. The niche was probably intended for a figure 
of the genius of the spring. 

In the road just in front of this structure — which seems, in part at least, 
to be a reconstruction, since the base of a pillar is built into the floor of 
the platform — is a great cylindrical stone 4 feet 3 inches high, and 4 feet 
in diameter. It has a hole in one end 10 inches deep, i foot 2 inches in 
diameter ; and in the side two grooves 2 feet 9 inches long, 5 inches deep, 
and widening from 6 inches at the end to 12 inches near the middle of the 
stone. The use of this stone is not clear. 

This interesting place was photographed by Captain Warren (No. 343 of the Society's 
Series). The building is considered by Sepp and Guerin to be earlier than the Crusading 

8—2 



6o THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

period. The tradition cannot be traced farther back, but it has been accepted by the Greeks 
and Armenians. 

'A in Maktush (L t). — The spring comes out of a building some 
lo feet high and lO yards long, of large unhewn blocks. This wall has 
a very ancient appearance. The water is cool and abundant ; a large 
terebinth grows in front. (3rd June, 1875.) 

'A i n S h e m s (J t). — Heaps of stones and ruined walls of modern 
appearance, the remains of a former village on a low Tell. There is no 
spring at the place, but in the valleys to the south there are several ; 
to the east are olives ; in the ruins is a Mukam of Neby Meizer. There 
is a low swell west of the village site, on which are ruins apparently more 
ancient — foundations and walls of good masonry. On the north are 
rock-cut tombs, half buried. A large 'Ozbeh, or summer settlement of 
drystone huts, with roofs of boughs, was found here in 1881, inhabited 
during harvest time. 

'A in el Wahash (L u). — By this spring is a single rock-cut 
tomb just above the road ; a chamber about 7 feet wide, with a stone 
bench running round the back and side walls on the interior, but without 
any loculi. (iSth October, 1873.) 

'A i n K a r i m (L t). — South of the modern village near the wall of 
the convent of the Sisters of Sion are three rock-cut tombs. 

No. I, furthest east, contains two kokim at the back, and one each 
side of a square chamber. 

No. 2 is choked. 

No. 3 has a square ante-chamber, and an Inner chamber i^ feet lower, 
with a bench round three sides and a koka at the back. 

On the southern hill west of the spring ('Ain Sitti Miriam), and close 
to the new Russian hospice, ruins were discovered by the Latins, in 1861, 
in building the new Chapel of the Summer-House of Zacharias. The 
grounds were excavated to a depth of 15 to 20 feet, and the lower story 
of the old church (mentioned by John Poloner (1422) as having a sub- 
terranean and an upper chapel) was found. 

All that can now be seen is the recent reconstruction, except a small 
cave, or vault, south of the altar, which is at the east end. A piece of 
stone is here shown which melted like wax, and hid John the Baptist, as 
an infant, from Herod's soldiers. Outside this chapel on the south are 



{SHEET XVII.] ARCHEOLOGY. 6i 

arches and vaults in ruins, remains of a former monastery. The masonry 
is of good size and finish, some stones drafted. A courtyard is entered 
from the west, and a stone rib, with low point, rises from a massive pier ; 
these are remains of a vault of which the rag-work has disappeared. 
There is diagonal dressincr on the stones, but no masons' marks occur. 
A narrow staircase leads up from the cloister north of the court to a 
chapel above that before noticed. Only the foundations of its walls 
remain ; the apse and part of a stone altar are traceable ; the interior was 
once covered with plaster and painted in fresco. There are many graffiti 
on the plaster, and on one stone a rude cutting representing the high- 
priest's breastplate — no doubt due to the tradition which erroneously 
supposes Zacharias to have been a high-priest. On the south side of the 
apse is the piscina. South of this chapel are remains of cells and steps, 
the rock being scarped. These ruins are partly hid by the soil of an 
orchard, which once covered the entire site, and in which the chapels and 
other buildings were found buried. 

'Ain Karim was given to the Franciscans through the influence of 
the Marquis de Nointal, Ambassador of Louis XIV. to the Sultan of 
Turkey. The church and monastery probably date back only to this 
time, as the absence of masons' marks seems to indicate that the masonry 
is not of the twelfth century, nor does the finish of the work resemble 
that of Crusading buildings. There are two good springs within the 
limits of the property. 

The Church of the Baptist, in the village itself, is of Crusading origin ; 
but the interior has been covered with encaustic tiles, and none of the 
older work is recognisable. The dome rises from four heavy piers ; the 
grotto north of the high altar (at the east end of the church), is reached 
by seven steps ; it is said to be the birthplace of St. John. 

A bad copy of a Murillo is hung on the north side of the church, and 
much prized by the monks, who are chiefly Spaniards. 

Revisited 20th July, 18S1. 

'Ain Y a 1 o (!\I u).— A small monastery seems once to have existed 
here. On the north side of the hill, south of the spring, are three tombs 
one having three loculi, the second, five kokiin, and the third, two kokiiii. 

Guerin found the name of Deir el Roum (' Convent of Christians') attached to this place. 
He speaks of a rectangular building 15 feet long by 13 feet broad, the lower courses of which 



62 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

were, on the occasion of his visit, still m silii. Eeside the spring he saw three shafts lying on 
the ground. 

'Alaly el Bena t — This group of caves in Wady Siirar probably 
represents an old hermitage. There is a broad ledge, with a precipice 
above, containing one row of caves, while others occur beneath. 

The eastern group of upper caves includes No. i, a rude cave 28 feet 
to the back, 12 feet broad. 

Nos. 2 and 3, just west of it, are pigeon-holes in the rock, the latter 
being 9 feet long, 3 feet wide, 4 feet high, perhaps a sleeping-place. 

No. 4 is a large excavation — a sort of open court with a cave at 
ground-level at each end, and two good-sized cisterns, while 10 or 
12 feet higher a gallery is hollowed in the face of the cliff looking 
south-east ; steps are seen leading thence to a cave on the left, and 
there is another cave on the right, and higher up on the left another 
inaccessible cave in the cliff, with a small out-look excavated in the face 
of the precipice. 

Near this group are three other inaccessible caves in the cliff. 

The western group of caves on the same level is some 130 yards distant. 

No. I is a cave 12 feet square. 

No. 2 a large group rather higher, with a steep ascent of about 10 feet 
in the face of the rock. The cave is open in front, 66 feet long by 
about 50 to the back. On the right a rude chamber 18 feet by 16 feet, 
with a sort of window in the precipice ; at the back on the right is a 
chamber 22 feet wide, 40 feet to the back ; and to the right another 
excavation 40 feet wide, 7 feet to the back. 

In the precipice below these caves are some half dozen small caves, 
like Nos. 2 and 3 of the west group above noted. There are thus about 
20 caves in all. 

Visited i8th July, 1881. 

'Allar es Siflt;h (K u). — Apparently an ancient site with rock- 
cut tombs. K h li r b e t N 11 h forms part of the site with its two springs 
and gardens of orange trees. There is a ruined building here, which 
appears to have been an ancient church. The building has a bearing 
107" east along its length, with a window to the east and two to the 
north. On the south was the door. The measurements outside were 
88 feet east and west by 46 feet north and south. The walls arc 10 feet 



[SHEET Xril.'] 



ARCHEOLOGY. 



63 



thick, and standing in parts 20 feet high. A cornice runs round the 
interior ; two brackets remain on the north wall between the windows, 
which probably once supported the arches of the roof. The windows are 
very narrow, with round arches above. The masonry is of small stones, 
rudely squared, but the faces not dressed smooth. The mortar is hard 
and mixed with charcoal. The core of the walls is of rubble. The 
interior of the church is cemented. All these details point to the building 
being of 1 2th century date. (Compare K h li r b e t I k b a 1 a.) 

Among the ruins are vaults cemented inside, with small masonry and 
pointed arches. One corner of a building had drafted stones, the face 
rustic, and projecting 2^ inches, the draft 4 inches wide. Near this is an 
old ruined tank. The ruins are probably to be attributed to Crusading 
times. 

Visited October 22, 1873. 

'Am was (J s). — The village has rock-tombs near it, some of which 
are of the kind known as ' rock-sunk,' apparently of Christian origin. 
To the south is the ruined church. (See Palestine Exploration Fund 
Photo No. 158.) The three eastern 
apses are still traceable ; the masonry, 
standing for two or three courses 
above the surface, is of moderate 
size, one stone 10 feet long, 2 feet 
high, 3 feet thick. Some of the 
stones are drafted, the draft 2j to 4 
inches broad ; the core of the walls 
is of rubble. The north wall of the 
church is 90 feet long, outside the 
west wall 84 feet long. The cen- 
tral apse is 2>2) f^^t diameter, the 
side apses 1 2 feet. The church had 
a west door, and an east window 
in the nave apse. The style of the 
whole building is Byzantine. 

Excavations have recently been conducted at 'Amwas by Captain 
Guillemot, of the French corps of Engineers, and a full account is to be 
published by this officer. The foundations of the church have been partly 




' ?. 4 9 'p 



Scale of Peel 

^1 3P ip Sfi ef 



21 'S 



64 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

excavated; and the account is jiublished in ' Les Missions Cathollques,' 
No. 665, 3rd March, 1882. It was found that a more recent building had 
been constructed on the ruins of the old Byzantine church, apparently in 
the twelfth century. The church as then restored measured 95 feet along 
the north wall, and 55 feet along the west wall externally, and appears to 
have consisted of five bays, indicated by the foundations of external 



Scale 




buttresses. It had a west door and two side doors, one north and the 
other south, in the eastern bay. The wall, not including the buttress, is 
4 feet thick. 

In the south apse a tomb was found, about a yard beneath the present 
surface : it appears to be a Moslem grave of a Derwish. Several rock- 
cut tombs exist close by, and a great number of small glass bottles, about 
6 inches long, like the tear bottles usually found in tombs ; about 20 were 
preserved unbroken. A limekiln was also found close by. Pottery, 
mosaic, bases and capitals of pillars, were discovered in digging round the 
church walls. One of these capitals, which probably belonged to the 
Byzantine church, was found just outside the east end of the north wall of 
the Crusading church. It is a rude Ionic capital, like those used in the 
fifth century ; between the volutes is a Hebrew inscription on a tablet on 
one side, and between the volutes on the other side a Greek inscription. 
The Hebrew characters are : 

dSiI''? IOC "1113 

which is read : 

' Blessed be His name for ever.' 

The Greek reads : 

EIC GEOC. 

'One God.' 

This ejaculation is not uncommon in Byzantine Greek inscriptions, and is 
found on a tomb at Bel a, dating probably from the fourth century. 



[SHEET XV [I.] 



ARCILEOLOGY. 



65 



(See Sheet XL, Section B, Vol. II.) The formula also occurs in an 
inscription in Greek which has recently been found on a tomb at Arsuf, 
and has been transported to Jaffa. The Hebrew inscription is probably 
a copy from an older original. 





The capital is marked S on the under side, probably for Sex, showing 
the position which it was intended to occupy in the church. 

The Crusaders destroyed the side walls of the older church, and re-used 
the masonry ; they appear to have built a smaller apse within the old north 
apse. (Compare the restoration of the church at Beit Jibrin, Sheet XX.) 

In the Crusading walls several masons' marks were noted. 



^n N 



The mediceval masonry is in courses about 2 feet 3 inches high, with 
stones 6 feet to 13 feet long, having the diagonal dressing. 

The Byzantine masonry of the apses is dressed with a point ; the 
stones are of equal size with the Crusading work. 

The roof of the south apse is in situ. It is a flat half dome, with large 
stones built round a central key. The sill of an east window, 5 feet 
broad, remains in the centre apse ; the voussoirs of the dome of the north 
apse lie on the floor. The foundations of a parallel wall, north of the 
north apse, have also been laid bare, perhaps indicating a courtyard round 
the church, 19 feet from the north wall. 

The stones are for the most part rough and small, the base course, 
however, is of stones, 3 feet high and 4^ feet long. A fragment of a 
window cornice, with holes for three bars, was found near. 

East of the church human bones were dug out in great quantities, 
and a cross, with a hole in it, intended to be worn round the neck, was 
VOL. III. 9 



66 THE SUR VE V OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

found. Probably a cemetery existed here in Christian times. A rough 
bench-tomb or cave, 3 paces square, with a bench, 2^ feet wide, round 
three sides, occurs south of the church, and there are remains of a pave- 
ment of stones, 3I by 2f square and i foot 4 inches thick. A well-cut 
white marble shaft, 20 inches in diameter, and 3.V feet long, was found 
near. The pavement outside the church is 2\ feet lower than the floor 
inside, and the buttresses stand on a plinth, or basement. A single step 
occurs at the north and west doors. 

In the village itself excavations have also been conducted, and many 
foundations of fairly good masonry are found a foot or two below the 
surface. Some rude Ionic capitals have also been found, and two or three 
rough shafts, also a stone, 8 feet long, 3 feet 3 inches high, and 9 inches 
thick, having a simple beading on the two longer sides, 9 inches in all, 
with a total projection of |- of an inch. 
Visited 20th April, 1882. 

' Another interview with the fellah Ibraham Almud gave me new traditions on the ancient 
Nicopolis which are not without their value. It is always the famous pestilence of which I 
have already spoken in my previous reports which fills the principal part in these vague 
souvenirs of the past. 

' On the first appearance of the pestilence at Emmaus, the inhabitants, who were all Jews, 
mostly fled. Nearly all who remained died. The scourge passed, the fugitives came back 
to the town. But the following year the epidemic appeared again, and the people all perished 
without having the time to escape by flight. At this moment arrived Neby Ozeir (Esdras), 
who found all dead — men, women, and children. The prophet having asked of God why he 
had so rudely chastised the country, supplicated the Almighty to resuscitate the victims. 
It was done, and since that time the Jews have been named oulad el m'ltee (the children of the 
putlitig to deatli). 

' It is to this epidemic that the city of 'Amwas owes its name, according to our fellahin. 
They say, in fact, of the pestilence, amm-ou-asa {it was extended ge>ierally, and was an afflic- 
tion). (I have not been able to determine precisely the meaning of the second verb, which I 
omitted in my notes.) Of course, I put no faith in the truth of this etymology, which is 
evidently artificial, like many of the same kind met with in the Bible as well as in the mouths 
of the people, and on which I have many times in these reports found occasion to insist. 

' It will be curious to give, side by side with this rustic etymology, a philologic explanation 
of the same kind given us by St. Jerome precisely apropos of Emmaus. The learned Fulton 
translates the word Emmaus as populiis abjectus, alias abjicientes, which proves that he 
decomposed Emmaus into Atn, people, and Mans, refuse. St. Jerome appears to allude to 
various Biblical passages where this word is ajiplied by Christian exegesis to the Jewish 
people, and to have had notably present in his mind the verse of Lamentations iii., " Thou 
hast made us as the offscouring and refuse in the midst of the people." 

' It is clear from this etymology, more ingenious than probable, but to which we ought to 
have paid a little attention, that in the time of St. Jerome the Semitic name of Nicopolis was 



[SHEET XV/I.] ARCHEOLOGY. 67 

pronounced 'Emmaus, 'Ammaus, with the aiit, and that consequently the Arabic form is 
much nearer the original than the Talmudic Amaous with the aleph. 

' This interpretation of St. Jerome is, besides, an additional proof that, for him, the 
Emmaus of the Gospels was Nicopolis, and consequently the 'Amwas of our time ; it also 
shows that the word " Emmaus " was nothing at all to do with Hamath, which is written 
with a /.-/iff, and which some authors want to identify with it.' — C. Clermont Ganneau, 
'Quarterly Statement,' 1S74, p. 162. 

'Amoas est h. mi-chemin de Jerusalem a Jaffa. J'ai fait souvent, h, cheval, sans me 
presser, le trajet de Je'rusalem h Amoas en quatre heures et de ce lieu h. Jaffa dans le meme 
espace de temps. Si on tirait une ligne droite de Jerusalem a Jaffa, elle passerait assez pres 
d' Amoas. 

' L'eglise d' Amoas n'est pas orientee ; la fa(;ade regarde le Nord-quart-Ouest, par conse- 
quent les absides sont tournees vers le Sud-quart-Est. 







TOMBEAU D UN S.\NTON A AMOAS. 

' Avant les fouilles, celte construction ^tait tellement ensevelie qu'il ^tait impossible d'en 
bien saisir le plan : Quelques belles assises de I'abside centrale et une partie de voute appa- 
reillee de I'abside laterale gauche (cote de I'^pitre) ^talent seules visibles. 

' C'est vers cette derniere partie que les fouilles furent commencees. 

'A la profondeur d'un metre environ, I'abside etait entourfe de tombes Musulmanes d'un 
aspect ancien et, dans I'axe de cette meme abside, se trouvait une niche visiblement creusce 
aprh coup. C'est en ce lieu que j'ai trouve le tombeau d'un Santon, bien reconnaissable au 
/ff;-i^(?«r//6'-derviche traditionnel. 

' Tous ces d(^tails m'ont fait penser que ce cote de l'eglise avait ete transforme en 
mosquee. 

' Je passe rapidement sur la decouverte de plusieurs tombeau.x Juifs creuses dans le roc, 
pour m'arreter un instant pres d'une construction bizarre, faite k la hate, avec des pierres de 
dimension et d'origine differentes et contenant, parmi un amas d'ossements humains, plus de 
cent ampoules dont une vingtaine ont ete' retirees encore entieres. 

' Je n'ai trouve la trace de I'outil des croisds sur aucune de ces pierres; elles me parurent 
d'ailleurs d'une ^poque anterieure. Ce n'etait certainement ni Juif, ni Musulman, et il n'y 
avait pourtant pas une seule croix. 

9—2 



68 



THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 



' A quelques pas de ce curieux ossuaire, un ancieii four m'a revele comment ont disparu 
les beaux marbres blancs, provenant des statues et des monuments anciens : tout autour de 
ce four gisaient de nombreux debris taillfe et sculpt^s, dont plusieurs dtaient a moiti^ calcines : 
on les employait ^ faire de la chaux. 

' Les fouilles continuaient ainsi tout autour de I'l^glise, qui se de'gageait lentement de son 
linceul de terre et de debris. 

' De nombreux fragments de base, de chapiteaux, dc colonnes et d'entablements, des 
poteries antiques, des cubes de mosaiques de toutes couleurs, enfin tout ce qu'on trouve, en 
Palestine surtout, dans les anciens monuments, mais jusque Ik, pas une seule inscription. 

' Nous fumes plus heureux vers I'abside laterale droite (cote de I'^vangile), ou des signes 
indicateurs nous firent redoubler d'attention. 




INSCRIPTION HEEREO-S.\JIARITAINE, TROUVEE A AMOAS. 



' C'est Ik que fut trouve le curieux chapiteau ionique portant les deux inscriptions dejk 
publides par Monsieur I'Abb^ Barges, k qui j'en avais fait parvenir un dessin et un estampage, 
par les soins de Monsieur le Camus. 

' Monsieur Clermont-Ganneau en avait dgalement regu un dessin, et, bien que les carac- 
teres fussent tres imparfaits, il les dechiffra sans ht^sitation. 

' La plus remarquable de ces inscriptions est Hebr^o-Samaritaine, elle occupe deux lignes 
sur une tablette divisde, dans sa longueur, par une rainure. Cette tablette fixfe avec inten- 
tion, entre les deux volutes, par deux queues d'arondes simul^es, prouve que I'inscription dtait 
pr^vue dans I'arrangement du chapiteau. 

' Pour faciliter la traduction, je place les caractbres Samaritains sur une seule ligne, avec 
les caracteres Latins correspondants au-dessous, mais h rebours ; les ^critures S^mitiques se 
lisant de droite k gauche. 



t I I I I 



[SHEET XVn.\ ARCHAEOLOGY. 69 

' En retournant les lettres Romaines dans leur sens, dc gauche a droite, on a BRWK 
CHMW LHWLM. Chaque lettre S^mitique non suivie d'un alef, d'un ia ou d'un van, ayant 
la force d'une consonne jointe h. une voyelle muctte, on doit lire ainsi : 

'BaROUK CHeMO LHeOLaM. 

' qu^il soil bhii son nom cl jamais 

'On remarquera que, sur la tablette, h la fin de la premiere ligne, la place manquant pour 
finir le mot CHMO, on a dii reporter la lettre finale ^ la deuxieme ligne et placer un point 
immt^diatement aprfes cette lettre, pour I'isoler du mot suivant. 

' Trois lettres Samaritaines ne correspondent pas entierement ^i celles de I'alphabet 
Romain : 

' 1°. Le vau qui se prononce OV oX 0, je I'ai traduit par le double F IF. 

' 2". Le chin qui a la valeur du CH. 




'EI2 0EO2 UN SEUL DIEU. 

' Voici le sens complet de I'inscription Hebrdo-Samaritaine : 

' Un seal Dieu, que son nom soil ban a jamais ! 

' 3°. Le hain, que les Arabes prononcent fortement du gosier ; ce dernier n'ayant aucun 
caractere correspondant, je I'ai representi^ par H. 

' Maintenant, .\ qui attribuer le desir exprime ? car dvidemment la phrase n'est pas com- 
plete : qui son nom soil bhii d, jamais ! 

' Nous allons trouver ce complement en retournant le chapiteau qui possede une autre 
inscription sur sa face opposde. 

' La surprise est extreme pour un archeologue : h. la place de la tablette, nous avons ici, 
entre les volutes, une sorte de coquille sur le pourtour de laquelle on lit une inscription Grecque 
du bas Empire. 

' Nous sommes done en presence d'une sentence exprimant une seule pensee, a I'aide de 
deux differentes langues, avec les caracteres propres de chacune d'elles. 

' L'inscription est de basse epoque ; cela est certain. ]\L Clermont-Ganneau possede les 
preuves de I'emploi de cette forme, du III""' au VI°" siecle. 



■JO THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

' Sans cette preuve archeologique incontestable, j'avoue que je serais fort embarrass^ pour 
la date du chapiteau : son dessin original d^passe tout ce qu'il y a de plus ose, dans les 
sp&imens de ce genre. Mais dans ces contrees, oii tant de grands peuples ont impose leur 
mode d'architecture, sans cependant pouvoir exclure completement I'influence locale de 
certains details, il n'est pas possible detablir une date absolue sur un simple fragment. 

'En ce qui concerne ma spdcialitd, depuis dix ans que je creuse le sol en Palestine, j"ai 
acquis la conviction que la decadence de I'art y a precede I'occupation Romaine. Dans les 
plus anciennes ruines, je n'ai trouve, jusqu'a ce jour, qu'un seul chapiteau corinthien i peu 
prfes pur ; mais j'ai rencontr^ des chapiteaux composites anciens, d'une libcrtc de dessin et 
de proportion que les sculpteurs Romains n'ont pas depasse. 

' Que penseraient les archeologues d'Europe de I'emploi de I'ogive dans un pont Romain ? 
et cependant cela est. Sa patine et la forme de I'appareil Romain ont un caractere trop 
accentue, pour qu'on puisse admettre la possibility' d'un raccord invisible. 

' Par opposition, on trouve des diStails de sculpture et d'architecture, du ix.™' au xii™ siecle, 
d'une facture ^trang^re k leur epoque. 

' L'importance archeologique de la decouverte d'Amoas est surtout dans la date, presque 
certaine, que Finscription Grecque donne \ la Samaritaine. 

' Qui aurait pu croire k I'emploi des caracteres Machabeens sous la domination Romaine, 
et cela simultanement avec la langue Grecque ? II devait ccrtainement y avoir la une inten- 
tion sp&iale. 

' Le chapiteau d'Amoas est en marbre gris-clair ; le ciseau qui I'a taille n'etait pas tres 
habile et, malgre sa forme basse et allongde et ses deux volutes, il est d'une parente assez 
cloignee du chapiteau classique de I'ordre. 

' Sous le lit de jonction avec le fut il porte, comme signe d'appareil, la lettrc S, laquelle, 
L-n chiffre, e'quivaut au nombre VI. 

' On peut supposer, de Ik, que ce couronnement peut etre le sixieme de sa colonnade. 
' Mais il se pourrait aussi, d'apres la tradition de I'appareil monumental, que I'ensemble 
de I'ordre ait ete numerote ainsi : La base n° i ; le fut n° 2 ; le chapiteau n" 3. — Pour la 
deuxifeme colonne — La base n° 4 ; le fut n° 5 et le chapiteau n° 6. 

' Les deux hypotheses pourraient admettre un monument commdmoratif, dont les 
chapiteaux, ornes de pieuses sentences, auraient supporte un entablement, avec I'inscription 
principale dans la frise. 

' Peut-etre encore n'est-ce qu'un simple abaque isol^ reposant sur une courte colonne et 
devant scrvir h. quelque pieuse ceremonie. 

' Cela expliquerait parfaitement I'inscription. 

' Mais toutes ces suppositions sont vaines ; il faut attendre la fin des fouilles, pour savoir 
s'il existe d'autres documents arche'ologiques relativement h, la mystcrieuse pierre d'Amoas. 

' Puisque j'ai dit mystcrieuse, je dois n&essairenient presenter les raisons qui me portent 
\ penser ainsi. Pour cela, il est indispensable de faire une rapide description des anciennes 
constructions. 

' L'^glise Romaine, bien reconnaissable h, son superbe appareil, dont les blocs mesurent 
trois metres en longueur, 8.90 en hauteur et 0.60 en largeur, n'a conscrv(§ que ses trois 
absides. Toutes trois ont une forme circulaire k I'interieurj mais, h, I'exte'rieur, les absides 
late-rales sont carr<-es et I'abside centrale mi-octogone. 

' L'enscmblc du monument couvtc un cspace de vingt et un mhres de large et trente-sept 
de long, c'est-c\-dire sept cent soi.xante-di.\-scpt metres de surface. 



[SHEET XFJI.] 



ARCHEOLOGY. 



7' 



' Les Croises, en reprenant cette construction, n'en ont pas suivi le plan primitif ; ils n'ont 
utilisd que I'abside centrale, en lui accolant una nef unique, divisee en quatre trave'es, avec 
contreforts extdrieurs, aux points de la poussi5e des voutes. Cette nef se termine par un 
porche, qui abrite la porte principale. 

' Les murs latcraux de I'dglise Romaine ont ^t^ ds^niolis, pour servir aux basses oeuvres des 
Croises. Mais les deux absides latt5rales ont i\.i conserv^es, soit pour servir de contreforts 
c\ I'abside centrale, soit par respect pour un pieux souvenir. 




ABSIDE SOUTERRAINE DECOUVERTE A AMOAS. 






' L'ceuvre des croises, reliee a la construction Romaine, se reconnait facilement aux stries 
diagonales laissees sur les pierres par I'outil de I'ouvrier. Cette importante de'couverte de la 
manifere des Crois& appartient h, M. Clermont Ganneau. 

' D'apres cet aper^u, on comprend que les constructeurs, ayant abandonnd les absides 
latt^rales, n'ont pas cherch^ ce qu'elles pouvaient contenir en sous-sol. C'est precisement 
prfes d'une de ces absides, celle du cote de I'evangile, que le chapiteau a ete decouvert. 

' Ce qui rend inexplicable la jonction des deux eglises, c'est la naissance d'une seconde 
abside, qui, si elle avait ete continuee, se serait enclavee dans I'abside Romaine et I'aurait 
masqude. Cette intention, qui n'a pas meme i\.€ essay& du cote de I'epitre, parait avoir 
trouve des obstacles des son origine. 



72 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

' Cette pr.rtie de I'edifice avait ete la plus maltraitee, plus encore par la main brutale dcs 
d(^molisseurs que par le temps. 

' L'abside avail ete fermee avec soin par un mur d'u^ aspect presque aussi ancien que le 
travail des croisds, mais d'un appareil de moindre dimension. 

' A deux metres du sol, une base Attique, en marbre rose fonce, etait encastre'e dans ce 
mur, moitie prise dans la construction et moitie en saillie. Une rainure, pratique'e sur les 
flancs de cette base, attestait sa destination \ ce scellement. 

' En Palestine, un grand nombre de pieux souvenirs n'ont pas d'autre indication : un 
fragment de colonne, une base ou un chapiteau enchasse dans un mur. C'est sous ce signe, 
dans I'axe de l'abside, que reposait la pierre ^ double inscription. 

' A, jonction de I'e'glise des croisds. B, appareil Remain. C, mur fermant l'abside. D, base 
enclav&. E, chapiteau avec inscription. 

' Pensant que ce fond de nef laterale ferme' avec tant de soin par un mur portant un 
signal, pouvait receler quelques bonnes indications, j'en pris un croquis cotd et, apres avoir 
fait constater, par temoins, la disposition de I'ensemble, je fis enlever le tout. Je n'y ai 
trouv^ que de la terre, des debris de construction et des ossements humains. 

' Quant au chapiteau, on ne voyait que sa face sup^rieure faisant simplement I'office 
d'un pave'. 

' Le reste du pavement qui I'entourait etait formd de de'bris de pierres et de marbres, 
quelques-uns moulinfe et sculptes ; les interstices ^taient remplis par des cubes de 
mosaique. 

' Un coup de pioche avail dechausse un large pave, voisin du chapiteau, un surveillant le 
prit pour I'examiner et vit que le marbre, qui restait scelle, etait tres ^pais et qu'il portail des 
ornements et des caractferes sur sa face laterale. 

' Je fus appel(5 immediatemenl el je pus, 'b. mon tour, considerer ces dtranges caracteres. 

' Je remarquai ensuite que ce marbre occupait I'axe de l'abside, qu'il se trouvait sous la 
base indicatrice, et je pensais que tout cela ne pouvait pas etre le seul fait du hasard. 

' D'ailleurs, soil sous le pavement, sois dans la continuation des fouilles, on pouvait 
de'couvrir une explication de cette double precaution, ayant pour but d'arrcter I'attention sur 
cette partie de I'dglise, or comment replacer ces objets, si on les avail enleve's sans precau- 
tion ? Aussi il m'a paru utile de consigner, dans un proces-verbal, la place exacte du pave- 
ment et de la double inscription. 

' On ne peut pas pe'cher par exc^s de prudence dans des recherches aussi s&ieuses et, sur 
ce sujet, les personnes qui sont inleresst^es dans la question doivent surtout dviter I'ironie, 
parce qu'elle est un indice certain de la passion. 

' Les portions les ]j1us importantes de I'^glise d'Amoas n'ont pas encore ^t^ fouilldes. Ce 
sont : le tour postcrieur des trois absides, rintericur de la nef des croisds ct I'intcrieur de 
l'abside Romaine.' — Les Missions Cat/io/iqiies, le 3 Mars, 1882, 'Rapport par le Capitaine 
Guillemot sur Emmaus.' 

Captain Guillemot is directing the work with much zeal and intelligence, and 
several ecclesiastics had come from Jerusalem to ^iew a discovery which they sujipose 
will supply a perfect proof of the truth of a religious tradition to which I shall refer 
later on. In default of ])hotograijhs I must give a short description of it. Unluckily 
the photograjjhs I took willi the gelatine bromide process proved very imperfect 
when I developed them at home. Doubtless the plates were injured by the over- 



[SHEET X I'll.] ARCHAEOLOGY. 73 

turning of the carriage. But I shall be able to replace them directly I go to Jerusalem, as 
the monument has now been transported to Bethlehem. It consists of a capital of white 
marble in false carved Ionic style, coarsely and irregularly sculptured. On one side bet\v:en 
the two traditional volutes is a cartouche in form of a titidus, having to the right and t'le 
left the two little side pieces which it is supposed to be fixed by. On the cartouche is an 
inscription written in two lines, separated by a horizontal stroke and engraved in Arch lic 

Hebrew (that is to say Phoenician) characters. It can easily be deciphered -^^^ " Bless. d 

be His Name for ever !" It is exactly the reading which I had suggested from the imperfect 
copy of the inscription sent to me on its first discovery, but from that I could only give my 
intuitive conclusion, and I felt a certain doubt as to its accuracy. On the other side, dis- 
posed in a circle, is the inscription € SC 6(rOC-=T? ^£sj — "There is one God." Finally I 
discovered a large mason's sign, on the part intended to be placed downwards on the top of 
the shaft of the column. It is a sort of q and I suspect it is more likely to prove a 
numerical letter. To complete the description ot the capital, I soon found on one side an 
eight-pointed star contained in a circle ; and on the other side a sort of " fasces " tied with a 
band. 

' The capital was found in the pavement of the left hand side amongst other miscellaneous 
remains, used in like manner for paving this part of the building at some epoch which it 
would be well to know. 

' The formula sT; kl;, though it may be equally well applied as a general dogma of any 
one of the three great monotheistic religions, is in this form essentially Christian. It occurs 
very frequently in the stone inscriptions of Syria, where it was apparently very popular. 
Probably it was from there that it passed into the creed of Islam. A glance at M. Wadding- 
ton's Greek and Latin inscriptions in Syria, shows us how frequently it occurs either laconically, 
as in the present instance, or else accompanied by words which more precisely define its scope- 

' As examples I may cite the following : — 

On the lintel of a door at Oum el Jemal (Nabat) — 
Elg -I- kli with the cross. 

On another lintel at Diina (Antioch) — 

Eis hhi -/.ai [0] Xwffroj u.-jroii xa! to ayiov 'Ssi'ijiia,, 8or;6^Tii — (of the year 
4S3). 

On a lintel at Kokanaya (Antioch) — 
eT; Sd; xal Xj/ffro; (of the year 318). 

On a lintel at Katoura (Antioch) — 

'I'/;so!i X^ier's, ^or,hi, it; hog //.ovog (of the year 331). 

On the doors at Dellouza (Carriotide and Apamena) — 
-I- EI; i)s6; i/Tjs, etc. 

On a lintel at Deir Seta (Antioch) — 

ET; ho; jSori 6m naeiv (of the year 411). 

At Domeir (Damascus) — 
eI; ho; [iS\osi On\y]. 
VOL. III. 10 



74 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

At Dama (Trachonite) — 

EI; kli h jSori To 0iir,. 

At Salmeustha (Batan) — 
Els ^£05 ^or,ilo[;]. 

At Oum-er-rumman (Nabathoean) — 

ETs 6[io;]. 

At Deir el Meyas (Nabathrean) — 
[Ell] hoi /3o[j)]^ [wv]. 

At Bastra (Nabathgean) — 
E(5 koi Kavog [ ] 'A/irjii. 

' It would be easy to multiply examples of this formula. I will conclude by citing Sinaic 
inscriptions, one of Jezzin (region Sidon), another of Cyprus (Golos) — an amulet belonging to 
M. P(^retie, with eT; id; o vi-kuiv xaxd — and especially an inscription at Arzouf-Apollonia 

' The Christian character of this formula is clearly demonstrated by these examples. It 
is probably of Jewish origin, and must have sprung from the well-known verse (the fourth) in 
the sixth chapter of Deuteronomy, which contains the word iriNnin^, Jehovah, rendered in 
the Septuagint by xug;o? ilg, and which precedes the dissertation on the Commandments. It 
is worthy of remark that this formula is generally found inscribed above the entrance-doors, 
as ordained in the ninth verse (with regard to the Commandments, of which it is, so to say, 
the preamble), " and t/iou sJialt -d'ritethem on the posts of thy house, and on thy gates." 

'This Jewish connection agrees well with the double inscription on our capital, in which 
the Hebrew and Greek are so closely associated, and of the former of which I will endeavour 
to give some details. The sense seems to me quite clear, though I foresee that attempts may 
be made to give other readings in order to justify certain preconceived opinions. But I think 
that my reading of it will be accepted by all those who have had any real cxjjerience of 
Semitic epigraphs : " Blessed be His Name for ever " — in reference, naturally, to the Name 
of God. The phrase seems to have been taken literally (with the omission of only one word) 
from Psalm Ixxii. verse 19, "And blessed be His [glorious] Name for ever." It is exactly the 
anthem of the Roman Liturgy, " Sit Nomen Domini benedictum in secula." There is a 
similar form which frequently prefaces the inscriptions of religious offerings at Palmyra, 
N'oSpV noii' TiaV, "To Him Whose Name is blessed for ever." Making allowance for 
phonetic and grammatical variations between Hebrew and the Aramaic dialect in use at 
Palmyra, it is word for word the same as the formula which we are considering. Very often 
the dedicatory word \ " to" is omitted, and the formula appears in the shape of a simjile 
exclamatory invocation, NoSj'V nof ins, " His Name is blessed," or " Blessed be His 
Name for ever !" 

' That we find this ancient Hebrew inscription on this particular capital is certainly very 
extraordinary, more especially from a palseographical point of view. For, in the first instance, 
if we adhere to the now well-known law which governed the development and changes in 
Hebrew writing, we should have to place the date of this inscription (written as it is in 
Phoenician characters) at a period long anterior to the Christian era, whilst, on the other 
hand, the style of the capital, and the presence of the Greek inscription (which from its 



[SHEET XVII.] ARCHEOLOGY. 75 

appearance we should attribute to the fifth or sixth centuries after Christ) " on its opposite 
side," quite contradict this conclusion. 

' We cannot possibly suppose that the two inscriptions belong to different periods. 
Plastically the one is the pendant of the other, and the longer sentence seems equally a 
grammatical sequence of the other, as though we had to deal with a mixed phrase, half Greek, 
half Hebrew : " There is only one God, may His Name be blessed for ever !" Also it must 
be acknowledged that in the Hebrew part of it the word God is understood. This ellipsis 
certainly is not opposed to Semitic ideas, as we can see by referring to the formulas at 
Palmyra, which have just been cited. 

' Whatever they may be, these two phrases seem inseparably joined one to the other, both 
with regard to their position and their age. This leads us to ask why they should have used, 
several centuries after Christ, a Hebrew alphabet which, according to all historical and 
archaeological researches, had fallen into complete disuse, having been replaced by the 
square characters. There is but one possible reply to this question, namely, that it 
was an artificial archaism, similar to those which have been found on Jewish coins. 
On them we also find inscriptions in the ancient Phcenician characters. Though we 
ought to' make some exceptions with regard to the earliest coins, the evidence with regard 
to the later utterances is convincing, those, for instance, which took place under Bar- 
chochebas in 135 .4.D. These epigraphic anachronisms have their parallels in other 
countries and periods, and are easily accounted for by the national or religious prejudices, 
which caused the Jews then in certain cases to make use of the ancient Hebrew alphabet. 
This factitious revival, however, must not put us on the wrong scent. Upon carefully 
examining the paleography of the inscription on this capital, one feels at once convinced 
that it belongs to about the same period as the above-mentioned coins. It is not impossible 
that it was either from them, or from documents of the same character, that the graver of the 
inscription took his models for the letters. I have not the necessary materials by me to 
enable me to make a careful comparison, or to determine the exact issue of coinage which it 
might have been, as for that purpose it would be necessary to have the actual specimens 
before one's eyes in order to examine them. I must content myself with pointing out the 
curious form of the van, which occurs three times, and which is almost identical with that 
generally adopted on the copper coins, which are supposed to belong to the earliest period, 
and which form but seldom appears in the subsequent utterances. I would call attention 
also to the little hook which forms the lower part of this letter ^. This peculiarity is quite 
in accordance with the tendency in the Hebrew alphabet to curve (towards the left) the tails 
of the lower part of the letters //. The word 'Cli' is separated from xh-^'h by a visible point 
^^'e know that the separation of words by means of a dot is found in the oldest form of 
Semitic epigraphy. 

' Before endeavouring to fathom the motive with which so curious an inscription came to 
be made, it is necessary first to inquire why it was graved upon a column, and also for what 
purpose this column can have been used. 

' There are examples of inscriptions having been placed on capitals, for instance, in Cilicia, 
at Cyinda, at Tarsus, and Mopsuesta ; but keeping within the limits of Palestine, I may 
mention one which I discovered at Nablus, on the capital of one of the columns of the large 
mosque, and which, if I remember rightly, runs thus AOYKIOY lAKKOY, "Lucius 
lacchus." This epigraph is really very different to the one we are considering — it evidently 

10 2 



76 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

has reference to the name of the giver of the column, and is therefore similar in appearance 
rather than in reality. 

' I have already mentioned that the lower side of our capital possesses a mason's sign. 
We know that not only in the early mediaeval, but also in the early classical and Byzantine 
periods, these signs were very often the actual initials of the masons — the marks of the builders. 
But I doubt whether this is the case in the present instance, on account of the nature of the 
sign, which I am more inclined to consider a numerical letter ; the episona Fav. If it had 
been any other letter, one might have supposed it to be as an initial of the name of the 
workman, but at this epoch the Fav was no longer a letter, but a number pure and simple, 
signifying 6. On this hypothesis our capital is marked number six, which naturally leads to 
the conclusion that there were at least six similar capitals. I say similar, for had they been 
exactly alike, it would not have mattered which of the six shafts received them, consequently, 
the numbering of them would have been useless. This care in marking the position which 
they were to occupy, shows us that they were sufficiently alike to satisfy the requirements of 
architectural symmetry, and perhaps also to be mistaken one for the other, and seems also to 
prove the presence of inscriptions ivJiich had to be placed in certain progressio7i or in a particular 
order, as it is not impossible that they formed a series of sentences. This last conjecture seems 
to me quite plausible, for whatever architectural combinations we may imagine, we should 
never regard a column as being entirely isolated. It must at all events have had a pendant, 
and this second capital would also have devices and inscriptions corresponding to the one 
discovered, or would more or less repeat them. But if we accept the sign as meaning six, 
this would bring under our consideration a group of not less than six columns. Looking at 
it in point of size, the capital is not large. The lower part, which is notched in a circle (or 
rather elliptically) in order that it may fit on to the shaft, measures in diameter, taken at two 
points, and running parallel, 0-3 im. or o-42m. The diameter of the column near the summit 
could not then have exceeded o-36m. or o"37m., which, taking the largest system of propor- 
tion, would only give a column of very moderate height. The height would naturally be 
limited by the distance at which the characters could be read, and the letters are far from 
large, so that we cannot recognise in it a portion of a large edifice ; nor does it seem possible 
that it can have been one of the columns of the church, in which it now, after unknown 
vicissitudes, forms part of the paving. At the most it could only have formed part of some 
interior erection, an altar, a ciborium, or even a baptistery. If the original number of 
columns may be taken at six, they might have been disposed in a circle, or else in a rect- 
angular or hexagon form. I remember various specimens of baptisteries, built in the shape 
of a hexagon — there is one at Sienna, another at Parma, one at Aquileia, and in Central Syria 
there is one at Deir Seta. 

' On this hypothesis the presence of religious axioms might be easily explained, provided 
that they were merely Greek Christian mottoes, like the almost hackneyed Els 6to;, and 
others of the same class which we meet with so frequently on the religious buildings in Syria. 
If the inscription is connected with a baptistery, one might recall the verses inscribed on the 
architraves of the one of St. John at Latron, which was constructed by Constantine, and 
restored by Scxtus III. But the ajipearancc of a Hebrew inscription (and that inscription in 
archaic characters) is an unjjrecedcnted occurrence for which it is most difiicult to account. 
One could understand it a little more easily had the inscription been written with square 
characters, such as were used at the period at which the capital was made, for we know that 
the influence of the Jewish over the Christian ritual was sufficiently great— especially in 



[SHEET XVII.] ARCHEOLOGY. 77 

Palestine — to admit of the use of a language which had already given to the Christian 
liturgies such words as Hosanna, Alleluiah, Amen, etc. It is possible that if I had the 
minute directions contained in the " Guide de la peinture du Mont Athos " before me (which 
unluckily I have not), I might find a proof that, in certain forms of Byzantine art, the use of 
short Hebrew epigraphs was permitted. In any case we know that in Christian art the square 
Hebrew characters were then still used for writing the ineffable name of Jehovah. It is no 
more extraordinary than the design of a seven-branched candlestick, an essentially Jewish 
symbol, found upon a fine capital which was discovered at Beit Jibrin, and of which we made 
a drawing during my explorations in 1874. I expect this column must have belonged to the 
ancient Church of Sandanna, which had some points of resemblance with that of 'Amwas. 
But I must repeat that the great difficulty lies in the archaic form of the characters. The 
half Hebrew, half Greek inscription, which I discovered on the shaft of a column, and below 
a seven- branched candlestick, in the mosque at Gaza, was in the square character. One may 
next inquire whether the inscription may by some chance have been of Jewish origin, in the 
case of the capital having belonged to some synagogue. But it is scarcely worth while linger- 
ing over such a supposition. Even putting aside the thoroughly Christian formula El; klic, 
it is certain that a Jew at that period would have made use of the square character, for we 
have a number of authentic Jewish inscriptions in Palestine dating from the first century of 
our era, and without an exception they are written in square characters. And even if we 
attempt to attribute it to the Samaritans, who have kept to the ancient characters down to 
the present day, we do not find in it any of the peculiarities which distinguish the Samaritan 
alphabet in the inscriptions on the most ancient of their (known) buildings, some of which 
date from the fifth and sixth centuries after Christ. It also seems very improbable that we 
should find a Samaritan building at 'Amwas. The inscriptions on the capital were evidently 
engraved from a Christian point of view. 

' With regard to the strange use of the archaic characters, it seems to me to have pro- 
ceeded from a determined design which is worth our consideration. According to my view, 
the author calls attention to the past Jewish dispensation, a time which even then was com- 
paratively remote. It is probably to the tradition, in commemoration of which the church 
was built, that we must turn whilst searching for the solution of the enigma. Here we are 
met by the grave questions — what was the name of this church, and what right has 'Amwas to 
be identified with Emmaus of the New Testament, the place at which Jesus supped with two 
of His disciples after His resurrection, and was recognised by them through the breaking of 
bread ? It is no part of my present purpose to enter into a discussion with regard to this 
delicate topographical and religious question, one which has already raised numerous 
archceological controversies, not to say quarrels. But of this we may be certain, namely, that 
in the fourth century Eusebius and St. Jerome, both reliable authorities, considered the 
Emmaus of the New Testament to be identical with the town called Nicopolis, which is 
decidedly the 'Amwas of the Arabs. In addition to the many proofs which have been 
adduced in favour of this identification, I will add one which to me seems conclusive, and 
which I obtained through my discovery of the true site of Gezer : the inscriptions which I 
found engraved on the rock give the very name of this town. The position of Gezer, then, 
being fixed, so to speak, with mathematical accuracy, we gain the key to that of Emmaus, 
from which point the "Onomasticon" takes its bearing in giving the position of and distance to 
Gezer — and this measurement and description only applies to 'Amwas. 

' The house of Cleophas (one of the two disciples) in which the miraculous manifestation 



78 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

is said to have taken place, was at an early period transformed into a church. St. Jerome 
even speaks of the existence of a basilica ; and Willibald, in the eighth century, writes as 
though he had seen it, unless, indeed, he merely imitates St. Jerome. It would indeed be 
singular if the Christians, ready as they were to preserve and commemorate the smallest 
incidents in the life of Jesus (even on the slightest foundations) should have neglected to 
consecrate so distinct a tradition by the erection of a church. 

' We can understand that from the time when 'Amwas-Nicopolis came to be considered 
identical with the Emmaus of the New Testament, the ancient church (of which this capital 
is apparently a remnant) would become associated with the sacred and half-proved tradition. 
But even this does not explain the presence of the Hebrew inscription. We allo^v that this 
epigraph represented very nearly the laudatory formula for the blessing of bread according to 
the Jewish ritual) and was, perhaps, in reference to the act which, according to the account 
of the Evangelist, revealed to the two disciples the personality of the Founder of the Last 
Su pper. But was it not quite apart from the end they had in view, to engrave this formula 
in characters which had ceased to be used long before the time of Jesus ? The use of the 
ordinary square characters would have been quite sufficient. Why, then, this effort of erudi- 
tion ? Was it really a reference to the evangelical tradition, or was it not rather a pointing 
back to the earlier Jewish period ? For the present I can only ask this question without 
pretending to solve it, though I hope to return to the subject. In the meantime I will point 
out one fact which furnishes food for reflection. Excepting in the two passages of St. Jerome 
and Willibald to which I have just referred, ancient writings, although containing a great deal 
about the Emmaus of the Gospel, are almost silent with regard to the church of 'Amwas. It 
is not until much later that any reference is made to it, and then under quite a different 
character. 

' It is then called the " Church of the Maccabees." At present I cannot imagine for 
what reason this surprising name could have been given to it, nor can I understand how it 
originated. I cannot even say whether the writers, who have preserved this appellation, and 
who presumably had it upon the authority of earlier traditions, refer to the Asmonean princes 
or to the seven brothers of the same name who, according to tradition, were martyred under 
Antiochus Epiphanes. At an early period these two sets of Maccabees were already confused. 
Even St. Jerome falls into this error, which became general, and was favoured by the universal 
veneration in which the Jewish martyrs of Antioch were held (in the fourth century) through- 
out the whole of Eastern and even in some parts of Western Christendom. In these more or 
less fabulous stories we see that they were the prototype of all the Christian martyrs. I 
should not be inclined to rely on this appellation as evidence, for the name may have been 
given to the church of 'Amwas at a later period, though if it has any foundation it would very 
well account for the use of the archaic characters, taken as they were from the ancient 
national alphabet, which was affected by the Maccabees and was a known characteristic of 
their dynasty. Certainly in no place would this perplexing cpigraphical resuscitation be more 
likely to occur than in a church consecrated to the name of the Asmonean princes, or to the 
other Maccabees who were identified with them through an erroneous but wide-spread legend- 
Only on this hyjiothcsis we must allow that this ai>pellation of the church was given after the 
time of St. Jerome, who, confusing the identity of the Asmoneans and the seven brothers of 
Antioch, associates their memory with Modin, but never with Emmaus. In the endeavour to 
reconcile all these conflicting points, we may imagine that the church or rather basilica of 
Emmaus was erected on the supposed site of the house of Clcophas, the scene of the mira- 



[SHEET XVII.] ARCHEOLOGY. 79 

culous supper — and that it contained a chapel, a confessional or a " martyrion," especially 
dedicated to the Maccabees. And this martyrion possibly contained, according to a usual 
custom, some relics taken from their actual sepulchre at Modin — the present Medyeh. In 
which case the capital would belong to one of the columns which sustained the ciborinm, or 
else may have ornamented the altar itself. 

' We know that the ciborium, a sort of baldachin placed over an altar or martyrion in a 
basilica, was supported by columns, the number of which might be two, four, or six, which 
latter number reminds us of the possible numeral on our capital. 

' If we follow this supposition still further, we may imagine that the designer of the Hebrew 
inscription on this capital, destined to form part of the martyrion of the Maccabees, took for 
his palaeographical model the great inscription on the tomb of the Asmoneans at Modin, and 
which perhaps contained almost literally our formula, with even other phrases which were 
reproduced on the other capitals of the ciborium. I need hardly say that I offer these con- 
jectures with great reserve, and merely in order to give the data of a problem which still 
remains to be solved. 

' Whatever it is, the Hebrew inscription on the capital of 'Amwas is a most curious 
discovery, in spite of, or rather on account of, its not belonging to a very remote 
period. 

' It is incontestably in the most recent form of the archaic Hebrew characters, and in 
virtue of its being the " terminus ad quern," it deserves to be inserted in the " Corpus Inscrip- 
tionum Semiticarum." 

' I cannot help being grateful to the good fortune which allowed me to bring to light (at 
an interval of a dozen years) both the most ancient and also the most modern known inscrip- 
tions in the archaic Hebrew characters, of which at present the Moabite Stone and the 
capital of 'Amwas form the alpha and omega. 

' After having examined the capital which has formed the subject of this long digression, 
I went and looked at the ruins of the church, a portion of which has already been excavated 
(thanks to the efforts of Mile, de St. Cricq) under the direction of M. Guillemot. The two 
lateral arches have been entirely freed. The body of the church has, however, still to be 
excavated, and there, perhaps, we may make some interesting discoveries. According to my 
idea, there is a chance of our finding in it some historical mosaic pavement, containing perhaps 
inscriptions which will throw more light on the past history and origin of the church than all 
the suppositions to which for the present we are reduced. I think that the idea of excavating 
this church originated with me in the year 1S74. It was true I only took soundings, but 
they proved to me that of the church erected previous to the Crusades a portion had been 
used again. It is another point of resemblance between the church of 'Amwas and that of 
Beit Jibrin. According to the laws of mediaeval masonry, which I discovered and explained 
seven years ago, we are able to clearly distinguish the work of the Byzantine period from that 
of the Crusades, tracing it block by block. Further than this, on several stones cut or recut 
by the Crusaders, I have come across some lapidary signs which I shall add to the large 
collection I already have of these curious marks, and which some day I hope to publish an 
account of. Nothing is of more value for the critical study of the ancient buildings of 
Palestine, in the classing of which there is often such difficulty, than these technical indica. 
tions, which are really a better guide than the considerations of style, which so often prove 
deceptive. I shall have occasion to give further details of the church of 'Amwas, the rest of 
which we hope soon to bring to light. 




8o TFIE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

' A few days after my visit to the ruins, M. Guillemot sent me a cutting of a fragment of 
an inscription, which in like manner had been discovered amongst the mixed pavement on the 
left side of the church, where the enigmatical capital was found. It is a piece of marble, 
with portions of an inscription on either side. The Greek characters, belonging to the 
Byzantine period, which can be traced on it, are fairly well executed. The following will 
give an idea of the inscription : 



il^loJNS^ii 



' It may be seen that it was no easy matter to decide on the words of which these letters 
are the remains. At first sight I was inclined to give as the reading of the first word on side 
K. — £ \j\ i [/] year. But the r is indistinct, and might be P. Again one is tempted to 
imagine it e/s [/fs] especially as there seems to be an indication of the foot of an /after the 
second E. It is not impossible that it may be a quotation from the Psalms, 'O h/ehuv aro 
yrii 'TToiy^dv, etc. 

' This verse was used in the Christian epigraphy of Syria, as we may see by the inscription 
on the lintel of a door at el Barra, which is 'E/s/os/ uto ytjg 'ttu^ov, etc. The first line of side 
B may perhaps be [ay] laiv, " of the saints." The second lines of both sides most likely were 
the same word. The fact of the two inscriptions being back to back seems to indicate that 
the inscription was either repeated or continued, and also that the stone was intended to be 
viewed from both sides. 

' This word in the second line is in both abridged, and contains the letters YZYPs 
followed, at least on side A, by KA[|]. The restitution of letters is naturally limited to a 
small number of combinations. Eu'Zuyo; belongs to poetical language, and would be out of 
place here. I3(iu^uyrig, /Siu^uy/oi/ is no better. There remains exrQjyia. and its collaterals. 
But ffu^uy/a may be taken in several senses ; that of marriage might perhaps be appropriate. 
This supposition accords well enough with the i/t/, and implies a distinct date. If I had even 
the index to the " Corpus Inscriptionum Grecarum," I could find out if e-JQjy[a, was ever 
employed for dates. We may suppose that this fragment belonged, like the capital, to the 
ancient church, and was re-utilized for paving. 

' In going through even the village of 'Amwas, I noticed several ancient fragments, capitals, 
and bits of frieze, etc., which testify to the importance of the ancient Nicopolis. 

'Above the door of one house I noticed a sort of vase or funeral urn made of black 
basaltic stone, and sunk into the wall, the concave side outermost. All round it were 
engraved characters, but of what nature I could not tell, owing to their height. It required a 
ladder to reach them. I very much wanted to get at this vase, but the proprietor of the 
house was at that time imprisoned at Jerusalem with several other villagers who had been 
arrested after a violent conflict which had caused the death of a man. But it will be a thing 
to return to. In the immediate vicinity of the village the peasants are led to seek for ancient 
foundations in order to extract material for new buildings. I noticed here and there the 
traces of large ancient buildings. In one of their explorations they brought to light a huge 
block of calcite. It had apparently been the lintel of a door. Inscribed on the cartouche is 
a Greek inscription, three lines in length. The characters are irregular, and so much worn 



[SHEET XVII.] ARCHEOLOGY. 8i 

away that it is very difficult to decipher them. I took a copy of them, from which I have 
made the following letters. The inscription seems to read — 

EYTIXIT 

OrAMOC 

AIABIOY 

lur^ [e] Ir [s] 6 yaiioi hia jSIou. 

I must mention, however, that I am doubtful about several of the letters. The formula 
iUTux,iiTi has occurred in Syro-Greek epigraphs — and the orthographical form suTr/^Tn is not 
peculiar. We may compare it to an inscription on the lintel of a door at Kseir, in the neigh- 
bourhood of Tyre, EYTYXI ZOulAE KTICTA- M. Renan, who discovered it, thinks it 
is a funereal inscription similar to No. 4564 in the " Corpus Inscriptionum Grecarum," and 
another mentioned by M. de Saulcy in his " Journey Round the Dead Sea," both of which 
are funereal, and contain the rjT-J^ei or hrux,'- I cannot say anything definite with regard to 
the first, not having it before me, but the second would certainly read iu ^.u^i — which is a 
well-known funereal exclamation. I doubt though whether the verb ivTux~i« would be here 
taken in the funereal sense. In the following inscription of Deir el Leben (Auranite) it has a 
distinctly religious meaning, 'E.isiKh ■xal^m Vikn t6u xoafiov Euru;)/[£];. Several times we find 
the adverb hru^u;, felidter, in the ordinary dedication of an edifice — often associated with 
the expression Ayai)>) Tup/>i. Eyru;/(;r£ is exactly the Latin valcte, by which it is translated in 
the imperial and proconsulate decrees of which we have epigraphs. 

' The succeeding words seem to be ya/^oj ha. iStou, so that the whole seems to constitute 
a sort of nuptial exclamation. It may be compared to a Syrian inscription (at Dama, Tra- 
chonite), which also refers to a marriage, and is one of those I cited as containing the formula 
I'li ho; : it ends with a vow made by the constructor of the edifice, x^ ^ iSokaag (sit) ilg rjjv 
o/'xo do,u,ri V l3(iri6r,(!nK[s]s; rouj ydfj,ous. No one can exactly fathom the meaning of this expression, 
dia Biov — it occurs pretty frequently in the Graeco-Jewish epitaphs of Italy under scarcely 
recognisable forms — Za fSicv, Sia /3/o " dia viit, ia bins," and its actual signification is not 
yet decided. I need not point out that it is most interesting to come across it in Palestine, 
the country where it originated, and on a monument which to all appearance is Christian. 
Some explain it as referring to earthly life, others consider it a funereal exclamation 
which alludes to the Hfe eternal ; a translation from the verse in Daniel xii. 2 : 2/5 ^ujjv 
a;wwo» — ad vitam ateniain, equivalent to hia fiiw aiuviou. Our inscription thus adds a 
new point to the problem. It remains for us to know whether it refers to the indissolubility 
of the human marriage tie according to the Christian ideas, or rather to the symbolic marriage 
under which image the New Testament and the early fathers designate the mystic union of 
Christ and the Church. Before giving a decision it would be necessary to know whether the 
lintel had belonged to a religious or to a private building ; whether it formed part of a house 
destined for the reception of a bride, and ornamented accordingly with a device at once 
pious and gallant, or whether it belonged to some chapel. 

' We may compare this formula with various nuptials entences written in letters of gold 
on glasses and other objects evidently given by Christians as wedding presents — for instance, 
the felicitcr riupiiii of the celebrated golden medal struck on the occasion of the marriage of 
Marcius and Pulcheria. It only requires the addition of the epithet ateniis for us to find in 
it almost a literal translation of our Greek formula.' — M. Clermont Ganneau, ' Quarterly 
Statement,' 1882, pp. 24 — 37. 

VOL. Ill, II 



82 



THE SUR VEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 



'Anata (N t). — West of the village are remains of a colonnaded 
building ; bearing 103° Mag. The north wall, just south of the street, is 
3 feet thick, and extends 90 feet ; 8^ feet south of the inside of this wall 






'^ 







rvugfl Itjsaro- 



"» nt^ tV'oii l^arcr 



ScaZt, 



F»u to 

I— 



so Finti 



is a row of pillar bases, three remaining, and south of this a mosaic pave- 
ment well preserved. This building appears to be a church. A modern 
house has been built over the east end. 
Visited October, 1873. 

El 'Anaziyeh (L s). — Traces of ruins. A cave with a crosscut 
on the wall. On the east side of the valley, south-east of this ruin, is a 
small spring. 

El 'Aneiziyeh (K t). — A small ruined building above the road, 
apparently modern. 

'Attara (M s). — A high isolated hill, with ruins to the south at its 
foot, and two ancient reservoirs on the slope, near which are rock-cut 
tombs. The hill is called Tel 1 en Nasbeh, and has a spring ('A i n 
J ady) to the south-east. The first tank is rock-cut, with a cemented wall 
on one side (east). The second, to the north-east, is much ruined ; it had 



[SHEET XVII.] ARCHEOLOGY. 83 

rock-cut steps on the north-west and a wall on the east. The principal 
reservoir measures 78 feet by 37 feet, the wall 9 feet thick with 4 internal 
buttresses. The outlet has a pointed arch. The core of the wall is of 
rubble ; the ashlar facing is irregular, the cement very hard. Ruined 
buildings with arches slightly pointed, walls, and heaps of stone occur in 
other parts of the site. Caves, cisterns and tombs occur, and the site is 
that of a ruined town. One tomb has a facade, with niches for many 
lamps. The sides of the Tell are quarried, as also those of the hill to the 
west. 

' A s 1 i n (J t). — Remains of a ruined village, with a Mukam. 

Beit 'A tab (K t). 
This place is identified by Captain Conder (see Section A) with Etam. Gudrin has 
an interesting note upon it. He found that the Sheikh's house, with the adjoining houses, 
is built upon the site of an old fort, some vaults of which remain, and seemed to him older 
than the Crusades. The people say that there is a subterranean passage from the castle to the 
spring at the bottom of the hill. They also told him that the village of Eshua (4 miles to 
the north-west) was formerly called A s h t u a 1, and that between the villages of Sur'ah and 
Eshua is a waly consecrated to the Sheikh Gherib, and known also as the Kabr Shamshun, 
Tomb of Samson. 

Beit Erza (M u). — This is a ruin west of Sherafat : rock-cut 
cisterns exist at it, caves, a broken tomb, vaults with groined roofs, and 
other remains, apparently of Crusading and later work. 

Beit Fajus (K t). — Ruins of a small village, with a spring to the 
south and a Mukam. There are remains of a vaulted building, apparently 
not very ancient. 

Beit F a s e d (J u). — Foundations, cisterns, caves, heaps of stones, 
and two or three rock-cut tombs. 

Beit I k a (K u). — Traces of ruins and gardens. 

Beit L a h m (INI u). — The church is interesting as being the only 
basilica of Constantine's left standing in Palestine. The atrium 
is destroyed, but the basilica, consisting of a nave and four aisles, 
is almost intact, the original columns and the clerestory walls, 
with fragments of glass mosaic (of twelfth century) remaining. The 
basilica measures ^y feet east and west, by 75 feet north and 
south. At the east end is a transept, with north and south apses, and 
an east apse of equal size. The floor of the transept is raised for a width 

1 1 — 2 



84 



THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 



equal to that of the basilica nave (35 feet) ; beneath it is the grotto, now 
lined with marble, where is shown the rock-manger of the Nativity. A 




passage leads thence to a system of caves, in one of which St. Jerome 
is said to have lived. The tombs of Eusebius, of Cremona (sixteenth 
century), and of Paula and her daughter, Eustochia, are shown here, with 





to 



^oix.^ 




X vovtsl^n 



other traditional sites. North of the basilica a new Latin church is being 
erected by the Emperor of Austria. The roof of the transept was erected 



[SHEET XVII.] ARCHEOLOGY. 85 

in 14S2 by the Kings of France and England. The basiHca is separated 
by a modern wall from the transept ; this was erected by the Greeks in 
1842. The pillars belong to the date of foundation (330 a.d.) ; figures of 
saints have been painted on the monolithic shafts at a later period, and they 
are covered with graffiti representing the crests of knights, with mottoes 



as shown. The roof of the nave, once painted and gilt, dates back only 
to the seventeenth century. The clerestory windows — eleven on each 
side — alone light the church. 

The frescoes on the clerestory wall were executed at the expense of 
the Emperor Manuel Comnenos (1143-80 a.d.) They include five series, 
one above the other, ist. The Ancestors of Christ. 2nd. The principal 
Councils. 3rd. A frieze of foliage. 4th. Figures of angels between the 
windows. 5th. A second frieze at the top. Other mosaics occur on the 
walls of the central apse, representing scenes in the life of Christ. 

The ancient octagonal stone font, with an early Greek Christian 
inscription, is placed in the south aisle. The inscription is as follows, on 
a tablet, with a cross below : 

/cai a(jtt(jtwg afnaprewv wv o Kvpioc; 

yrii'o<jKi ra oro/itira. 
' For the memory, repose, and forgiveness of the sinners, of whom the Lord knows the 
names.' 

There is a narrow narthex west of the basilica, and the old door leading 
from it to the interior is elaborately carved. 

A detailed account of the church, with drawings of the mosaics, is to 
be found in Du Vogue's ' Eglises de la Terre Sainte,' pp. 46-1 1 7. 

Beit M e i s (K t). — Ruined walls. No indication of date. 

Beit Sahilr el 'Atikah (M t). — Ruins of a village, with wells 



86 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

and a Mukam. There Is a large cemetery of rock-cut tombs on the hill 
to the west. (See Deir es Sinneh.) 

At this ancient site the Abbe Moietain, who was building a church, found, during the 
construction of a cistern, a number of ancient vases— some broken, some uninjured — together 
with fifteen flint knives. Guerin counted fifteen cisterns ; he also observed well-cut blocks 
among the rude masonry. 

Beit Sakia (L u). — A modern ruined village on the slope of a 
hill. 

Beit Shenna (J s). — Traces of ruins and squared stones. 

Beit S i 1 a (L s). — Foundations in a valley by a spring. 

El B a k u s h. — A name given to the eastern spur of Ras esh 
Sherifeh, near Khiirbet el Kussis (which see). A small cottage 
of the late Consul Finn stands here. 

Beit S u s i n (J t). — Foundations and ruined walls. A good 
perennial well, called Bir el Haurah, on the south, and springs in the 
valley. 

Beit T u 1 (K t). — Foundations and a Mukam. 

Beit 'Or el Foka (L s). — There are many large rough stones 
in the walls of houses and enclosures. (See Section A.) The great 
birkeh on the north-east is rock-cut, with masonry above, and about 
lo yards square. 

Beit 'Ur et Tahta (K s). — Foundations of good masonry 
exist in the village. On the south, close to the threshing floors, a tomb 
was found in i88i, said to contain treasure. On visiting this it was found 
to be only a single loaihis about 6 feet long, and 8 feet below the surface. 
Half a mile east of Beit 'Ur et Tahta a ruin is marked on the Roman 
road, at the foot of a steep ascent. It appears to have been a little chapel 
of the Byzantine period. The north wall, of roughly-dressed stones, 
about 2 feet long, remains, with pillar shafts, 15 inches in diameter. On 
the road lies a lintel stone 4 feet by i foot 8 inches, with a medallion ; in 
the chapel near the east is a second, 6^ feet by 2 feet, with three 
medallions. The designs in these medallions appear to have been pur- 
posely defaced. North of the chapel is a large wine-press, with two 
chambers 12 feet square. Many well-cut stones and voussoirs are built 
into the terrace-walls near the ruin. 



[SHEET XVJI.] 



ARCHAEOLOGY. 



87 



B e r k a h (U s). — Traces of ruins. 

Bir Beit Bassa (M u), immediately north of Khurbet el Bedd. 
There are remains here of a ruined Khan, cisterns and tombs. One of 
these is blocked, but has over the door a sculptured cross in relief. A 
second is a chamber 5 feet 10 inches across and 7 feet 2 inches to the 
back, cut in rock, with a loculiis of masonry on the right, 2 feet wide, 
6 feet long. This chamber has a double entrance, two arches 2 feet 
3 inches span, with a buttress 16 inches square between. A trench 





35 0- 
Sxcficn ab. 



^r^Jwn t^Enirtma ^ 7''WTA 



Ouimbrr rock ht'vn 
•ills i.LoLuh. if Miiscury 




with steps leads down in front of the right-hand arch, and similar steps, 
now covered up, seem to have led to the other. (Compare Khurbet 
'Aziz, Sheet XXI.) 

The third excavation is a chamber 9 feet 10 inches to the back by 
9 feet across, with a recess 2 feet square on the back wall. Tlie door is 
I foot 4 inches wide, i foot 6 inches high. In front is a sort of open 
vestibule. This ruin is close to Beit S a h u r, to which the tombs 
properly belong. 

B I r el 'A m d a n (M u). — Close to Khurbet Sir el Ghane m. 
A fine cistern, 35 feet by 26 feet, and 33s- feet deep. Two piers in the 
middle supported the vaulted roof. 

Bir Beit el Beiadir (K s). — North of this well are foundations, 
and east of it others. Neither have any indication of date. 



88 



THE SURVEY OF UESTERN PALESTINE. 



B i r el H e t e i m e h (J s). — A large rock-cut cistern on a hillside. 
A large stone stands on end near it. 

B i r el K a n t a r a h (J t). — A fine sjDring well in a square 
masonry tank. A litde further down the valley is a good perennial 
spring, called 'Ain Kerkum. 

Bireh (M s). — The ruined church at this village is in a fair state 
of preservation. The piers of the aisles and the west wall have been 
destroyed. It belonged to the Holy Sepulchre, and was completed in 
1 146 A.D. (Du Vogiie, ' Eglises de la Terre Sainte,' p. 339). A hospital 
was attached to it. 

The walls are very thick, those on the north and south 9 feet. The 
west wall measured 72 feet outside, the north wall no feet. The central 
apse is 14 feet diameter, the side apses 7 feet. The piers, with attached 




■ g.f f 



*o 50 U 



SO 90 tCU leac 



columns, remain on the walls inside. The church had four bays, and a 
window in each bay to the north ; whilst on the south there was a side- 
door in the second bay from the west, and three windows. The interior 
ashlar is beautifully dressed, of moderate size. Only one kind of mason's 
mark was observed, but this is often repeated on the stones. 

The exterior masonry is rudely squared, and not dressed smooth. The 
joints are packed with small stones ; the core of the walls is of rubble. 
The windows arc round-arched. The capitals of the pillars are of various 
designs. The east walls are entire, the roofs of the side apses remaining. 




;^kJ^j!('iV*A«*.,^*WVS'.i>J^itt,'jS'a& 







I'i ^ h ' 




o 
o 

Q_ 



5 

o 



O 



o 

CO 

o 
o 



{SHEET XVII.] ARCHAEOLOGY. 89 

The church, like most of the period, appears to have had a clerestory 
to the nave. The arches of the apse-vaults are pointed, but the east 
windows, like those in the side walls, are round-arched. A cornice runs 




round the walls under the windows, over the capitals of the pillars. The 
windows measure about 2 feet across outside, and about 4 feet 6 inches 
inside. (See Palestine Exploration Fund Photographs, Nos. 105, 106.) 

Visited and planned January 24, 1874. 

Birket el Juba (N u). — A large tank, with round-arched vaults, 
probably of Byzantine period. The tank has masonry three sides and 
rock at the back. It is 29 feet deep, and 104 feet by 53 feet. The walls 
are 6 feet thick. The stones are from i foot to \\ feet thick, and one 
is 2 feet 8 inches by 4 feet 2 inches. 

There are remains of vaults outside the tank, with round arches of 
well-dressed masonry. The height of the vault is 9 feet 6 inches. 

B u r j el ' A m m a r. — A small building recently excavated was found 
to have an apse to the east, the masonry of which has the diagonal 
dressing of Crusading work. 

El Burak (L u). — Commonly called Solomon's Pools. Three 
reservoirs formed in a valley, with strong retaining walls. They measure 
582 by 177 feet, 423 by 232 feet, and 3S0 by 233 feet respectively, but 
are none of them rectangular, the east walls being broader than the west. 
(The breadths given are the mean measures.) The pool-floors are formed 
by the valley-bed, and they are thus each deepest on the east, where they 
measure 50 feet, 30 feet, and 25 feet, the smallest and shallowest pool 

VOL. III. J 2 



90 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

being to the west. The masonry resembles that of the aqueducts which 
lead from them. (See Ordnance Survey Notes, p. Si.) 

Four springs were connected with the pools : 'A i n S a 1 e h, an under- 
ground spring, in a rock chamber now closed by a wooden door — the 
water runs in through a vault into the west pool; 'A i n Farujeh, a 
spring said to be beneath the pools ; 'A i n 'A t a n, on the hillside south- 
east of the pools ; and a fourth spring inside the old castle, north of the 
upper pool. They were further supplied from the high-level aqueduct 
which comes down Wady el B iar. This aqueduct starts from a well 
in the valley, where it is probably supplied by a spring, though now dry. 
It also would have brought down the surface drainage of the valley to 
the pools. 

The longer aqueduct, which commences at 'A i n Kueiziba, runs 
below the pools, receiving the supply from ' A i n ' A t a n and from the 
lower pool. It flows beneath the hill of Bethlehem and east of Mar Elias, 
carrying water to el Kas, in the Haram at Jerusalem, when in repair. 
(See Ordnance Survey Notes, and Birket 'Arrub, Sheet XXL, 
Section B.) This aqueduct is called ' The Pagan's Canal,' and is presum- 
ably that constructed by Pontius Pilate (Ant. xviii. 3, 2). 

The part of this aqueduct south of the pools is sometimes cut in rocks, 
and in one place tunnelled through the hill, but generally carried on a wall 
of rubble masonry, sometimes 6 to 8 feet high, and faced with ashlar. 
The channel is \\ to 2 feet wide, and i foot to 2\ feet deep, lined with 
good cement, and covered with loose .slabs of stone. (Compare the 
Caesarea Aqueducts, Sheet YII.) PVom the pools, pipes set in masonry 
form the channel, but these are perhaps part of a later restoration. The 
channel has here sloping sides, and is 2 feet 3 inches deep, i foot wide at 
the bottom, i foot 10 inches at the top : in this the pipes are laid. 

The high-level aqueduct to Jerusalem is a continuation of that from 
Wady el B i a r, but its exact course in the immediate neighbourhood 
of the upper pool is lost. The water was conducted through stone pipes 
15 inches diameter, jointed together by rebates ; the exterior diameter is 
2 feet. This channel is traceable from the pools to the neighbourhood of 
Rachel's Tomb, where it crosses a low saddle running up-hill on the north 
side. The channel with stone tubes is acfain visible at the bottom of the 
garden of the Austrian Consul's country house. The shafts which lead 



[SHEET XVJI.] ARCHEOLOGY. 91 

down to the tunnel of this aqueduct in W a d y el 13 i a r may be com- 
pared with those of the Caesarea Aqueduct (Sheet VII.). 

The general character of masonry of the aqueducts and pools resembles 
that of the Cresarea aqueducts, and would seem, therefore, to be Roman 
work. It was formerly supposed that the high level aqueduct was 
traceable west of the Bethlehem road in the plain north of Mar Elias, as 
is shown on the map. Further search, however, shows that the channel 
ran east of the main road. It is not traceable further than the plain. 

The old castle by the pools (Kulat el Burak) appears to be 
Saracenic or Arab work. It is said to have been built to protect the 
water supply from the Bedawin, and is square, with corner towers, and a 
gate to the west. 

\'isited November, 1S73. 

El Burj (Ku). — A small tower, 64 feet by 32 feet, with walls 
6 feet thick, exists here. The walls have a core of rubble built in 
cement, and are faced with ashlar ; the stones 2 to 2^ feet long by i\ feet 
high. They are drafted with a draft 6 inches broad, the boss left rough, 
projecting \ inch. This would appear to be twelfth century work. Bell- 
mouthed cisterns and wall foundations occur round the tower. 

Visited 22nd October, 1873. 

Burj e t Tut (INI t). — A vault, rock-cut cisterns, and tombs — 
square chambers without loculi. These belong to the village of Lifta. 

Ed Dawarah (N s). — Cave and ruined walls, which appear to 
be modern. 

Deir Abu Kabus (K t). — Walls and cisterns. The masonry 
appears to be modern Arab work, but the site to be old. 

Deir Abu 'A 1 y (K u). — Modern ruined walls. 

Deir el 'Amud (M u). — Foundations and cisterns. 

Deir 'As fur (J u). — Ruined walls. 

Deir el 'A z a r (L t). — Heaps of stones and large cisterns. 

Deir el Ben at (L u). — A wall perched on the edge of a precipice 
— remains of a small convent. 

' Here are the remains of an enclosure of considerable extent placed upon a rocky Iiill, 
and forming a rectangle on threa sides ; the fourth side is irregular, because it follows the 
winding of the A\'ady el Benat. The walls are covered with a dressing of large stones cut 

I 2 — 2 



92 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

rudely. Behind these is another of small materials, covered with a layer of cement which has 
now disappeared. Within the enclosure not a trace remains of any buildings.' — Gu<Jrin, 
' Judee,' iii. 302. 

Deir el Mahruk (M t). — A vaulted building like a Khan, not 
apparently very ancient. 

Deir Nahleh (J s). — Traces of ruins and foundations. Rock- 
cut cisterns. 

Deir Shebib (J t). — Foundations and walls. 

Deir es Sinne h. — This name applies to a site in the side valley 
joining VVady en Nar, opposite Beit SahCir el 'Atikah. Tombs are shown 
here on the map, and north of the.se are caves of some size, a large 
rock-cut cistern, and a winepress. 

Deir es Sidd (N t). — Traces of ruins. 

Deir e t T a h u n e h (J t). — On the hill are the stones of an olive 






press (compare Sheet I., 'A m ii d el lieiriiti, etc.), which have been 
piled up into a kind of monument. (Palestine E.\ploration Fund Photo- 



[SHEET XV/L] 



ARCH.EOLOGY. 



93 



graph No. 272.) On the north slope of the hill is the entrance to a 
tomb. The foundations of a building, probably a Byzantine monastery, 
stand on the rock on the top of the spur. The stones are about 2 feet 
lono". Several lintel stones lie scattered about, including three as shown 
in the sketches, evidently Byzantine. Some stones have a shallow draft. 
Another ruin called Deir es Saghir exists to the north-east. Founda- 
tions of a building, rock-cut cisterns, large stones, and piers of another 
olive press occur at it. 

Deir ez Zik (N u). — Traces of a small ruin, with a well north- 
east. 

El Ghufr (L u). — A ruined watchtowcr. 

El H a b s (L t). — A cave with a window cut in the north face of 
the rock. It measures 7 yards by 3 yards, and contains a Latin altar of 
stone. The place is traditionally the retreat of .St. John the Baptist in 
the desert. It has its altar at the west end, and rock-cut door with steps 
on the east. 




ZZ!!^ 



r^ 



t;«)tyai]^ln«>;'"il i» y\ii|yRi '« . ■■ ■tviv ; 



Revisiting the place in 188 1, the chapel was found closed with an 
open railed iron gate, and a fine tank had been built on the east by the 
hermit, into which flows a stream issuing from a rock tunnel some 15 feet 
long, terminating in a cleft, and formerly discharging into a small rock 
basin. Twelve steps lead up to the chapel, and a flight leads down from 
above, where are the walls of a ruined upper story, the west wall having 



94 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

windows with pointed arches. A third story or tower above is built in 
the face of a rude cave. Beneath the chapel are vegetable gardens and 
flower plots, 

H u m m a m S u 1 e i m a n (M u). — An old pool, now filled up, with 
fine masonry walls, and some pillar shafts lying in it. It is in tlie valley 
below Urtas. An aqueduct comes apparently from it to et 
Tahfmeh, where is a cistern 90 feet by 40 (marked 'mill' on Plan). 
Thence it follows the valley (W a d y e t T a h u n e h), and is said by 
the natives to have supplied B i r k e t el H u m m a m at J e b e 1 
r'ureidis. (See Urtas.) 

J eba (N s). — There is a large cave beneath the village on the east, 

about 20 to 30 paces square, with a passage on the left at the back, e.\- 

, tending 1 5 paces. This is partly cut, partly natural, with a double entrance. 

A second like it is said to exist nearer the village. West of the village, 
by the old road, are cisterns, rock-cut, and in one case roofed with a 
rubble tunnel-vault. 

' Thirty of the houses only are standing. On the highest point of the plateau on which 
they are placed is a little fort or Burj, the lower courses of which, if they are not ancient, are 
at least built of ancient stones. Here and there cisterns and caves cut in the rock show the 
antiquity of the place. There is also an old wall of great square stones, only a few vestiges 
of which remain.' — Guerin, 'Judee,' iii. 68. 

El Jib (M s).^ — The site of the ancient city of Gibeon is said by the 
peasantry to have stood on the southern or higher part of this hill. There 
are rude scarps of rock on all sides of this Tell, which is about 200 feet, 
and naturally a strong site, abundandy supplied with water, and now 
covered with vines and olives. There are eight springs, which issue from 
the sides of the hill, the most important being 'A i n el Jelled ('Spring 
of the Village '). 

This is on the south-east, at the foot of the steep hillside, and issues in 
a rock-chamber, about 30 feet long, 7 feet wide, and 7 feet high. The 
water is clear and abundant in a pool within the cave, said to be 3 or 4 feet 
deep. 

On the right, at the back, a passage is said to exist, and on the left 
steps leading to the surface of the hill above. These cannot now be seen, 
and the passage is blocked up. The spring is haunted. (See Section C.) 
The cave is reached by a descent of several steps. The natives say that 



[S/fEET Xl-//.] 



ARCHEOLOGY. 



95 



there are two supplies of water in the cavern, one small and salt, the other 
fresh and copious. There is a recess at the mouth of the cave, as if for a 
bar, probably showing that the spring was once closed with a door, when 
it could no doubt be reached from above within the city (as at Jerusalem). 
On the left, inside, is a small niche for a lamp. 

Close to this spring, on the east, is a rock-cut chamber, faced with a 
building in rough masonry, and partly roofed with masonry. It is 8 feet 




EL ill;. 



by 7 feet, and 6\ feet high, and covered inside with pink plaster. In its 
walls are si.x small niches, one of which contained two sardine boxes, in 
which small figs and pomegranate blossoms were placed as offerings to the 
local divinity (these offerings are of great interest as survivals of very 
ancient symbolism). The masonry part of the chamber measures lo feet 
by 8 feet, and is 7J feet high in the centre. A door, 3^ feet wide, and 
2 feet high, with a rough lintel, leads into the place, which is kept carefully 
clean, and is called M u k a m el B u r e i d y . 



96 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

Near this sacred chamber, and above the spring-cave, is a paved plat- 
form for prayer, 7 feet by 3 J feet, of four stones. The spring is thus more 
sacred than most of those venerated in Palestine. 

South of the great spring is another, called 'A i n el Tell, and further 
south a third, full of weeds, called 'Ain el Kibliyeh (' South Spring'). A 
fourth spring, called 'Ain Kijlat el Benna, issues from a rock-chamber 
in the scarp of the Tell. 

Between the great spring and the second-mentioned there are several 
tombs. 

No. I, near the foot of the scarp, is choked, but has a rocky porch 
A,\ feet by 2 feet, with a small door. Three others like it occur near. 

No. 5 is a square chamber, 8^ feet wide, with a bench, 2 feet wide, 
i^ feet high, round three sides, and a door, 2^ feet wide. The total height 
of the chamber is 4^ feet. On the right is a semicircular recess, 2^ feet 
high, and reaching back 2^ feet on the level of the bench. (Compare 
Khiirbet el Farriyeh, Sheet VIII., Section B.) 

Nos. 6 and 7 tombs are choked, and are just east of 'Ain el Kibliyeh. 

No. 8 is another chamber, 9 feet by 1 1 feet, with a bench round three 
sides, and a door, 2\ feet wide, 4 feet high. The chamber is 5^ feet high. 
On the left, in the bench, a cylindrical hole is sunk, i^- feet deep, and 
2 feet diameter. It was covered apparently by a round slab, fitting into a 
recessed part at the top, 2\ feet diameter, 2 inches deep. The bench in 
which this is sunk is 2 feet high. These benches appear (by comparison 
with the fine tombs east of Jordan) to have been intended to have sarco- 
phagi placed on them, and jewels or offerings may have been placed in 
this little well under the sarcophagits. 

No. 9 tomb is west of 'Ain el Kibliyeh, which issues from a crevice in 
the rock, near which is a rocky niche, 5 feet by 3 feet. The water is not 
drinkable, but collected for irrigation in a modern pool, 3 feet by 6 feet, 
and 2 feet deep, of rock, with a wall in front. No. 9 tomb is a rude cave, 
with three arcosolia. It is about 4^ feet high, and the loculus at the back 
is 1 2 feet either way ; that on the right, ']\ feet by 3 feet ; that on the left, 
4 feet by about 5 feet to the back. The chamber itself is 1 2 feet wide, 
and 9 feet to the back. 

Near this tomb are four others, now closed ; and beyond them is 
Ain Kill at el Benna. 



[SHEET XVII.] ARCH.EOLOGY. 97 

The next tomb (No. 14) is a chamber 12 feet square, 4 feet high, 
with a well-cut niche, i foot square, 3 inches deep, 15 inches above the 
floor, on the right of the chamber. On the left of the door is a sort of 
loophole in the face of the rock, i^ inches by 6 inches. 

No. 15 is an oblong chamber Z\ feet high, 18 feet by 23 feet, with an 
entrance 5 feet high, 3,^- feet wide. At the back are two recesses ; that to 
the left 3 feet wide, 3^ feet long, sunk 6 inches below the chamber floor, 
and with a rounded roof, 3^ feet total height. The recess to the right is 
6 feet wide, 4^ feet long, 2 feet below the chamber floor, and 4;V feet high. 
The entrance to this inner recess or chamber is "3 feet wide. The wall to 
the left in the main chamber is recessed, 3^ feet deep, \\ feet in length, 
and 5^ feet in height. 

No. 16 tomb is a chamber with a bench each side. 

No. 1 7 is on the south side of the Tell. It is blocked, but the porch 
measures 16 feet by 6 feet, and is 6 feet high, with rows of niches ; at the 
back twenty-one niches, about a foot from the ground, each 9 inches high, 
8 inches wide, 5 inches deep, on an average. On the left three rows are 
visible, six in a row ; on the right two rows. These are no doubt intended 
for lamps in the fa9ade of the tomb. The place is called U m m el 
T a w a k i (' Mother of Niches '). 

Beyond this, on the west, there are two more tombs — Nos. 18-19 — and 
a group of small springs, weeping out of the scarps, and called 'Aytjn en 
Nueitif, or ' Springs of the Small Droppings.' They issue on the south- 
west side of the Tell, and one falls into a masonry tank, 5 feet by 12 feet, 
and a second into another tank, 10 feet square. These tanks are all 
modern, and intended to irrigate the vineyards and vegetable-gardens in 
which the tombs and springs described are now enclosed. 

Returning from these springs south-east, along the side of the hill, at 
a higher level. No. 20 tomb is found, being only a rude cave 20 feet by 
12 feet and 6J feet high. It has a rough rock-pillar 2 feet square at the 
entrance, and four recesses intended as locidi on the walls. There are 
also four benches, two at the back, two to the right, as if to support 
sarcophagi. 

Nos. 21 and 22 are similar caves. 

Nos. 23 and 24 are tombs, now blocked. 

No. 25 is a large and important tomb (see Plan), which would 

VOL. III. I -5 



98 



THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 



have contained at least ten bodies. The central chamber is about 30 feet 
square ; the locidi are raised a foot above its floor ; the walls were once 




Pla.n 



plastered, and marked as in imitation of masonry in courses 9 inches 
high and a foot to \\ feet long. The entrances to the loculi have been 



WvL 



Elevalion, of J.efl Wall 




ElevatiMTv of hack WalV 
showmg^ pier i, rochbenjiv 




£l£vaiio*t of Rigfit Vfalh 



Fat, If 



J£- 



JfFut. 



broken away. A curious feature of this tomb is the cruciform cutting on 
the back wall, as shown in the elevation ; and there is a rock-bench close 



[SHEET Xril.] ARCHEOLOGY. 99 

to a pier of rock supporting the roof on the left near the back of the 
tomb ; the object of this bench is not clear. In this tomb are remains of 
a stone mill, a cylinder 2 feet high, 10^ inches interior diameter, 2 feet 
exterior, with a hole in the side 7 inches by 10 inches ; there is also a 
millstone, and remains of the piers of an oil-press. 

On the top of the Tell are fine olives, modern graves, and some 
troughs sunk in the rock, 6 inches deep and 2 feet in diameter. On the 
west, lower down, are two closed tombs, Nos. 26 and 27, and another, 
No. 28, which is a square chamber. 

No. 29, further north, is closed, and near it are five others, making a 
total of 34 tombs found in the sides of the hill. 

In addition to these. No. 35 is a tomb under the Sheikh's house in 
the village, a square chamber with a bench round three sides, now used 
as an oven ; while No. 36, under another house, is like the last, but has 
a bench only on one side. 

The houses stand on low scarps of rock in which these tombs are 
cut. 

Five groups of springs have been enumerated, but the most 
interesting is on the west, beside a road which crosses the Tell. 
It is called el Birkeh, and issues from a chamber in a rocky scarp 
into a tank cut in rock, with a rocky wall in front, the scarp facing west- 
wards. 

The tank measures 1 1 feet by 7 feet, and the rock-wall is ■^\ feet 
high. A pomegranate tree grows above, and numerous hollows are sunk 
in the rock at the top of the scarp above the cave, perhaps to rest the 
pitchers in when filled. This pool possibly represents the ' pool in 
Gibeon ' (2 Sam. ii. 13), where the followers of Joab and Abner met. 
There is a large masonry tank 59 feet long, 36 feet wide, filled in with 
earth, near the great spring above described ('Ain el Belled), but it does 
not seem to be very ancient ; and the careful examination of the whole 
site of Gibeon, above recorded, leads to the view that the pool called 
el Birkeh, south-west of the modern village by the main west road, is 
that mentioned under the same name in the Bible. 

The remaining springs are 'Ain el Asafir 'the bird's spring,' 
north-west of the village, and 'Ain el M a 1 h a h, a small supply of salt 
water, by a fig-tree just east of the village. There are some other tombs 

I ■\ — 2 



THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 



north and west of the village, and, on the other side of the valley to the 
east, there are two, one blocked, the other with two benches and a sunk 
loculus. On the south side of the Tell are many M e s h a h e d, or heaps 
of stones piled into a pillar and whitewashed ; this is because they are in 
view of the mosque of Neby Samwil on the hill above. 

In the village itself are remains of a small Crusading church like that 
at Taiyibeh (see el Khudr, Sheet XV., Section B.). The west wall is 
complete, with a round window. The masonry resembles that at el 
Khudr. The total length of the chapel appears to have been 40 feet east 
and west, 22 feet north and south. The apses have been apparently 
built up. There were three bays of arches, and in the side walls are 
small doors with lintels ; these doors are now closed. This building is on 
the west of the village, and inhabited as a house. There are other 
remains of ancient masonry built into the walls. 

Revisited June, 1881. 

Jibia (L s). — On a high hill are foundations, a sacred place, a 
very large tree, and well. It is a very conspicuous site — a conical Tell. 

El Kabu (L u). — By the spring, beneath the village, are the ruins 
of a church. The building is 40 feet by 25 feet inside, not including the 

eastern apse, 25 feet diameter. The walls 
are exteriorly of good ashlar. On the 
interior it is rougher, being originally 
cemented. The exterior stones are 2 to 
3 feet long. Half-way up the wall is a 
scaLt w ^^^^^^^^^ ■< course of very small stones. Ten courses 

remain, to the spring of the vaulting, 
which appears to have been groined, and supported on interior pilasters 
dividing the church into two bays. The height of the walls is some 1 5 
feet, and their thickness some 7 feet. The arches were pointed. The 
bearing of the church is 1 1 7°. The building appears to be of Crusading 
date. 

Visited October 18, 1873. 

Kabur el Beni Israim (N s). — These curious rude stone 
monuments lie on a plot of open ground, and are five in number : 




[SHEET XVn.] 



ARCHEOLOGY. 



NO. 


LENGTH. 


BREADTH. 


BEARING. 


I. 


- 1 76 feet - 


1 4 feet 7 inches 


- 58° 


2. 


- 142 feet - 


9 feet 6 inches 


- f 


0- 


- 105 feet 6 inches 


- 2 2 feet - 


- 30° 


4- 


98 feet 6 inches - 


1 6 feet - 


- 24° 


5- 


- 1 1 3 feet - 


- 10 feet 6 inches 


- 37" 



The height of the monuments varies from 3 to 6 feet. They are con- 
structed of stones undressed piled rudely in courses. The largest stone 
measured was 3 feet 6 inches high, and 3 feet 8 inches long. The walls 
must be 5 or 6 feet thick. No mortar is used. 









Bomontal Section 



" »f w «p rp IB ,00 



These buildings probably contain chambers, one of which in No. 4 was 
entered. It was 14 feet 6 inches long, 5 feet broad, with walls 5^ feet 
thick, and an entrance on the south-east. It is roofed in with stone slabs 
7 feet long laid across. At 1 6 feet from the south wall of the same struc- 
ture is the centre of a circular chamber 6 feet 8 inches diameter. The 
rectangular chamber was 4 feet high, and over its slabs small stones were 
packed in to a thickness of 2 feet. Small stones are packed between the 
larger in the walls. 



102 THE SURVEY OF UESTERN PALESTINE. 

The monuments have an appearance of antiquity, and most resemble 
the drystone vineyard-towers of the country, which are of evident an- 
tiquity. A group of large stones, somewhat like a fallen dolmen, was 
observed south of them ; but this may be natural. 

Visited and planned January 22, 1874. 

These structures were first observed by Captain Newbold, and described in the Athciucum 
of 1849, p. 491. They are thus described by Robinson, ' Biblical Researches,' 1852 : 

' There are four of these structures, merely long low rude parallelograms of rough broken 
stones, laid up with no great regularity. The largest is 102 feet long by 21 feet broad ; the 
next has a length of 98 feet. The average height is from 3 to 5 feet, except where the 
ground is less elevated. About the middle of the eastern side of the largest is a square hole 
or doorway leading to a small square chamber covered with longer stones. Towards the 
south end of the same parallelogram is a small opening like a well, extending to the ground. 
The other structures are smaller : and have neither chamber nor well. The work is all of 
the rudest kind. There is nothing about them to suggest the idea either of sepulchral 
monuments or of any remote antiquity. They are such as the Arabs may well have thrown 
together in no very distant times; but the purpose of them is inexplicable.' — Robinson, 
'Biblical Researches,' p. 287. 

Mr. Tyrwhitt Drake's account of them is as follows : 

' On the side of the Wady north of el Heymeh and opposite to it are five constructions of 
peculiar form, consisting of a double wall forming a parallelogram from 98 to 176 feet in 
length by 9I to 16 feet in breadth ; the height varies from 3 to 6 feet. The interior is formed 
of a mass of loose stones of various sizes. The walls are composed of rough stones, some- 
times of great size, packed with smaller ones to render them more even. No mortar is used. 
In one of them a square chamber is to be seen, and also a kind of cist. Doubtless such 
cavities exist in the others, and I hope before leaving Jerusalem, if the weather allow of it, 
to make some excavations with the object of discovering their character, whether sepulchral 
or not. 

' Dr. Robinson's account of these curious mountains (" Later Biblical Researches," p. 287 ; 
ed. 1856) is very incorrect, and unworthy of his usual shrewdness. He says, after various 
wrong measurements and details, " they are such as the Arabs may have thrown together in 
no very distant times." To me, the rude massive character of the constructions and their 
disposition give them an air of great antiquity. Lengthwise they lie, generally speaking, 
north-east and south-west, but the direction varies in each. Among the people they are 
known as the Kabur Ben' Israim. When I first heard this curious form I had it repeated, 
and then it was put in the more usual way, Kabur Beni Israil, but the former was given me 
by three separate individuals. They are also known as Kabiir el Amalikeh.' — 'Quarterly 
Statement,' 1874, p. 78. 

El Kadeirah (N s). — A few houses, inhabited during the olive 
harvest. 

K e b a r a (L t). — Large heaps of stones on a knoll above the main 
road ; perhaps, as the name signifies, an ancient kiln. 



[SHEET XVIL] ARCHAEOLOGY. 103 

Kefireh (L t). — Foundations, terrace-walls of large stones, a 
building 300 feet by 100 feet, on a hill, surrounded by olives. The site 
(see Chephirah, Section A) is very conspicuous — a fortress, with rocky 
scarps and terraces, and with an olive-grove below. An old road with 
rude side walls leads to it. Each terrace rises 6 to 12 feet, and there are 
traces of an old ascent. The stones in the principal building are about 
2 feet long, with rustic bosses projecting about 4 inches. Millstones and 
well-mouths cut in stone also occur. 

Kefr Nat a (N s). — Walls, cisterns, and a IMukam. The ruins 
do not appear to be very ancient. 

Kefr Rut (K s). — Remains of ancient ruins, extending over a con- 
siderable area. A tree grows among the ruins, and there are stones 
belonging to an ancient olive-press 7 feet high, 3 feet cross-section, with 
grooves down the sides. There are foundations of good-sized masonry, 
and to the north a ruined Mukam called el Huriyeh or Umni 
R Li s h. 

Visited April, 1873. 

Kefr Shiyan (L s). — A large tank exists here under a building. 
There are rough vaults of large and small masonry mixed ; some of the 
stones are drafted. To the east are rock-cut tombs. 

El Keisaraniyeh (M u). — Traces of ruins, a rock-cut tomb — no 
loculi visible. 

El Keniseh (J s). — Foundations and traces of ruins. 

Keniset er Raw at (M u). — There is here a subterranean Greek 
church, reached by 20 steps, containing some pillar shafts and remains of 
tesselated pavement. Above this are ruins which have stones dressed 
with the diagonal dressing, probably part of the Crusading church of the 
Angelus ad Pastores. A Latin altar stands among these ruins. The 
chapel measures 30 feet east and west, by 20 feet north and south. It 
has three apses on the east, the middle one 10 feet in diameter. Remains 
of old frescoes exist in the apses, representing the Virgin and child, etc. 
The floor and walls are partly cut in rock. There is a poor modern 
screen, and modern Greek pictures. On the south side two windows are 
now blocked up with debris. Four capitals stand on the floor, one being 
of Corinthian order; they are probably mediaeval. In 18S2 the stones 



104 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

were being collected above for building purposes. The plot of ground 
is covered with olive trees, and is in an open arable plateau, commonly 
called the Shepherd's Plain. 

El Khan (J u). — A few heaps of stones by the main road. 

Khan Mi ska (L s). — Remains of a hostel; a tank with pointed 
arches. Some of the masonry is drafted. 

Khan er Ram (M s). — Vaults belonging to a small ruined hostel 
not apparently very ancient. (See er Ram.) 

El Kharubeh (J s). — Traces of ruins. 

Khurab eth Thureiya (K u). — Foundations. 

Khtirbet 'Abb ad (J u). — Caves, cisterns, heaps of stones, ruined 
foundations, and pillar shafts and bases. 

Khurbet el 'A b d (K u). — Traces of ruins. 
K h u r b e t A b e r j a n (L s). — Traces of ruins. 

Khiirbet el 'Abhar (L u). — Ruined watchtower, and traces of 
walls, apparently ancient. The masonry of stones 2 feet to 4 feet long, 
drafted with a rustic boss. 

Khurbet Abu 'Adas (L u). — Large stones and traces of ruins. 
Khurbet Abu ' A t r a h (M u). — Traces of ruins. 
Khurbet Abu B u r e i k (M u). — Traces of ruins, walls, two pillar 
shafts, and a small modern watchtower. 

Khurbet Abu F u r c i j (K s). — Traces of ruins. 

Khiirbet Abu Hueilan (N t). — Heaps of stones, apparently 
modern. 

K h i^i r b e t Abu K u 1 e i b e h (L u). — Ruined walls and a well. 

Khiarbet Abu Leimun (M t). — Traces of ruins in an orchard, 
with a spring. 

Khurbet Abu M a k 1 r e h (N t). — Traces of ruins. 

Khurbet Abu I\I a s e i r a h (N t). — Ruined walls. 

Khurbet Abu ]\I u h a m m e d (L t). — Heaps of stones on a high 
hill. 



[SHEET XV 11.] 

Khurbet Abu 
Khurbct Abu 
Khurbet Abu 
Khurbet Abu 
Khurbet Abu 



ARCHEOLOGY. 



105 



Rus (N s). — Heaps of stones. 
Sad (N t). — Traces of ruins. 
S II d (L u). — Traces of ruins. 
S u w a n (N t). — Heaps of stones. 




'■<'y^yy;^/-^^^,:iyp/<': 



Z a r u r (L s). — Traces of ruins. 

Khurbet 'Adaseh (northern) (Ms). — A mound with heaps of 

stones. Visited 20th February, 1882. 

' On the south side of this ruin especially much ^york has been expended on the rock. In 
many places the cutting appears to be due to quarrying, but as the rock scarps are almost 
entirely hidden by soil, it is difficult to speak with certainty. In some places, 
however, the cutting was no doubt effected for the entrance to a tomb, as for ^^ 
instance that shown. It seems probable that both a quarry and a cemetery 
exist on this slope of the hill. The entrance to one tomb is visible, but is closed with 
rubbish. No doubt many others have been cut in the vertical rock surfaces in the quarry, 
which extends roughly over an area 100 yards east and west, by 50 yards 
north and south. On the west of the hill near the top is a cutting in 
the rock 7 feet by 3 feet 6 inches by 3 feet 6 inches deep. This is too 
large to be a rock-sunk tomb, and a channel leading into the cutting 
shows that it has been used for collecting rain water. A well cut 
hollow in the rock, 10 inches across, was found not far distant. On 
the top of the hill we found the caves shown. They are rock-cut 
and fairly well executed. They are below the surface of the ground, and one descends to 
them through a rough rock-cut shaft. On the right-hand side, on entering the larger cave, 
a groove is cut to receive a door. A 
bolt-hole is still visible. The caves 
are partly filled with rubbish, and no 
kokhn or loculi were to be seen. 

'A tomb was found on the east 
slope of the hill. At the level of the 
present surface of the ground are 
seen traces of a bench on each side, 
as shown in the sketch. There are 
a large number of cisterns on the 
'Adaseh hill. A small cistern, 9 feet 
by 6 feet, is cut in the quarry on the 
south. Near the top of the hill is a 
large and remarkably well made cistern, 
shown as a dotted circle in the sketch. 
An underground aqueduct, 30 feet in 
length, is also shown in dotted lines. 
We were quite unable to understand 
its use. There is no connection between it and the large cistern, but a side passage leads to 
a second cistern, closed up, of which a small portion is shown by dotted lines. The aqueduct 
VOL. III. I^. 



D. 



'4. 



I 
f 




c 



Scdo 



io6 



THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 



is cut in the rock to a depth varying from 4 feet at the part nearest the large cistern, to 10 feet 
at the end. The width is i foot 6 inches to 2 feet. The top is covered with slabs of stone 
placed across from side to side and covered with stones and earth. The sides are covered with 
good cement, containing small pieces of charcoal and pottery, to a thickness of 2 \ inches. The 
slabs are removed at the end nearest the cistern, and from this point the aqueduct is entered. 
The other line in the figure represents cuttings in the rock on the surface. At A part of a 
cistern is visible. At B is a square chamber, perhaps for collecting water. At a few yards 
distance we found traces of another cistern, lined with good cement, containing large pieces 
of pottery and also charcoal. Among the ruins at the top of the hill are the mouths of several 
closed cisterns, while the fellah who took us round pointed out several other places where he 
said cisterns had been found and closed up. On the south slope is a birkeh, or reservoir, 
S I feet 6 inches by 3 7 feet 6 inches, partly rock-cut, partly masonry, and near it three large 
cisterns. On the north of the hill the corner of another birkeh is visible. The sides are 
covered with earth, so that it could not be measured, but its size must be about 40 feet by 
20 feet. The ruins at the top of the hill include the foundations of a building, or tower, 
13 paces by 12 paces. Other foundations and heaps of stones are seen all round. Several 
pieces of columns of pink and grey limestone, and some well-cut stones, show that a 
building of some importance once stood here. Several wine-presses may be seen in the rock 
surface. We found a piece of tesselated pavement, containing six or eight tessera;, and an 
ornamented piece of pottery. The ground among the ruins is covered with chips of pottery. 
'There are no springs at Khiirbet 'Adaseh, the nearest being at El Jib, distant \\ miles, 
but tire tombs, cisterns, and other indications, show that the present ruin marks an important 
ancient site.' A. M. M. 

Khiarbet 'Adaseh (southern) (M t). — Ruined walls, a small 
birkeh about 25 feet by 14, and numerous rock-cut cisterns. 

Khurbet el Ahmad iyeh (L u). — Ruined walls. 

K h II r b e t 'Aid (M s). — Heaps of stones, quarried rock, a rock-cut 
cistern, and on the east rock-cut tombs with loculi. 

Khurbet 'A in el Keniseh (L u). — A small ruined chapel is 
here built on the north side of a scarp and west of a spring. The north 
wall and part of the apse remain. The walls are 7 feet thick ; the church 
measures t,?, feet east and west, exclusive of the apse, and 18 feet north 

and south, interior measure. The true 
bearing is 63°. The apse 12 feet 
diameter. The stones in the walls 
are rudely squared, i^ to 2 feet in 
length, the faces undressed ; on the 
east, outside the apse, is a stone with a 
rustic boss. The masonry is set in hard cement, and the joints are packed 
with chips of stone. The apse had a domed roof, and the interior was 




&aU -ih 



[SHEET XVIL] ARCHEOLOGY. 107 

covered with cement. There are remains of a small window and traces 
of a second in the apse. The scarp continues 30 feet east of the church, 
and the spring here issues from the rock. In the south wall are two 
recesses, 2 feet and 3^ feet wide respectively. They have semicircular 
arches of small masonry, with keystones. About 50 feet west of the 
church are two rude caves in the scarp. 
Visited October 13, 1873. 

Khiirbet 'A in et Tut (L t). — Ruined walls. 

Khiirbet Aklidia (J u). — Foundations, heaps of stones, and 
cisterns. 

Khurbet el 'A kid {K s). — Foundations of houses, traces of 
ruins, and caves. 

Khurbet el Alaun (M t). — Traces of ruins. 

Khurbet 'Alia (L u). — Traces of ruins. 

Khurbet 'Almit (N t). — Ruined walls and numerous rock-cut 
cisterns. Apparently an ancient site. 

Khurbet el 'Aly (J u). —Ruined walls, foundations, rock-cut 
cisterns. In the valley to the south there are springs. An old road 
runs on the north-east side of the ridge. 

Khurbet 'A m ran (K u). — Traces of ruins. 

Khurbet el A sad (or Lesed) (K u). — Ruined walls on the 
hill. Apparently an ancient site of a village. 

Khijrbet 'Askalan (L s). — Traces of ruins, foundations, and 
heaps of stones. 

Khurbet 'Atturah (L s). — Heaps of stones and caves. 

Khurbet 'A u w a d (L s). — Traces of ruins. 

Khurbet B a 1 1 u t el H a 1 i s (M s). — Traces of ruins. 

Khurbet Baradah (K s).— Heaps of stones. 

Khurbet Batn es Saghir (L t). — Ruined walls, 

Khurbet el Bedd (M u). — Ruined walls. Rock-cut tombs. 
(See Bir Beit Bassa.) 

Khurbet Bedd F a 1 u h (M t). — Ruined walls and a cistern. 

Khurbet el B e d d a d c i n (K t). — Ruined foundations. 

14 — 2 



io8 



THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 



Khurbet Beit Jaza (L t). — Traces of ruins. 

Khiirbet Beit Jiz (J t). — Traces of ruins and a sacred Mukam. 
To the south are caves. There are foundations and cisterns amongf the 
ruins. On the south-west, in Wady el Kharjeh, are a number of pits con- 
taining a perennial supply of good water. They are called 'Ayun el Henil. 

Khurbet Beit Mizmir (M t). — Ruined walls and quarries. 
The name of this place was given to Guerin as Khurbet 'Ain Karim. He also found a Latin 
tradition that the house of Obed Edom, where the Ark rested for three months, stood here. 

K h li r b e t Beit M i z z a (L t). — Ruined foundations. 
' These ruins occupy the upper part of a lofty hill, now under cultivation. The traces of 
a wall, which once surrounded the plateau, can be discovered. The sides of the hill are also 
cultivated and disposed in terraces. ... As for the plateau, it is covered with innumerable 
pieces of broken pottery, and materials of all kinds from houses destroyed. I saw also several 
threshing-floors or open spaces levelled on the rock ; and beside the last of these, large 
cisterns cut in the rock, shaped like funnels upside down.' — Gu&in, ' Judea,' i. 363. 

Khurbet Beit Noshef (K s). — Foundations in an orchard. 

Khurbet Beit Shebab (L s). — Foundations. 

Khurbet Beit Skaria (L u). — From the main Roman road on 
the south a path leads to this ruin, situate on the brow, overlooking deep 
valleys on the east and north. Beside the path is a square foundation 
about 50 feet side, of roughly-dressed stones. The 
remains on the hill-brow are those of a large modern 
village, with more ancient foundations. 
One wall consists of stones ^^ feet 
long, 2 feet high, roughly dressed. 
There is also a mosque, with a portico 
on the west, sunk below the surface. 
On the north side of this portico a pillar is placed 
with a capital of basket-work (see Sketch), like the 
eighth century Byzantine capitals. The shaft is 2 feet diameter. The 
mosque door was shut ; perhaps it may represent the site of the church 
which once stood at this place. (See Section A.) Drafted stones with 
a rough boss were also found, and another capital, apparently Byzantine. 
To the west of the site are rock- cut tombs, now blocked. A tree grows 
over the Mukam, or mosque. 
Visited 21st October, 1873. 





{SHEET XV//.] ARCHAEOLOGY. 109 

K h u r b e t el B e i t u n i (j\I s). — Foundations ; apparently a modern 
ruined village. A cave called Umm el 'Amdan exists near, also a 
cemented cistern and tombs with bench lociili. The cave measures 



\ 
\ 



^ . 







Scale IGFeet to 1 luc}^ 

50 feet by 25 feet (see Plan) ; the roof is 6 feet from the floor, and is 
supported by two rock piers, whence the name, signifying ' Mother of 
Pillars.' A tomb was measured 9 feet square, with a bench round three 
sides 3 feet wide. The entrance is closed with a wall of masonry. 

Khurbet Belled el Foka (J u). — Heaps of stones. 

Khurbet el Biadir (N s). — A garden with traces of ruins. 

Khurbet el B i a r (M s). — Traces of ruins, heaps of stones ; a 
rock-cut cistern. 

Khurbet Bir el 'Edd {K t). — Ruined walls, and rude rock-cut 
tombs. 

Khurbet Bir el Leimun (J t). — Foundations, heaps of stones, 
cisterns, and a rock-cut wine-press. Beneath is the Bir el Leimun, 
surmounted by a building about 14 paces square (35 feet), with a door 
to the north. The walls are some S feet thick on the north and south, 
and thicker on the east. The well is under the floor of the building, 
of good masonry. There is an entrance, with pointed arch on the 
north, of moderate masonry. In the north-west corner of the building 
outside is a stone, drafted with a rustic boss. It is about 7 feet long, and 
2^ feet high, the draft 5 inches wide on three sides, 10 inches on the 



no 



THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTIAE. 



fourth: a lintel is also built into the wall. In the bottom course, the 
remains of an ornamented medallion, and of a cross in a circle, are trace- 
able. There is a staircase leading to the roof in the thickness of the 
south wall. The building is probably modern, with ancient material 
used up. 

Visited May, 1875. 

Khurbet Bir er Rasas (Ms). — Foundations of rough masonry ; 
terrace walls ; a cistern, partly rock-cut, with a square mouth ; a small 
cave, and some broken pottery. 

Khurbet Bir esh Shafa (L s). — Traces of ruins. 

Khurbet Biar Luka (M u). — Traces of ruins and cisterns. 

Khurbet el B li k e i a (M t). — Traces of ruins. 

Khiirbet Biikeia Dhan (N t). — Traces of ruins and cisterns. 

Khiirbet el Bureij (K s). — Traces of ruins. 

Khiirbet el Burj (M t). — A large arched building, a tower, 
possibly of Crusading date. To the south is a sacred place — apparently 
a tomb — a sort of platform with drytsone walls, about 20 feet by 30 feet 
and 5 feet high. (See Khurbet Samwil.) 



r""FT" 



Tm^irr^jmrrwrnrmiT^^r^rr^. 



kittcm-j 






WinJet ' ' ' '• 



'/Ml'//.} 

M 



The tower (see Plan) is a very conspicuous object ; the roof is flat 
above, with a tunnel vault inside. A staircase leads to the roof on the 
south-east side. The four windows have pointed arches. The building 
is about 76 feet by 20 feet. The joints of the masonry are wide, and 
packed with stone shivers. Older ruins of a small town — walls, founda- 
tions, and heaps of stones — occur round the tower. 

Khurbet el B ii s 1 (K t). — Traces of ruins. 



[SHEET XVII.'] ARCH.EOIOGY. iii 

Khurbet ed Daly (K s). — Foundations. 

K h li r b e t e d D a r (K u). — Ruined house. 

Khurbet Dar Mustafa (K s). — Ruined house. 

Khurbet Darieh(Ks). — Traces of ruins. A rough wall of flint. 

Khurbet ed Dawarah (N s). — Traces of ruins. 

Khurbet ed Debeidbeh (Ms). — Walls, foundations, and heaps 
of stones. 

Khurbet ed Deir (L u).— Foundations. 

Khurbet Deir 'A m r (L t). — Ruined walls. 

Khurbet Deir Dakir (J t).— Traces of ruins. 

Khurbet Deir Ibn 'Obeid (N u). — Ruins of a modern 
village. 

Khurbet Deir Hassan (L s). — Traces of a small ruin. 

Khurbet Deir K a 1 u s (K s). — Traces of ruins. 

Khurbet Deir er Rohban (J s). — Foundations, and a very- 
large cistern. 

Khurbet Deir S el lam (M s). — The ruins appear to be those 
of a church, but no apse remains. There is a large vault below (Ms). 
The second ruin of the name (Kt) consists of modern walls and rock-cut 
cisterns, apparently a ruined village on an older site. On the east is a 
modern tomb and a rock-cut wine-press. 

Khurbet Deir esh Sheikh (L t). — Traces of ruins. 

Khurbet D e i r y (K u). — Foundations and cisterns, apparently an 
old site. 

Khurbet Dheneb el Kelb (K s). — Traces of ruins. 

Khurbet ed Dikki (N t). — Heaps of stones and cisterns; ap- 
pears to be an ancient site. 

Khurbet ed Dirish (K s). — Traces of ruins. 

Khurbet e d D r e i h e m e h (L s). — A ruined watch-tower, with 
two wells, beside the Roman road. There is a small spring on the 
opposite side of the valley, south of this ruin. 

Khurbet Duhy (K u). — Foundations. 



1 1 2 THE SUR VE V OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

Khiirbet ed Duweir (L s). — Foundations and a Mukam. 

K h u r b e t E r h a (M s). — Heaps of stones. 

K h u r b e t 'E r m a (K t). — See account in Section A. 

Khurbet Erziyeh (Ms). — Traces of ruins. 

Khiirbet 'Esh-shy (Ms). — Traces of ruins. 

Khiirbet Faaiish (K s). — Traces of ruins. 

Khiirbet Faghiir (L u). — Ruined walls on a hill. A spring, 
and rock-cut tombs. The place appears to be an ancient site. 

Khurbet Faraj (M t). — Traces of ruins, cisterns, and kokwi 
tombs. 

Khiirbet Fiiakseh (M t). — Traces of ruins. A pillar, 2\ feet 
in diameter, with a hole in one end, lo inches across, 8 inches deep ; on 
one side of the shaft a cross is cut, 2 feet 3 inches long, 16 inches wide, 
and 6 inches thick. A cave exists near, 27 feet by 22 feet, with a single 
koka, 6 feet long. 

K h iA r b e t el F u 1 (J t). — Foundations. 

Khurbet el Furrar i. — A ruin above Bir el Kantarah, and west 
of it. A cave, some rock-cut cisterns, and rude foundations. 

K h ia r b e t el G h a s h e i n a (K u). — Foundations. Apparently of 
ancient masonry. 

Khurbet Habeik (K u). — A double ruin, with heaps of stones 
on mounds. An ancient road leads thence to J e b a. 

Khurbet el Hadabeh (N t). — Traces of ruins. 

Khiirbet el Haddad (M t). — A small building of square 
masonry, roughly dressed. Apparently ancient. 

Khurbet H a d i d (J t). — Traces of ruins, and rock-cut cisterns. 
The ruins do not appear very ancient. 

Khurbet Haditheh (K s). — Heaps of stones. 

Khurbet el Hafy (L s). — Traces of ruins. 



[SHEET XVIL] ARCHAEOLOGY. 113 

K h li r b e t el H a i (N s). — Foundations and caves. Remains of a 
hamlet. Enclosures on the hill-top of rude stones, perhaps for threshing 
floors ; also a large cistern, on the hill-top, with two stone troughs. On 
the south side of the valley are other caves. 

Khiirbet Haiyan (N s). — There are foundations round the 
Mukam of S h e i k h Ahmed, from which good-sized stones are excavated, 
and pillar-shafts are obtained by the villagers of D e i r D i w a n. An oak 
grows by the Mukam. There are three large rock-cut reservoirs called 
el J a h r a n, respectively 36 paces, 1 5 paces, and 46 paces long. When 
seen in winter they were full of water. To the south, in the side of the 
valley, are rock-cut tombs, one of which has a porch measuring about 
30 feet wide and 10 feet to the back. North-west of the tanks on a bare 
rocky slope is a row of eight tombs, all choked up but one, and all 
apparently much alike. The one now open has an approach like some 
of the tombs near Tyre ; it is a square chamber with three locjili, one on 
each wall ; the door is reached by a shaft sunk in the rock surface about 
5 feet by 3 feet, and 4 feet deep. The door is at one end of this shaft. 
North of this is the stony hillock called et Tell, covered with broken 
stones, and with steep sloping sides. A few wind-stricken olives occupy 
the flat terrace at the top. To the south the old road runs, and between 
the road and Khiirbet Haiyan there are several cisterns, and a 
millstone 5 feet diameter. The view from e t Tell embraces the plain 
of Jericho and the north end of the Dead Sea. 

Visited January 22, 1874; June 17, iSSi. 

Khiirbet el Haiyeh (N s). — Heaps ot stones, ruined walls, a 

ruined building, and a cistern. The place stands on a Tell, and appears 
once to have been a village. 

Visited January, 1874. 

Khiirbet el Haj Hasan (J t). — Foundations. 
K h li r b e t H a j e i 1 e h (RI u). — Traces of ruins. 
K h II r b e t el H a m a m (J s). — Traces of ruins. 
Khi^irbet Ham dan (L u). — Traces of ruins. 
Khiirbet Hamdhal (K u). — Foundations. 

VOL. III. 15 



114 THE SUEVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

Khtirbet Hammadeh (K t). — Traces of ruins. 

K h li r b e t H a n n a (K u). — Traces of ruins. 

Khiirbet Harash (L t). — Traces of ruins, a wine-press. In the 
valley to the east is a small spring called 'Ain el Henii. 

Khurbet Haradan (N u). — Ruined walls. 

Khiirbet Harfush (L s). — Traces of ruins, 

K h li r b e t H a r s i s (K t). — Traces of ruins. 

Khiirbet Hasan (J t). — Foundations. 

Khurbet el H a w a (K s). — Traces of a small village site. 

Khiirbet HazzCir (M t). — Traces of ruins and rock-cut cisterns. 
Tombs with koknii, one having niches for lamps. There are also two 
ruined reservoirs, with drafted masonry in the walls, the stones 4 to 6 feet 
long, the boss rustic. The cement used is hard, and mixed with pottery 
and pebbles. The site has the appearance of an ancient place. The 
spring ('Ain Malakah) has a rock-cut tunnel, a trough, and a niche 
5 feet high, i foot deep. 

Khiirbet Hebeileh (L u). — Ruined walls. 

Khiirbet Hellabi (K s). — Ruined walls. 

Khurbet H i b a (J s). — Foundations. 

Khurbet Hirsha (K t). — Foundations. 

Khurbet el Hosh (L t). — Foundations of rude small masonry 
and a small pillar-shaft, probably modern. 

Khiirbet Hubin (K t). — Foundations of a small ruined village 
with a Kubbeh. 

Khurbet el Hum mam (K s). — Foundations. 

K h 11 r b e t I b n 'A u w a d (M s). — Traces of ruins. 

K h li r b e t I b n Barak (M s). — Traces of ruins. 

Khurbet Ikbala (L t).— Also called Dcir el Ben at. A 
ruined convent in tlie valley, with some fine trees to the west. At the 
foot of the ruins on the south-east a stream ilows over a rocky bed in 



[SHEET AT//.] 



ARCHEOLOGY. 



"S 



winter. The building measures 87 feet east and west, by 120 feet north 
and south. There were vaults below the building. The walls are 
standing on three sides, but destroyed on the east. The outer walls are 
7 feet 6 inches thick. The masonry resembles that of the church of 
K li r y e t el 'E n a b, and is rudely dressed, except at the angles of the 
building, where the stones are well dressed, and drafted with a diagonal 
dressing. Some of the foundation-stones along the south wall are also 
drafted. 

The arches of the windows on the south wall are pointed, but 
very broad and flat, with a narrow 
keystone. A kind of small balcony 
or machicoulis exists under a window 
in the north wall. A tower projects 
on the west and south. The mortar 
used is good ; the joints are thick, and 
are packed with small stones in the 
mortar. 

A great number of masons' marks 
were found on the stones (see Plan). 
There can be no doubt that the build- 
ing is of Crusading date, probably 
built about the time of the erection of 
St. Jeremiah at Kiaryet el 'Enab. 
For the traditions connected with the site, see Section C. 

Visited and planned January 17, 1874, Revisited INIay 25, 1875. 

Khiirbet Ilasa (L s). — Traces of ruins. Terrace walls and 
scattered stones. A trough, 7 feet 3 inches diameter, 28 inches deep, 
6 inches thick, with an outlet, 7 inches diameter. Traces of an old 
walled road. A rock-cut cemented cistern. The masonry is much 
worn. 

Khiirbet Ism Allah (J t). — Foundations. 

Khurbet el J ami a (L u). — Foundations, and walls surrounding 
a ruined place, sacred to N e b y D a n i a 1, on the highest part of the hill. 
It seems to have been a small village. 




MasanJ Marks 



15- 



ii6 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

Khiirbet Jeba (K t). — Scattered stones on a hill-top. Rough 
walls, and stones of an olive-press. 

Khurbet el Jedeir (L s). — Foundations and pillar shafts. 

Khiirbet Jedireh (J t). — A foundation of good-sized masonry- 
exists here, and a tower 30 feet square, in ruins ; there are also rock-cut 
cisterns, and three vaults with round arches. The ruins appear to be of 
Byzantine date. 

Visited May, 1875. 

Khiirbet Jem ah (M t). — Traces of ruins. 

Khurbet Jennabet el Gharbiyeh (J u). — Foundations, 
heaps of stones, and cisterns. 

Khurbet Jennabet esh Sherkiyeh (J u). — Foundations, 
heaps of stones, caves, and cisterns. 

Khiirbet Jenar (K t). — Traces of ruins. 

Khiirbet el Jerabeh (K t). — Traces of ruins. 

Khurbet J e r i u t (L s). — Foundations. 

Khurbet J o k h d h tj m (N u). — Foundations and cisterns on a 
hill. 

Khurbet J u b b e r Rum (N u). — Traces of ruins and cisterns. 
Khurbet Jubeiah (L t). — Traces of ruins. 

Khurbet el Jufeir (L s). — Traces of ruins. A rock-cut 
cistern. Remains of an old road. 

Khiirbet el Jufna (L s). — Foundations. 

K h li r b e t J u n j u 1 (K s). — Traces of ruins. 

Khurbet J f i r i s h (K u). — Foundations on a high hill-top, ap- 
parently an ancient site. An old road leads to the ruin. 

K h I'l r b e t el K a b b u s h (L s). — Traces of ruins, and a sar- 
cophagus. East of the ruin a rock-sunk tomb, covered by a stone 7 feet 
long. Cisterns and jambs of doors occur in the ruins. On the hill 
opposite to the south is a tunnel, 25 feet long, 4^ feet wide, 3 feet high, 
found full of water. 

Visited 27th June, 1881. 



[SHEET XVII.] ARCHEOLOGY. 117 

K h li r b e t K a k u 1 (M t). — Ruined walls, and many rock-cut 
cisterns, a cave and a rock-cut tomb, also a grave, or loculus, sunk in the 
face of the rock. The place seems to be an ancient site. 

K h u r b e t K a r r i t (N t). — Foundations and heaps of stones. 

Khurbet Kebar (M u). — Traces of ruins. 

Khiirbet Kefrata (J s). — IModern ruins of a village, with a 
Kubbeh. Rock-cut cisterns, and vaults with round arches.* 

Khurbet Kefr Rasy (K s). — Foundations, cisterns, and 
rock-cut tombs. Apparently an ancient site. To the south-west are 
caves. 

Khurbet Kefr Tas (Ms). — Foundations. 

Khurbet Kefr U r i e h (J t). — Traces of a former village. A 
large site, surrounded with springs, and with a Mukam to the west sacred 
to Sheikh N e d h i r. 

Khurbet el K e r e i n a (L s). — Heaps of stones. 

Khurbet K h a 1 1 e t el 'Adas (M s). — Traces of ruins. 

Khurbet Khallet el Beida (M u).— Ruined walls and 
rock-cut bell-mouthed cisterns. 

Khurbet Khallet es Sidr (N s). — Traces of ruins. 

Khurbet Khallet e t T a r h a h (M t). — Traces of ruins. 

Khurbet Khamasa (L u). — Ruined walls and foundations of 
a building, measuring 34 feet north and south, by 36 feet east and west. 
The masonry is of fair size, rudely dressed. There is also a cave, 
apparently a cistern. (See Section A, Emmaus.) 

Khfirbet el K ham is (L s). — Caves, and a modern building. 
The second of the name (Mu), has now almost disappeared. 

Khurbet el Khan (K u). — Walls, and a tank in ruins by the 
main road. West of it are some ruined watchtowers on the hill. 

* This place is called Kefr Tab on some maps, but special inquirj' in iSSi showed the 
Survey spelling to be correct. 



ii8 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

K h li r b e t el K h a r j e h. — A ruin above 'Ain el Kharjeh on the 
west. A few foundations of rough masonry. 

K h u r b e t K h a t u 1 e h (K t). — Traces of ruins and caves. 

K h li r b e t K h e i r (K t). — Traces of ruins. 

K h li r b e t el K h e i s h u m (J u). — A very prominent hill top, or 
Tell, the top covered with ruins, consisting of foundations, heaps of stones, 
caves, cisterns, and fallen lintel-stones. The place appears to be an ancient 
site, and the ruins very old, but the masonry is probably of Byzantine 
times, the caves and cisterns being older. To the north is a rock-cut 
wine-press. 

K h li r b e t el K h li d r i y e h (N s). — Traces of ruins. 

K h li r b e t K i a f a (J u). — Heaps of stones. 

K h li r b e t K i 1 a (J t). — Foundations. 

Guerin found here a subterranean and circular vault, apparently ancient ; the vestiges 
of a wall surrounding the plateau, and on the side of a neighbouring hill, tombs cut in the 
rock. 

K h li r b e t K u d e i s (L u). — Ruined walls and a cave. 

K h li r b e t el K u f f (M u). — Traces of ruins. 

K h fi r b e t el K u r s i n n e h (K u). — A mound of earth. 

K h fi r b e t el Kuseir (Lu). — Traces of ruins. Rock-cut tombs 
below. 

K h li r b e t el K li s r (K t). — Square foundations of good-sized 
masonry. A rock-cut cistern, vaults, and a cave. The place appears to 
have been a station on the Roman road. 

K h li r b e t el K i^ s s i s (M u). — Traces of ruins. Two or three 
rock-cut tombs on the hill-side, and a wine-press. 

K h fi r b e t el K u s u r (L t). — Foundations. 

K h u r b e t el La h m (L s). — Traces of ruins. 

K h Ti r b e t el L a 1 1 a t i n (L s). — Traces of ruins. Old dry- 
stone walls, a few cut stones much worn. A rock-cut tank ; a ruined 
vineyard tower ; broken pottery. I'he site is overgrown with a vineyard, 
but an old road runs liy it. 



{SHEET XVn.'\ 



ARCH.EOLOGY. 



119 



K h li r b e t el Loz (L t). — The village is in a ruinous condition, 
the tombs are inhabited, and the locidi broken away. There is an ancient 
ruined watchtower, with walls and traces of cultivation, about ]- mile to 
the south, and a millstone lying on the hill-side. 

Khiirbet el Lozeh (L t). — Remains of a small ruined hamlet in 
a valley. 

Khiirbet el IMahmeh (L s). — Foundations, walls, and rock-cut 
cisterns, cemented inside. The masonry is massive and rough, the stones 




'H M- •5;: ■•,. ■:'■', '.°. 



kKM'^0':%J'^^&^M:--^^A 






. . . O' . . , 








Upper storey' shcwinp roofing 




Lower storey shci^ir^ rooting 



r.u . 



much weather-worn, a few drafted with rustic bosses. The joints are 
' irregular, and packed with chips in mortar. Three pillars, 8 feet long, 
19 inches in diameter, are lying in the ruin. A square block of masonry 
juts out of one of the terraces, and in this are three chambers (see Plan) : 
two on the upper story, one beneath. The lower chamber measures 



120 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

8|- feet by 6 feet inside, and is roofed with very rough slabs, lo feet by 
2 feet, and 2 feet thick. The upper-story chambers are 6 feet by 6 feet, 
and 3 feet by 7 feet inside, and about 2 feet high, roofed with similar slabs, 





KHURBET MEDBES. 



6 feet to 7^ feet long, and about 2^ feet wide, and i foot thick. These 
chambers were possibly tombs. (Compare Kabur Beni Israim, p. 100.) 
Visited 27th June, 1881. 

Khurbet el Makhrflm (N u). — Foundations, caves, and cisterns, 
apparently Byzantine work. 

Khurbet M a 1 k a t-h a h (K u). — Foundations, ruined walls, and 
cisterns, possibly of Crusading date. 

Khurbet M a r m i t a h (K t). — Modern ruined walls. 

K h u r b c t el Mater d a t. — A ruin a liltle north of Khurbet Umm 



{SHEET X I'll. ] AR CH^OLOG Y. 121 

ed Deraj (J t) ; foundations of rough stones remain, and a rocl<-cut wine- 
press. 

Khiirbet el Mazar (IM u). — Traces of ruins among the vine- 
yards, north of Bethlehem. 

Khiirbet Medbes. — Just west of the village of el Jib. Walls, 
foundations, a great cave, and a cistern with a rock-cut column. The 
cave (see Plan) appears to be a tomb ; its roof is supported by three rock 
piers ; it is about 30 feet square, with recesses at the sides, some of which 
are cemented. In one of these, to the left, the back w^all is excavated to 
form a cross, 7 feet high, 2 inches deep. (Compare el Jib.) The cistern 
has a central rock-pier, and a cross cut in relief on the rock-roof; it is 
14 feet deep, and 20 feet by 30 feet. 

Visited 29th June, 1S81. 

Khiirbet I\I e i t a (L s). — Traces of ruins, caves, and rock-cut 
tombs, terrace walls, and broken pillars. The masonry seems to have 
been well cut, but is now much weather-worn. The site is partly covered 
with olives, figs, and vines. The tombs are rude caves, but have well-cut 
doors. 

K h li r b e t INI e k i k a (M t). — Traces of ruins. 

Khiirbet Menaa (K s). — Traces of ruins. 

Khi'irbet el ]\I e ragh ib (M t). — Foundations of a large building. 
Old walls and watchtowers. 

Khiirbet Merj el F i k i eh (K t). — Traces of ruins. 
Khiirbet el ]\I e sh e r fe h (J t). — Traces of ruins. 
K h ii r b e t INI e z m u r i a (M t). — Traces of ruins. 

Khiirbet Mismar (K t). — Traces of ruins. On the hill-top to 
the south-east there are foundations. 

K h 11 r b e t M u r a n (L t). — Traces of ruins. 

K h ii r b e t el INI u r u s s fi s (N t) . — A ruined monastery with a 
chapel, the foundations only remaining. The building has a total measure 
of 270 feet east and west on a line 86° west. The width north and south 
is about 90 feet. The chapel to the east has three apses. The nave 
1 8- feet 3 inches diameter, the aisles 1 5 feet 6 inches. The length inside 
VOL. in. 16 



122 



THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 



from the back of the apse is 64 feet. The northern aisle is almost entirely- 
destroyed. Remains of tesselated pavement occur on the floor of the 
southern aisle. The chapel has an atrium on the west and narrow cloisters 
on the north and south. In the latter is a well. A tower of later date 
(S h li n e t M u r li s s u s) has been built in the south-west corner of the 
building, and to the south of this are remains of the cobble-pavement 
(whence the place is named), in a courtyard the eastern wall of which 
is visible. The tesselated pavement of the chapel has a simple pattern, 
red, white, blue and black. West of the building there is a cistern mouth 
with an octagonal cover, 6 feet 4 inches diameter, or 2 feet side. The 



Ti70'. 0" 




zopFetc 



Maltese cross is cut on each side of this octagon. The cover may perhaps 
have been originally a font removed from its proper place. The cistern 
beneath is of considerable extent, and has to the north another entrance, 
with steps leading down. A water-channel runs some 10 yards south- 
west to a small reservoir, about 10 feet square, which was fed from the 
larger cistern. 

One of the stones in the building was measured and found to be 3 feet i 
inch long, i foot 5 inches high, 2 feet 2 inches thick. The stones in the tower 
are older material used up ; one had a cross, in a lozenge and square, cut on it. 
The ruin stands on a hill 500 feet above the valleys, and there are traces 
of a considerable site and other cisterns of good size. Between the ruin 
and Kh fir bet ed Dikki there is a rude erection which looks 
almost like a dolmen. Two slabs rest on others, and below there is a small 
semicircular jjlatform of unhewn stones, and lower down a small natural 
cave. (See Section C.) 

Visited 22nd February, 1S74. 



[SHEET XVII.] ARCHMOLOGY. 123 

K h Li r b e t el INI u s r y (M s).— Traces of ruins. Walls, founda- 
tions, scattered stones. 

K h li r b e t N a b h a n (K t).— Ruined walls and part of a pillar- 
shaft. 

Khiirbet en Nahl (M t). — Foundations. 

K h u r b e t en N e b y B u 1 u s (J u). — Heaps of stones round 
a Kubbeh. The latter is modern, with a cenotaph and a vault below, 
which looks like Crusading work, and is entered by a door on the west 
having a lintel with an ornamented boss. North of this building is a fine 
birkeh. The site has evidently been that of a small village. 

Khurbet en Ned a (L s). — Traces of ruins. 

K h u r b e t en N e j j a r (M u). — Traces of ruins. 

Khurbet en Niateh (K u). — Foundations, cisterns, and stones 
of an olive mill. 

Khurbet Nisieh (Ms). — Traces of ruins. 

Khurbet N ft h (K u). — Heaps of stone and ancient terrace walls. 
Rock-cut tombs. The spring ('A i n Bint N u h) has a round arched 
vault above it. The place has the appearance of an ancient site, and is 
part of the ruin of 'A 1 1 a r es Sifleh, which see. 

Khurbet R a b a (K t). — Modern ruined walls. 

Khi^irbet er Raghabneh (N t). — A square foundation, cisterns, 
and roughly hewn stones. 

Khurbet R a k u b u s (K s). — Foundations, a cave, scattered stones, 
and a rock-cut tomb which is choked up. 

Khurbet er Ras (L s) (N t). — Heaps of stones. 

Khiarbet Ras Abu 'Aisheh (J t). — Foundations, heaps of 
stones, cisterns and caves. 

Khurbet Ras Abu Murrah (J t). — Foundations. 

Khurbet Ras el 'A 1 w e h (M t). — A large rock-cut cistern. 
Tombs rock-cut and cemented inside, being chambers without loculi. 

Khurbet Ras el Bad (M t). — Heaps of stones. 

16 — 2 



124 



THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 



y^K otiJTfti I'm . 



Khurbet Ras el J urn. — A small ruin, a little north-east of 
Sijrdh. Foundations of large stones exist here, and a few tombs blocked 
with earth. The masonry is of very rough character. 

Khurbet Ras el Mughar (L s). — Traces ol ruins. 

Khiirb.et Ras es Sinobar (L s). — Traces of ruins. 

Khurbet Ras et Tawil (M t).— 
Heaps of stones. A rock-cut wine-press, 
several rock-cut cisterns, and a cave. 

Khurbet er Rumaneh (L s). — 
Terraces and scattered stones. 

Khurbet Ruweisun (J s). — Foun- 
dations and a cistern. 

Khurbet Salreh (K u). — Foun- 
dations on a hill, with a spring below. 
The place looks like an ancient site. (See 
Section A, Shaaraim.) 

Khurbet S a m m u n i e h (K t). — 
^^^ Square foundations and cisterns. On the 
^.w„>j#=i^ hill-top is a foundation measurlncj 2^ feet 
north and south, 16 feet east and west. 
_^^^^_ It is filled with rubbish. A stone with a 
SS^y draft 3 inches wide was observed in it. 
S^y About 60 or 70 yards to the south is a 
^^ rock-hewn cistern, 12 feet deep, 15 feet 

square. About 90 yards south of the last, 
and lower down, is an oval cistern, 8 feet 
by 13 feet. On the inside are 32 niches 
cut in the walls, probably for beams. Two 
more broken cisterns occur some 80 yards 
further south, lower down the hill, and 
about the same distance again further 
south is a well called B i r e s S a 1 i b, cut in rock, 2\ feet square, with 
a trough to the west, 5 feet by 10 feet. The hill-top, which is conical, is 
a very remarkable natural feature. It rises abruptly from a deep valley, 
and is very conspicuous. 




Scal^ to be tu^ed. furm^s 9f ohitcti cnZy 

KHURBET SAMmOnIEH. 



[SHEET XVII.] ARCHEOLOGY. 125 

K h li r b e t Sam w i 1 (M t).— Traces of ruins. Walls, caves, and 
cisterns cut in rock. Immediately south of Khiirbet el Burj, forming part 
of the same site. There is also a large mound, with side walls of dry- 
stone. It is marked as a tomb on the map, and appears to be a modern 
Arab grave. 

Khurbet Sanasin (K u).— Foundations on a high hill-top; 
apparently a ruined village. 

Khurbet e s S e f a r ( J t) .—Foundations. 

Khurbet es Selamiyeh (L t). — Foundations. 

Khurbet Shab A i 1 i as (L t).— Foundations. 

Khurbet esh Shaghrab (M u). — Traces of ruins and 
cisterns. 

Khurbet esh Sheikh Ibrahim (K t). — Modern founda- 
tions. 

Khurbet esh Sheikh Sad (K u). — Modern ruined walls. 

Khurbet esh Shekhetah (K u). — Foundations and rock-cut 
tombs. 

Khurbet esh Sherkiyeh (L u). — Ruined walls. 

Khurbet Shufa (K t). — Foundations. 

Khurbet Shuweikeh (J u). — Foundations and ruined walls, 
caves, cisterns, heaps of stones, and two rock-cut wine-presses. (Cf. 
Section A, Socoh.) 

Khurbet es Siagh (K t). — Foundations and cisterns. Ap- 
parently an ancient site. 

Khurbet Sir el Ghanem (M u). — Ruined walls, vaulted 
cisterns, and tombs. It appears to be an early monastery. 

Khurbet es Somd (IM t). — Heaps of stones; a cistern 14 
paces by 4 paces, with a rubble roof ; and a ruined building, apparently 
modern. There is a remarkable knoll of rock in the ruin, whence the 
name, ' ruin of the heap.' The top of this knoll is surmounted by the ruin 
of a small vaulted chamber. There are also a few rock-cut tombs on the 
south-east, now closed. 



126 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

K h li r b e t e s S u b r (L t). — Walls of a ruined watchtower, pro- 
bably modern. 

Khiirbet Subhah (M u). — Cisterns and stones. There is a 
curious masonry tomb in the valley beneath, with a stone door still in 

place. 

' A very interesting tomb has recently been opened about two miles from Jerusalem in 
the direction of Sur Bahir. It consists of a cave in which has been constructed of masonry 
a chamber measuring i\ feet by lo feet, with "deep" locuU., also of masonry, on each of its 
four sides. The roof of this chamber is formed by the rock, which slopes downwards tosvards 
the door. The loculi are eighteen in number — eight on the left side (four above four), six on 
the right (four above two), two at the end opposite the door, and one on each side of the 
door. They are all somewhat larger than the usual rock-cut loculi, measuring nearly 2 feet 
by 2 feet. They were each closed by a stone slab carefully fitted, and these slabs have been 
removed by the fellahin, and are now lying upon the floor of the chamber. On the north 
side, opposite the door, is the usual bench, also of masonry. The entrance is by a descent of 
seven or eight steps ; it is closed by a stone door still in situ, and swinging on its pivots, and 
having a groove on its inner side for the lock. Some of the lead with which the lock was 
fixed still remains. The masonry is of large well-dressed stones, and the joints are carefully 
cemented. The loculiis farthest from the door on the western side leads into a portion of the 
cave beyond the masonry, and in this are ancient loculi sunk in the rock. In one of the 
loculi remains of iron nails and wood were found, which probably formed part of a coffin. No 
inscriptions or crosses Avere discovered upon the masonry, or the lamps found in the tomb, 
but a cross is rudely cut on the rock outside, and there can be little doubt that the masonry 
is of the Christian period, an old sepulchral cavern, whose loculi had crumbled away, having 
been utilized by building new tombs within it. On a hill just above is a site called Khtirbet 
Subhah, where are several cisterns and large stones. One of the latter bears some rude 
crosses cut upon it. Masonry tombs are very rare in South Palestine, and the stone door 
still upon its hinges is unique. It is much to be desired that this monument be preserved 
from destruction, but there is probably little chance of this, as the stones are valuable for 
building. The swinging stone door in a tomb of comparatively recent date is of considerable 
archceological interest, as showing that these doors were in use at a later period than is 
commonly supposed.' — Thos. Chaplin, M.D., 'Quarterly Statement,' 1876, p. 61. 

Khurbet es Sukker (Kb). — Traces of ruins. 

K h u r b e t S Ci r i k (J t). — Traces of a ruined village, springs, with 
a rock-cut wine-press and cave to the west, and a sacred tree. (Cf 
Section A, Sorek.) 

K h u r b c t S 11 w a n e h (K .s). — Foundations. 

K h f I r b c t S u w e I d i y e h (K s). — Heaps of stones. 

Khiirbet Suweikch (Ms). — Walls, foundations, and heaps of 
stones ; pieces of tcsselated pavement. (Cf Section A, Sechu.) 



[SHEET XVIL] ARCHEOLOGY. 127 

K h li r b e t e t T a n t li r a h (L u). — Traces of ruins. 

K h li r b e t T a z a ( L u). — Traces of ruins. 

K h u r b e t e t Tin (K s). — Traces of ruins. 

Khurbet et Tircli (Ms). — Traces of ruins. 

K h u r b e t U m m el 'A s a f i r (M u). — Traces of ruins. 

Khurbet Umm el 'Am dan (J s). — Traces of ruins. The 
second place of the name shows a few foundations. 

K h u r b e t U m m el 'Adas (J u). — Caves, ruined walls, heaps 
of stones, foundations and cisterns. 

Khurbet Umm ed Dejaj (K u). — Walls and bell-mouthed 
rock-cut cisterns, with rock tombs, now in ruins. It appears to be an 
ancient site. 

Khurbet Umm ed Deraj (J t). — Foundations. 

Khurbet Umm Haretein (J s). — Traces of ruins, a few rock- 
hewn cisterns, remains of an olive-press. 

Khurbet Umm el Jemal (N t). — Traces of ruins. 

Khurbet Umm Jin a (J u). — Foundations, heaps of stones, 
and cisterns, with a Kubbeh called Sheikh Heider. (See Engannim, 
Section A.) The place is a ruined village, still inhabited as an 'Ozbeh 
by the peasantry during the harvest. 

Khurbet Umm el Kulah (L u). — Traces of ruins near a 
fine oak tree. 

Khurbet Umm en Neteshah (M u). — Ruined walls. 

Khiarbet Umm er Rujman (K s). — A large square enclosure. 

Khurbet Umm Sariseh (J t). — Foundations. 

Khurbet Umm esh Sherit (Ms). — Foundations. On the 
west side of the hill are quarries, and in these a tomb — a chamber 8^ feet 
square, with a bench round the sides and back, about i foot high and 
2 feet broad. The chamber is only 4 feet high. 

Khfirbet Umm esh Shukf (L u). — Traces of ruins. 



128 THE SURVEY OF U'ESTERX FALESTEYE. 

Khurbet U m m Toba (M u).— An ancient site with bell- 
mouthed cisterns and ruins of modern buildings. To the east is a 
Mukam of Neby Toba. (CL Section A, Netophah.) 

Khurbet U m m Tunis (J u).— Cisterns, heaps of stones, a 
fallen pillar-shaft, much weatherworn. A rock-cut tomb with a round 
masonry arch to the door. The ruins seem probably Byzantine. 

Khurbet Wady 'Alin (J u). — Foundations, walls, and rock- 
cut cisterns. Probably an ancient site. By the road is a small square 
watch-tower. The road here leading south appears to be ancient. 

Khurbet Wady Idris (N s). — Traces of ruins. 

Khurbet Wady S a h y u n (M t). — A modern ruined house. 

Khurbet el Y a r m il k (J u). — Heaps of stones, foundations and 
cisterns. (Cf. Section A, Jarmuth.) 

Khurbet el Yehftdi (L u). — Traces of ruins and a rocky 
scarp on the brow of the hill. 

Khurbet Z a b b il d (K t). — Traces of ruins. 

Khurbet Zakuka {M u). — Traces of ruins. 

Khurbet Z a n u a (J u). — This is a large and important ruin on 
high ground. (See Zanoah, Section A.) It lies mainly east of the road, 
but remains are also found on the hill-top to the west. Several chambers 
with entrances surmounted by round arches are visible beneath the 
surface. One measured ii feet by 8 feet, with a lining of good hard 
cement on the walls and on the vaulted roof, which has a round arched 
section. 

There are many foundations of the walls of houses ; the stones are 
much water-worn, and average 2 feet to 3 feet in length. A lintel 
6\ feet long was measured. Millstones, small stone troughs, and one of 
the pillar-stones of an oil-press, lie on the ground. On the south is a 
small wine-press ; near the road is a rock-cut beehive cistern, and several 
of the same kind are found in other parts of the ruin. A rude cave-tomb, 
with three locnli and a well-cut entrance, was observed. A pillar with a 
Latin cross deeply incised, measuring 12 inches vertically by 9 inches 
across, lies towards the southern part of the site. On another stone are 
remains of a wreath in relief, such as is sculptured on sarcophagi. The 




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{SHEET XVI i:\ ARCHEOLOGY. 129 

Stone measures 2>\ feet in lenc^th by \\ feet in height. Voussoir stones 
also lie among the ruins. In the middle of the site is the modern Mukam 
of Sheikh Abu Fatmeh, with two chambers and a dome. It is kept very 
clean, and a small broom and a water-bottle hang on the wall. The walls 
are daubed with mud, with rude sketches of palm leaves, suns, etc. In 
the niches of the walls jars and pottery lamps are left as offerings. 
Visited 4th July, 1881. 

Khilirbet ez Zeit or Khurbet Harfush (L s). — Traces of ruins. 

K h li r b e t Z u n u k 1 e h (K t). — Heaps of stones on a conical 
top ; a ruined cistern. 

K u b b e t R ah i 1 (M u). — A modern Moslem building stands over 
the site, and there are Jewish graves near it. (See Palestine E.xploration 
Fund Photograph No. 250, and Section A.) The Kubbeh is now a square 
building, with a court on the east. ' The original building (as represented 
in some of the older views) was open, with four arcades (one on each face) 
supporting the dome. These have been filled in except on the east, 
where a second chamber has been built on. The original square building 
measures 23 feet side, the arcades having a span of 10 feet. The height is 
approximately 20 feet, not including the dome, which rises another 10 feet. 
The chamber added to the east measures 13 feet east and west, by 23 feet 
north and south, externally. The covered court, east of this again, has a 
window and a mihrab on the south, and a double window on the east. 
On the north is a low wall. The court measures about 23 feet square, 
and is used as a praying-place by Moslems. The inner chambers, entered 
by a door, of which the key is kept by the Jews, are visited by Jewish men 
and women on Fridays. The inmost chamber under the dome contains a 
cenotaph of modern appearance. 

A monument on this spot is constantly mentioned from the year 
333 A.D. In 700 A.D., Arculphus speaks of a pyramid on the site. In 
1 1 72 A.D. Theodoricus calls this place Chabratha — a very old error, 
arising from mistranslation of the Hebrew rendered ' a little way ' in the 
Authorised Version. (Genesis xxxv. 16.) The LXX renders the word 
Hippodrome, whence Rachel is said by Origen to have been buried in the 
hippodrome of Ephrata. (Cf Theodoretus as quoted by Reland, s.v. 
Caphratha, vol. ii. p. 704.) Aquila renders the word mas, ' by the road- 
VOL. Ill, 17 



I30 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

side,' which agrees well with the position of the present site. The pillar 
erected by Jacob has disappeared; but there is no reason to doubt the 
genuineness of the tradition, in which Jew, Moslem, and Christian agree. 
Rachel's tomb was in the border of Benjamin (i Samuel x. 2), near 
Bethlehem (Genesis xxxv. 16). 

Josephus places Rachel's tomb 'over against Ephrata.' (Antiq. 
i. 21, 3.) In 1 163 Benjamin of Tudela speaks of the monument as con- 
structed of eleven stones, and covered by a cupola on four pillars. Sir John 
Maundeville in 1322 speaks of twelve stones. For the curious tradition 
of the ' field of peas ' see Section C. Theodoricus, who is the first to allude 
to it, speaks of Rachel's monument (in 1172) as a pyramid— as in 700 a.d. 

In 1333 A.D. Isaac Chelo mentions the twelve stones and a stone 
cupola. In the 'Jichus ha Aboth ' a sketch of the monument is given. 
(1537 A.D.) It is represented as a square building with arcades and a cupola. 
It appears probable that the oldest part of the present structure may 
date back as early as the twelfth century, but the second chamber to the 
east and the outer court are additions within the present century, at which 
time also the arcades were probably filled in. 

Rachel's tomb was visited several times by the Survey party, the latest 
visit being in May, 1882. 

' To avoid the difficulty about Raniah, one writer has placed Rachel's Sepulchre iwrtli of 
Jerusalem. 

' The site, however, at Kubbet Rahil marked out by common tradition agrees well with 
Genesis xxxv. 16. "They journeyed from Bethel, and there was but a little way (Chabrah) 
to come to Ephrath," which is Bethlehem. This term has been rated as high a.s four miles, 
but as (2 Kings v. 19) Gehazi, being pressed for time, could hardly afford to give Naaman so 
much start, a mile is more than sufficient, so that the accepted site may be regarded as prac- 
tically correct. 

' The punishment of Gehazi, as well as Elisha's death and tomb, ought (it seems to me) 
to be put at Abel Meholah. Then "the Ophel " (A.V. tower, 2 Kings v. 24) would be one of 
theadjacentTellsinthe Jordan Valley.' — Rev.W. F. Birch, 'Quarterly Statement,' 1S80, p. 241. 
El Kubeibeh (L s). — There is a ruined Crusading church in 
the grounds of the hospice, which has lately been excavated. The build- 
ing measures 103 feet from the back of the nave-apse to the west wall 
inside, and 50 feet in interior width. The bearing was 96° 30'. The 
nave 16 feet wide in the clear, the aisle 11 feet 5 inches. The three 
apses had each a stone altar still in sitti. The church was four bays in 
length, with piers having attached semi-columns on the sides of the nave, 
each I foot 10 inches In diameter ; the pier 4 feet square. The apses 



{SHEET XVI I :\ 



ARCHAEOLOGY. 



131 



were raised two steps, and there are signs of fire on the stones. The 
masonry of the interior is well dressed ; some of the stones have diagonal 



tj^^asys 



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dressing ; their size is the ordinary size in such churches. The following 
masons' marks were collected : 



Dd. 



^ 



^ ^ 
V ^ 






The corner stones outside arc drafted. The walls are 4 feet thick ; 
there are some 10 courses standing in the apse walls. A sarcophagus 
was found with a double cross on it — probably a bishop's tomb. 

The place seems to have been important in Crusading times ; west of 
the village are remains of the old main street, with buildings beside it. 
Since the fifteenth century Kubeibeh has been shown by the Latins as the 
Emmaus of the New Testament. 

Visited and planned 27th May, 1S75. 

El K u d s. — The account of Jerusalem is reserved for another volume, 
K i^i 1 a t el G h u 1 e h (L t). — A large detached block of rock in the 




valley. A small chamber is excavated in it, 6 feet square, with a very 
small door on the west, \\ feet wide, 2 feet high. There is a channel 
from the door down the face of the rock, as if to carry off water. (See 
Sketch.) Such chambers are very common east of Jordan. 

17 — 2 



132 



THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 




■mf 

SectioTi cnA-H 



Kiilonia (L t). — In the valley immediately west of the restaurant 
is a ruin, to which the name K li s r M e 1 e k el Y e h u d is sometimes 
given by the joeasantry. A vault remains, with a wall of drafted stones, 
well cut, 4 or 5 feet long, the draft ^\ inches and 6 inches wide, 2 inches 
deep, the face of the boss dressed flat. The walls are lo feet thick; there 
is no trace of cement in the interior. The place seems probably to have 
been a small monastery, of the Byzantine period. 

Visited 17th January, 1874. 

Kuryet el 'Enab (or Abu Ghosh) (L t). — The ruined 

Church of St. Jeremiah, in the valley, is one of the best preserved 

specimens of Crusading work in the country. 
The building is remarkable from its unsym- 
metrical plan — the east wall is 2^ feet longer 
than the west. The length of the building 
outside is 90 feet ; the breadth on the west, 
outside, is 68 feet. The side walls are 8 feet 
thick ; the west wall is set back twice in its 
height, the base measure being 12 feet. The 
nave apse is 13^ feet diameter, the side apses 
iii feet. The church consists of four bays, 
with heavy square piers, 3^ feet side. 

The church has a crypt beneath, occupying 
the two eastern bays, and having also three 
apses. There are two galleries under the aisles, 
20 feet long, 3 feet broad, running west from the 
crypt. They seem to have formed a communica- 
tion between the crypt and the church above, but 
they are now much choked up with earth. The 

entrance to the crypt is now on the north, by a side door, with steps within. 

In the crypt is a spring, with steps leading down to it from the floor. 

The nave of the church has a clerestory with windows ; the total 

height to the roof from the church floor is about 50 feet ; the crypt is 

17 feet high, in addition to the 50 feet. 

The finest feature of the church is the west window of the clerestory 

(see Palestine Exploration Fund Photograph, No. 153), which is pointed so 

slightly as to appear almost semicircular. The arches of the door and 



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[SHEET Xr/I.] ARCHEOLOGY. 133 

remaining windows are of the same character. The vaults are all groined ; 
those of the nave roof are supported on dwarf columns, or brackets, with 
capitals of Gothic design, lilce those of the church of Samaria. (See De 
Vogiie, ' Eglises de la Terre Sainte,' p. 341.) 

The masonry of the outer walls is extremely irregular, the courses not 
being continuous horizontally. Small and large stones are used indis- 
criminately, and the dressing is very rough. * *rC*\vf'/-»YD 
Many of the stones are drafted, especially the -^ CD ^ \j x i\ 
corner stones. Well-dressed stones of good "T^ ' L" y^ p 
size, not drafted, are also used at the corners, ^^ «_» ^^ ^ 
and the general appearance is that of a building O """^ ]^ 
reconstructed from older material. The masonry \,v 
of the clerestory is, however, well dressed throughout. There are buttresses 
between the windows outside on this story, supporting the thrust of the 
roof, but this arrangement is not continued on the lower part of the building. 

The joints of the masonry are very broad, and are patched with chips 
of stone ; the vertical joints are not always properly broken ; the drafted 
stones have rustic bosses with a considerable projection. Three or four 
kinds of dressing are observable, ist. The undrafted corner-stones have 
a diagonal dressing with a sharp pointed instrument ; in some cases 
the instrument was used in two directions, giving a criss-cross 
pattern. 2nd. The smaller masonry in the apse interiors has lines all 
vertical, cut with a toothed instrument. 3rd. The piers of the crypt are 
dressed with a blunt instrument, used at right angles to the face of the 
stone. 4th. Hammer-dressed stones occur on the exterior. 

The north door has an arch more decidedly pointed than the windows. 

The door of the crypt has a lintel, with a relieving arch above. The 
stones used in the vaulting are narrow and well packed together, and laid 
in mortar. Numerous masons' marks occur on the wall. 



134 



THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 



The foregoing list gives an idea of the comparative frequency with 
which the various signs occur. 

The Maltese cross is twice repeated on the north-west corner of the 
outer wall. In the crypt are found other marks. The only mark used 
on the piers is the hour-glass, or two triangles with apexes joined. 

Of these masons' marks a maority occur in the Muristan at 
Jerusalem, at K auk ab el Haw a, and at Beit Jibrin — all places 
dating about 1 140 a.d. This would agree with the arches of the building, 
which are just of the transition period, between the round and pointed 
arch. The building is not mentioned in any Crusading Chronicle, so that 
its date is unknown historically. 

The interior of the church is cemented, and was once painted in fresco 
on the cement. There are traces of the nimbi of saints on the apse-walls, 
and on the north walls various figures : a bishop In a pallium of Byzantine 
appearance, and architectural and geometrical designs are dimly visible. 
There are numerous graffiti on the walls, scratched on the paintings. 
The place was used at one time as a stable, but has been lately cleared 
out by the French Consulate. 

Visited 12th February, 1875. 

Kiiryet Saideh (L t). — Traces of a large building occur in 
this ruin. There are also remains of a village built in part of older 
masonry. Cemented vaults of small masonry were found. Part of a 
lintel with an inscription is built upside down into a wall. The other half 
is in another part of the ruin. 

The inscription was written originally on a lintel-stone, 9 feet 3 inches 
long, 2 feet i inch high, with a cross in a circle in the centre. It dedicates 




the building to which it belonged to the Lord, in the name of Martin the 
Deacon, and the character of the contractions seems to render it probable 
that the text is not older than the twelfth century. 

The vaults in these ruins have pointed arches, and the haunch-stones 
of a groined roof, such as was not used before the twelfth century in 



[SHEET XVIL] ARCH.EOLOGY. 13S 

Palestine, remains. The Mukam of Sheikli Ahmed is towards the north, 
near a group of three very fine oaks and two carob-trees, which occupy 
the crest of the ridge, and are very conspicuous on all sides. The build- 
ing is modern. A pillar-base has been built in over the doorway on the 
north side. Ploughs, guns, and other articles are here left by the 
peasantry for safety. To the west, about 300 yards distant, a small 
spring is collected in a modern birkeh, measuring 7 paces by 5 paces. 
This is known as ' A i n K u r y e t S a i d e h, and waters vegetable- 
gardens extending down the north slope of the ridge. There is another 
spring on the southern slope of the hill, below the ruins. Drafted stones 
with a rustic boss also occur in the walls ; and the general appearance is 
that of a Crusading site with a later Arab village, now deserted. The 
neighbourhood is very rocky. 

Visited iSth October, 1873 ; Sth and 13th July, iSSi. 

K li s r 'A 1 y (N t). — Foundations and cisterns. 

K fi s r 'A we is (M u). — Probably a ruined Khan. A ruined 
watch tower. 

K u s r el B e d a w i y e h (M t). — Ruined house. 

Kiisr el Khudr (M t). — An ancient garden tower with vaulted 
roof. 

K li s r e s h Sheikh (M t). — A ruined house. 

Latron (J t). — The ruined walls of a mediceval fortress on a knoll 
overlooking the plain. Walls and vaults of good-sized masonry, but of 
indistinguishable plan, remain. The arches are pointed. On the west 
are remains of a sloping revetement of undrafted stones ; large drafted 
stones lie among the ruins. The modern hovels are built in the ancient 
vaults. The natives consider part of the ruin to be a chapel. West of 
this site, near Howard's new hotel, is a rock-cut Jewish tomb, now shown 
to visitors as the Tomb of the Maccabees (see Section A) ; it has nine 
kokim. A second tomb exists in the ruins. 

Gue'rin speaks of a second wall, below the fortress and on the side of the hill, which 
formerly surrounded the city properly so-called. Nothing remains of this city, however, 
except vaulted magazines, cisterns, and wells. 

Ganneau ('Quarterly Statement,' 1874, p. 170) mentions a tradition among the fellahin 
that the place was formerly surrounded by a high wall. He also mentions a tradition that 
there exists a subterranean passage between Latron and Soba. 



'J 



6 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 



Malhah (M t). — South-west of the village is a cave called El 
INIedbah measuring- ■^^ f^^^ by 20 feet, reached by a passage 13 feet 
long by 4-^ feet. North-east of the village is another cave (Umm 
Babein) 37 feet across. On the east is a tomb with six kokim and an 
outer chamber. 

On Malhah, its people and antiquities, M. Clermont Ganneau thus writes : — ' I have just 
made an excursion to the village of Malhah, south-west of Jerusalem, where I picked up a 
little information not without its value. There is nothing very curious in the houses, except 
a ruined burj near the mosque. I remarked in the angle of a house not far from it a broken 
inscription, very faint, perhaps only a flourish. Inside another house I was shown the 
entrance, now closed, of a cavern, the door of which would have borne an inscription. The 
approaches to the village, and the little hill which rises before it (same orientation) are filled 
with tombs cut in the rock, one of them containing fragments of ancient potter)'. They 
showed me a kind of long box in dried earth, with rounded angles, found probably in one of 
these tombs, full of bones. It measures very nearly thirty-six inches in length, and looks like 
a small bath. I propose to go and open one or two of those tombs. 

' According to a tradition of the Mawaleh, or inhabitants of Malhah, they may be divided 
into two categories of different origin ; the one coming from trans-Jordanic regions, the other 
from Egypt. 

'Their pronunciation is something quite peculiar. It is chiefly characterized by the 
sound of the long a, which is very full, and closely resembles the sound of 0. 

' The water of the fountain, 'Ain Ydlo, a little distance west-south-west of Malhah, enjoys a 
great reputation. The Mawaleh, when they wish to praise it, say that they weighed its water 
in the Mijan, and found it lighter than gold ; which does not prevent it from being heavy for 
drinking. 

' The immediate environs of Malhah contain many localities which appear to be of import- 
ance : for example, Khurbet el Fowagesi, on a hill, whose terraces in stages can be seen from 
'Ain Yalo. A little more to the east is a place called "Q ' 1 a e s S o u n w a n," the '^ Rocks of 
Flint" to which is attached a singular legend. It was formerly an inhabited place ; but the 
people having drawn on themselves the wrath of God, the whole region was transformed into 
flint. The sin committed was that the women did not use the bread for the nourishment of 
their children. I do not see wliat lurks beneath this story, unless it be some relation with 
the use of flint by the Canaanites in primitive ages. I shall see when I visit the place if it 
shows any traces of the working of stone. 

'The Mawaleh have pointed out to me, not far from Malhah, three great mounds, on the 
J e b e 1 e t T a w a g i, west of the village, Rujm Afanil, Rujm Ataya, and Rujm et Tarud. 
They are probably the three tumuli indicated by Prokesh and Tobler (Topog. 761), on the 
left hand of the road from Malhah to 'Ain Karim. The D a r ii d of Tobler must be my 
Tarud. I see, too, that Mr. Drake ("Quarterly Statement," January, 1874) speaks of these 
tumuli, which he names el Atyya, el Tarud, and el Barish. 

' The position of Malhah, and the numerous tombs which surround it, are enough to 
indicate that wc must look for an ancient locality near it. Up to the present no identification 
proposed appears either happy or important. The best known is that of Schwarz, which has 
been generally repeated. Malhah would be mentioned in the Talmud under the form 
■Malkhaya, as the country of a certain Rabbi Jose. From a phonetic point of view this 



{SHEET XVII.] ARCHEOLOGY. 137 

identification is very well ; but it has no historical value at all, this being the only place 
where Malkhaya is mentioned at all. Some authors have even doubted the exactness of this 
otherwise insignificant connection. Thus Neubauer, in the " Geography of the Talmud," 
remarks that the Talmudic Malkhaya must be looked for in Upper Galilee, because this 
Rabbi Josi! is named in the passage with another Rabbi coming from Sikhnin, a place 
undoubtedly Galiltean, and he recalls the fact of the existence of a town called Malhah in the 
neighbourhood of Ctesarea.'—' Quarterly Statement,' 1874, p. 160. 

Mtigharet Bir el Hasuta (K u). — This curious cavern 
under Beit 'Atab appears to have been a gallery leading towards the 
spring ('A in Haud) from the centre of the village. It is evidently- 
artificial, and extends 250 feet, reaching within 50 or 60 yards of the 
spring. The eastern entrance is a shaft some 10 feet deep, with niches 
in the side walls, perhaps to assist in climbing down ; 65 feet from this 

-j-eHK'lAlA 




entrance is an old side doorway. The cave is not straight (see Sketch), 
but the general direction is first 34° for 65 feet, then 6° true bearing for 
74 feet, then 71° for 50 feet. The width on the east is 17^ feet, the height 
8 to 10 feet ; the width at the further end is 8 feet, and the height only 
3 to 4 feet. The end is here blocked. A few small stalactites occur on 
the walls, which are roughly hewn. (See Beit 'Atab, Section A.) 
Visited 23rd October, 1873. 

Miigharet el Jai (N s). — This is a large cave on the south 
side of Wady Suweinit. The name is written rather too far west on the 
Map, and the cave should really be shown on the west edge of Sheet XVIII. 
The area of the cave is about 8,700 square feet in all : the branch to the 

VOL. Ill, 18 



138 



THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 



east being about 640 square feet, the passage to the back 1,200 square 
feet, and the branch at the back the same. The second small chamber in 
the face of the rock is inaccessible except through the larger cave, and is 
some 900 square feet in area. The name J a i is probably the same as 
the Hebrew N'J, 'A place where water collects.' The cave is very dark, 
and the further parts are low and ill-ventilated. It was revisited and 
planned on 25th June, 1881, in consequence of the suggestion that it was 




Scale rf Feet - 
)o M ac ^ so M 10 to 90 fot 

—I 1 1 i-^_J 1 1 1 — 1 1 



the hiding-place of the 600 Benjamites who fled from Gibeah. (Judges 
XX. 47.) It was found to be much too small to hold such a number of 
men. The cave is probably natural. A second to the east, called Umm 
el Jemal, is inaccessible. There are many other caves in the valley which 
have served as hermitages ; and a group now inaccessible occurs on the 
north at El Hosn, resembling in external appearance the hermit caves 
near Jericho. (See Sheet XVIII., Section B.) 

' I have the pleasure to report to the Committee of the Palestine Exploration Fund that 
I have been able to examine carefully a curious spring of water called 'Ain Suweinit and a 
large cave of refuge known to the shepherds as Mughclret el Jai, possibly Grass Cave (Jawa), 



{SHEET AT//.] ARCH.-EOLOGY. 139 

in Wady Suweinit, both on the souths or Benjamin side of the ravine, the former 450 feet 
below the Ras el Krein (Migron?), or eastern end of the Plain of Jeb'a, and about fifteen 
minutes' descent from the said spot ; the latter 200 feet lower down the cliff, and twenty 
minutes or half an hour's clamber from the spring. 

' Dr. Chaplin is in reality the author of the search, and was only prevented by illness from 
accompanying me last week in quest of this spring, and to him any thanks are due for this 
communication. I have visited the spring and cavern twice ; on the former occasion I was 
unable, owing to accident, to do more than find them, but on my return to Jerusalem Dr. 
Chaplin begged me to communicate with you, and feeling that without measurement such 
communication might be of less use to you, and that much more might be gathered from 
the inhabitants of Jeb'a about this cave, I spent a second day in measurement, etc. On 
this second occasion ]\Ir. Salami, the Consul's secretary, accompanied me, and gave 
most valuable assistance in interrogating the natives of Jeb'a and in taking down 
the names of the hills, ravines, caves, etc., in Arabic from their lips. Since then 
he has most kindly inquired into the roots of some of these, and has furnished me 
with the interpretation of the meanings of most of them that most approve themselves 
to his mind. 

' Both fountain and cave are well known to all the inhabitants of Hizmeh and Jeb'a, but 
owing to superstitious fear no shepherd, as far as I could learn, has ever penetrated beyond 
the main entrance of the cave Miigharet el Jay, or Jai. Our guide on both occasions was an 
old shepherd, Mhesen Hassan, and he told us that he had been shepherd all his years, and 
as a boy used the cave for an " ossub " (a sheep wintering-place), but had not entered the 
main passage. 

' The tradition in the village of Jeb'a, we learnt from the villagers assembled, is — 

'(i) That the Christians used it a long while ago, when God sent an evil wind to 
destroy them. 

' (2) That it has been used time out of mind for refuge by the neighbouring villagers 
when prosecuted by the Government. 

'(3) That it extends from Wady Suweinit to Jerusalem. 

' As to the size of the cave, the current tradition in Jeb'a is that it will hold 600 men, a 
coincidence in number with the Bible account of the Benjamite refugees in the rockRimmon 
(Judges xx. 47). One man asserted vehemently that it was large enough to contain 6,000, 
but the number 6 seemed invariable with them. The shepherds asserted that the main 
entrance cave held 16 flocks of 100 sheep in each. This number I obtained on separate 
testimony from three or four Jeb'a shepherds. 

' As to the time during which the cave is tenanted now, it appears that each winter the 
shepherds use it as an " ossub " for their sheep, remaining in it from fifteen to sixty days, 
according to the weather ; that it becomes so hot owing to want of ventilation, that when fine 
sunny weather comes they are driven from the cave by heat. But it appeared afterwards 
that want of fuel in abundance and within easy reach is also the cause of their not making 
too long a stay in the cavern. 

' In old days, if one is to trust the derivation of the name Suweinit, from the abundance 
of sunt, or thorn, or acacia bushes, this latter hindrance to a long stay in the cave would 
not exist ; the more so that of all the woods used for fuel in this country, the sunt, when 
grown to size, is considered best by the peasantry. (A story was told me of a man who lit a 
single branch of sunt (acacia), cooked his food for three successive days by it, left the cave 

iS— 2 



140 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

ill which he was staying for a week, and on coming back found the little log still burning.) 
But, my informant said, this is only the case if the sunt bush is grown to a good big size. 
These big-sized acacia bushes do not now exist in the upper part of Wady Suweinit. We 
may argue, perhaps, therefrom, that the wooded growth of the valley is not the same as it 
was in Saul's time. If this is so, we shall not be surprised to find no remains of any pome- 
granate or runiman trees, such, for instance, as the one under which Saul was sitting in the 
uttermost part of Gibeah (i Samuel xiv. 2). 

' The first question that naturally arises as to the possibility of water-supply for the shep- 
herds or tenants of the cave el Jai is answered by the custom of to-day. The shepherds 
who use the cave as a wintering-place (ossub) take their flocks to the spring 'Ain Suweinit, on 
the cliff ledge to the west, or towards Jeb'a, but if necessary go down the valley to 'Ain Farah 
and Fowar, one hour and a half down east — both on the southern or Benjamin side ; or from 
two other springs, 'Ain er R'aian and 'Ain esh Sherar, also down towards the east, but on the 
northern or Philistine side of the ravine. 

' The next question we asked was, the amount of water obtainable per day from the spring 
'Ain Suweinit. The shepherd said that twenty goat-skins would empty it, but that if so 
emptied, it would be full in half a day again. This is a smallish supply, but we may remem- 
ber that time and want of care must have much choked the basin, and that possibly in old 
times a great deal more would be obtainable from it. One quotes the Selah Spring, near 
Solomon's Pools, as an instance of this choking up of a spring, and consequent diminution of 
supply. 

' It appears, too, that just at the point where, after passing over the Plain of Jeb'a, we 
descend into the ravine to visit 'Ain Suweinit and its one large karoob-tree, there is a 
large cistern by a well-known fig-tree at Khiirbet et Tineh, which would be within easy reach 
of the cave Mugharet el Jai. This is filled by the early rains, and remains full till the end 
of harvest time, when the farming men finish the supply as they work at the harvest-fields 
near. 

' As to the approach to the spring and cave, the former is easily reached along a good 
goat-path from the big " ossub," or shepherd's shelter, Khiirbet el Hai (the place of the 
camping-ground), so called, they say, from the Bedawin use of the cliff near. 

' This Khurbet el Hai is on the brow of the declivity, at the easternmost end of Jeb'a 
Plain, and from this Khurbet el Hai, which is capable of affording shelter to 100 sheep, is 
obtained the best view of the spring and karoob-tree of the Suweinit. 

' The spring could, if necessary, be clambered down to from above, but, placed as it is on 
the slight plateau half-way up the hill-side, above a sheer cliff with scarp below, an approach 
from the valley to it would be impossible. As to the latter, the cave Mugharet el Jai, it is 
reached with comparative ease from the AVady bed by following a goat-path, and lor the rest 
is well placed as a cave of refuge ; for, while communication can be kept up between it and 
the spring 'Ain Suweinit by scrambling along the rock scarp below the line of cliff on which 
the spring is situate till within 100 yards of the spring, and then ascending to the plateau of 
the 'Ain Suweinit and karoob-tree, the said communication could be most easily barred from 
the direction of Jeb'a or west again, while ascent up the cliff under which the cave is, is 
possible by a climb close to the cave's mouth. Any descent without rope or ladder to it 
would be e.\tremely hazardous. 

' One other feature about the cave's position may be remarked — its absolute secrecy. It 
is so placed in a corner of the cliff, and so protected by outstanding ledges, that until within 



{SHEET AT//] ARCHEOLOGY. 141 

ten yards of it you could not tell its existence as one approaches from the westward or Jeb'a 
end, while again the adjacent cliff to the eastward, curving out towards the north, would hide 
it to any comers up the valley from the east. 

' Leaving Jeb'a, we cross the fallows of the long eastward-going plain that slopes all the 
way at a slight angle from north to south ; on our left the deep Suweinit or Vale of Michmash, 
on our right hand the green open valley of Hizmeh, called, as we proceed eastwards, Wady er 
Radadeh. 

' Approaching the declivity from which we obtain our first view of the Suweinit gorge, we 
find this Wady er Radadeh, and that part of the plain we are crossing, called el Kharjeh, or 
" the Going Out." That is, perhaps, the place from which in old times the men of Jeb'a have 
gone out towards Jordan, or in later days have made their exodus as fugitives to the cave of 
el Jai in time of trouble. 

' Arrived quite at the brow of the steep descent to the ravine, we find a large shepherd 
shelter-place, or " ossub," known as Khurbet el Hai, or Haiyeh, and from the front of it we 
can take in at a glance the position of 'Ain Suweinit and the cave in question. 

' The eye at once catches two trees, neither of them such pomegranates as Saul once sat 
under, but both of them remarkable enough to be called The Tree. The first is close by on 
the hill spur to the right, a fig-tree, some ruins, and a cistern above spoken of, and gives its 
name to the mountain spur. 

' The second is a dark-coloured karoob-tree, half a mile away, perched on the brow of 
the precipitous band of cliff that rises from its scarp half-way up the southernmost side of the 
Wady. This seemingly inaccessible tree stands close to 'Ain Suweinit, and is nurtured, no 
doubt, by its waters. 

' Taking the southernmost side of the Wady, we find it is divided, as far as eye can see, 
into four main divisions or rounded spurs. The first of these — that is, the nearest to us — 
is Khiirbet et Tineh (the fig-tree ruin) ; the second is nameless ; the third, el Kuba ; the 
fourth, el Mukaarat. 

' By a movement of a few yards to the left we discover a fifth, Ras el Fowar (the head 
of Farah), that part of the Wady near the Fiirrar Spring. 

' All along the Wady side, two-thirds from the Wady bottom, stands, as if built by the 
hand of man for the use of a fortress, a slant scarp with fortress wall above it from 30 to 
40 feet high. 

'There is a plateau or brow upon this grey, steep, running line of fortress rock, and 
thence to the sky line rugged, rounded masses of rock and vegetation, in some places easily 
accessible, in other places unclimbable. 

' Above this rock and scarp is hill number two. The nameless spur grows the karoob- 
tree, and the spring is close beside it. Beyond the fourth spur, hid entirely from view by 
the outstanding spur, at a lower level, the foot of the fortress cliff, lies the cave Miigharet el 
Hai. On the other side — i.e., the northern side — of the Wady from where we stand is the 
Kharjeh. 

' At the Khiirbet el Hai we only seem to be able to distinguish a long unbroken line 
of cliff, till just opposite el Mukaarat there is seen to be a deep recess in the mountain 
block, and east of it is a curious leaning buttress, best described as a cone cut in two from 
apex to base, and laid on to the mountain side. This deep recess is called \\'ady Habibeh, 
and the descent from the cliff top to the Wady bed is easy enough down it. The curious 
projection of half-cone buttress that seems to fill the valley with its grey-rounded mass 



142 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

is known as Kurn el Falkain = the " Horn (or corner) of the Two Divisions," and 
the cHffs beyond to the east have the name of Jebel Oushaish, or " the Hill of the Little 
Nest." 

' It is exactly opposite the quaint-featured Khiirbet el Falkain that the cave of refuge for 
the Benjamites, the Mugharet el Jai, is placed on the southern side ; and hence the need of 
describing the Khiirbet el Falkain at length. But the apparently single mountain mass on 
the north or Philistine side of the Wady, between us and the deep-recessed Wady Havileh, is 
in reality, as we saw afterwards from near the 'Ain Suweinit, broken up into three masses, the 
cliff mass nearest us being called el Marjameh, the next Jebel el Huty, and the third Jebel 
Arak el War. 

'Marjameh, or "the Hill of the Stony Place," with its hint of warlike times and pass defence, 
is separated from el Honteh by a steep recessed Wady or mountain gully known as Wady 
Rahab, leading up to Khiirbet Rahab (the " Monk's Plot "). Here we have a hint of the 
use of certain caverns that dot this northern line of clifif in mediaeval days. 

' But it is noteworthy that this mountain gully, with its cave Hosn or Houson (" Cave 
of Defence "), is entirely hid from view by a tooth of rock that, like a tower on a bracket, 
hangs in mid-air at the angle of the rock cliff. The next hill's name to the east of Jebel 
el Huty is known as Jebel Arak el War. Deep caverns high up on the cliff sides have given 
their names to both of these hills. But the deep mountain gully dividing el Huty from el 
War is perhaps of most interest to any who attempt to localize the scene of Jonathan's exploit, 
and his climb on hands and knees against the men of Michmash. 

' This mountain gully is called Shehab el Huty. A curious natural stairway of rock is 
hid from all view to men at the eastward by an equally curious natural balustrade. A whole 
regiment might ascend to the Philistine heights unseen up this Shehab el Huty. One has 
described this particularly because its position is exactly opposite that of the 'Ain Suweinit ; 
and if we may believe, as we are told, that the Philistines had come out to the passage of 
Michmash (i Samuel xiii. 23), we can seem to see this Shehab el Huty accurately described 
enough in the following chapter (i Samuel xiv.), and can recognise a possible locality for the 
pomegranate on Migron (i Samuel xiv. 2) in the place of the present karoob-tree that is such 
a landmark, or spring-mark, in the uttermost of Gibeah — Jeb'a. 

' The caverns on this northern side of the Wady Suweinit are many, the principal being 
esh Shinar, el Hisir, or Hosn, Arak el War, and Arak Khadaish, the latter beyond Kurn el 
Falkain, and being exactly described by its name, " the Rock of the Scratch." 

' From our point of view of the Wady, we descended along ledges 01 rock, a good safe 
path even for mules if need be, by yellow furze and variegated-leaved thistles, till we reached 
the main ledge or brow along the top of the cliff of naked rock that is the feature of this 
southern side of the valley. Keeping along this for about ten minutes, we reached the 
karoob-tree and the huge blocks of limestone that seem to guard it on every side with their 
seven massy blocks (the one east of the tree was 30 feet 18 inches in diameter), 

' The spring close by was so hidden by huge masses of the fallen limestone that, but for 
the shepherd, we should have missed it. Ascending between these rock boulders, imme- 
diately behind the largest of the masses near lay a litde stone cup, about 14 inches by S inches. 
Behind this a small triangular opening, beneath overhanging masses of confusedly piled 
stone, gave admittance to the spring, which lay at the bottom of a steep rock-hewn and 
stone-built passage, 12 feet 6 inches from the entrance. Down this, feet first, we slid, and 
found CVC17 stone the whole way polished as smooth and as white as marble. Thousands of 



[SHEET XVII.] ARCHEOLOGY. 143 

feet during a space of hundreds of years alone could have done this. It seemed on examina- 
tion that the fountain head had been built over in this way : the passage from above scooped 
out down to the water at this angle, then walled rudely, and two large masses had, it seemed, 
been made to fall so as to prop each other up overhead, while light was admitted by a side 
opening carefully protected by stones above, but a little to the west of the roofing imme 
diately over the spring. 

' The basin of the spring had evidently been hewn out of the living rock. The water 
was fresh and good, but water-leeches lay in heaps in the dark corners. 

' No writing, no marks of any kind, were found at or near the spring, and the noticeable 
features were the apparent concealment of the fountain by the huge natural screens of fallen 
rock masses, and the evidence of enormous use that the smooth polished stones of the spring 
entrance seemed to give. As for the karoob-tree, its roots were level with the waters, and its 
luxuriant foliage and heavy crop of beans told a tale of roots that reached to cool ground and 
sucked moisture in the driest of weather. 

' Leaving the spring, we proceeded on eastwards, round the next two rounded bluffs, el 
Kub'a and el Mukaaret, to the cavern of Miigharet el Jay. The way was easy for the first 
fifteen minutes, but we then had to descend the cliff ledge and creep along cautiously on the 
bare rock scarp. The guide took his shoes off, for it was so slippery that one of the party 
was forced to turn back from giddiness. 

' But in fifteen minutes we had gained better footing and had rounded the corner of the 
bluff el Mugharet. A vulture flew from her nest five yards above our head, showing the 
lonehness of the spot. 

' But though one cave, built up artificially at its mouth, with an artificially hewn doorway 
beneath, stared at us half-way up the cliff that faced us as we turned the corner of the cliff, 
the cave el Jai was not visible. 

' The guide beckoned us on past a projecting shoulder of rock, and crawling up the scarp 
and turning our faces due west, we saw a little low triangular opening in the far corner, with 
a smaller aperture, a smoke-hole or window, above. 

'Entering it over an inclined plane of slippery rock, marked by the feet of last winter's 
goats, we found ourselves in a spacious cavern, whose chief features were the honeycombed 
structure of the walls, the overhanging mass of rock that made a pillar, as it seemed, for the 
roof in the far south-western side, the far-reaching gallery that ran up-hill beyond, due 
west, the side gallery going away to the north, and the oily blackness of the smoke-grimed 
rock. 

' The floor was deep with the dust of ashes of the fires of many generations of refugees or 
shepherds. Our guides shook in their shoes as they were pushed along with the torches. 
The roof, some 30 feet high, shone glossy black as we measured this entrance cave. Then 
we passed along the west gallery westward, ascending as we went. A gallery, wide, and 
high in proportion, turned sharp to our left — that is to the north — and descending as 
rapidly, passed along a parallel passage back towards the east. At its extremity a lesser 
passage, hewn, it seemed, in the rock, gave notice of our nearness to the northern out- 
side walls of the cliff, for the wind well-nigh blew our torches out. This was perhaps 
for ventilation sake. Retracing our steps, and finding no marks of man but the oily 
blackness of smoke and dust of ashes at our feet, we entered a lesser gallery 
towards the north-west at the top of the hill, and thence retraced our steps to the main 
entrance cavern. All this way had been spacious enough for the living of men ; but 



144 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

the gallery with its double entrance — soon after meeting in one beyond the ante-chamber, 
if I may so call it — that opened south of the main entrance-hall, was not lofty enough to 
admit of standing room, and this we had to crawl up. 

' Returning, we crawled up two short passes to the west of this antechamber, examined 
a small cave and recess perched on the water-scooped rock near the entrance to this 
vestibule, and so back into the large cavern and daylight. 

' Our feeling about the cave was that it was not so capable of stowing away men as the 
so-called Cave of Adullam at Khureitun, but that on emergency more than 600 men could 
hide here if need be ; 300, perhaps, find ample lodging. 

' This made me anxious to examine the cavern called el Kub'a or el Karat, that was 
perched inaccessibly without help of rope or ladders in the cliff 80 yards away to the east, and 
within easy speaking distance of the Miigharet el Jai, or Jay. The shepherd could only say 
of it that it belonged to the Christians, and was large, but he added that no man had ever 
entered it, so his testimony was a little worthless. 

' A natural or artificial ledge had at one time given admittance from above to this cavern, 
and the rough-hewn doorway, reminding one of a rock tomb, below the stone-filled entrance,' 
told of former occupation. 

' Looking for the cavern's mouth, we had a fine view of the Kurn el Falkain opposite, 
with its Wady el Habibeh ('Ravine of the Loved Ones'), the dark low cave of Arak el War, the 
cavern at the head of Kurn el Falkain, and the cave under the Ifedge farther east of Jebel 
Oshaish, known as the Scratch, Khaaish. We scrambled up the cliff close by with help of a 
band from above, and so along easily back to the 'Ain el Suweinit, in less time than we had 
taken to come. Such are the facts as to this cavern. 

' I beg to enclose the notes of the names written down in Arabic by my kind friend Mr. 
Salami, the Consul's secretary. There is only one note that should be added. The two ad- 
jacent cliffs to this cavern, el Kub'a and el Mukaaret, seem to point, from all one can under- 
stand, to (i) Detention of an enemy in distress (Kub'a). (2) To (a) a place known as the Place 
of Caves, the Hill of Holes (i Samuel xiv. 11). (/3) To a place whence loud crying out was 
made, el Mukaaret. There is a collateral meaning to this last to be found in the name of 
the valley from Jeb'a to this head of the ravine. Wady er Radadeh, one is informed, means 
the Valley of the Waller or Crier in Return ; and some traditional hint may perhaps be here 
preserved of the Benjamites and the cry of peace mentioned in Judges xxi. 13. 

' Lastly, one also hears that the word Sanatu means to stop. If this be so, and Wady 
Sunt, or Suweinit, be derivable from a word meaning detention, this, added to the cliff's name, 
el Kub'a, with its kindred signification, may perhaps allude to the detention either of Saul 
and his 600, or of the Benjamites and their 600 men, in the neighbourhood of, if not 
really inside of, the cavern Mugharet el Jai.' — H. B. Rawnsley, 'Quarterly Statement,' 
1879, p. 116. 

' Wady er Rumanian = Vale of Pomegranates. 

' El Kharjeh = The Going Out. 

' Khurbet et Tineh = The Ruin of the Fig-Tree. 

' Khallet el Hal = The Place of the Camping-Ground, 

' El Krein = The Little Horn. 

' Wady er Rumman = The Valley of the Pomegranate. 

' Wady er Radddch = The Vale of the Return. 



[SHEET XVII.} ARCHAEOLOGY. US 



'Note by Lieutenant Conder, R.E. 

'This cavern is shown on the Survey map. The view of the Valley of Michmash (" Tent 
Work," vol. ii.) includes the cliff of El Hosn, described in the present paper, on the north 
side of the valley. 

'A few remarks may be added as to the Arabic names collected, which appear to be all 
descriptive. Many of them occur only in the Survey lists, and from want of space, and in 
order not to confuse the clearness of the plate (which is full of detail), are omitted from the 
map. 

' Furrar is a word commonly used of a spring-head where the water " bubbles up." 

' Ain er R'aian = " shepherds' spring." 

' Ain esh Sherar = " dry spring." 

' El Kharjeh = " the outer place " — a common term. 

' Wady er Radadeh = " winding valley." This is a common term occurring several times 
on the Survey. 

' Khurbet el Haiyeh = " ruin of the snake." 

' Kub'a, apparently the Hebrew Koba, " a helmet," from the form of the hill. 

' Farah is the Hebrew Parah, a town of Benjamin. 

' Arak el War = " cliff of rough rock." 

' Shehab (vulgar for Sh'ab) el Huty, " the walled hill spur." 

'The Survey party ascended this gully in 1873 after descending from the plain east of 
Teb'a. 

' Suweinit diminutive of Sunt = " the little acacia." 

' Esh Shinar = " the partridge." 

' El Hisir, probably El Hosr, " the pebbles." 

' EI Hosn = " the fortress." '— C. R. C. 

Observations on the Above, by Rev. W. F. Birch. 

' The precision of the Hebrew language in the use of different words again helps us in 
this inquiry. " Rock " in the A.V. represents (at least) two words in the original, Tzur 
and Sela. 

'The latter always means 71. precipitous rock — i.e., a cliff. Therefore the Rock {Sela) of 
Rimmon (as also Etam) was a cliff. Where, then, was it situated ? 

'On the tribe of Benjamin being at last defeated in the third battle at Gibeah, the light 
brigade, according to Josephus, cut their way through the enemy, 'i^and fled into the \vilder- 
ness unto the rock Rimmon, and abode in the rock Rimmon four months " (Judges xx. 47). 

' A village, 3 miles east of Bethel, called Remmoon (apparently considered as Rimmon 
by Eusebius), has, by virtue of its name, had greatness thrust upon itself, in its site being 
taken to be the veritable rock Rimmon ; but though it may be described as " a white chalky 
height " (S. and R), or "a rocky Tell " (" Biblical Researches "), on no side does it present 
a cliff {sela). This want is Vi fatal defect in the above identification, so that minor difficulties 
need not be considered — e.g., the probability of Remmoon being not in Benjamin, but in 
Ephraim, the scarcity of caves to shelter the refugees, the water supply, etc. Rimmon 
means the "pomegranate tree." In i Samuel xiv. 2, it is stated that "Saul tarried in the 
uttermost part of Gibeah under a (lit., the) pomegranate tree (Rimmon) which is in Migron " 
VOL. III. 19 



146 



THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 



(/.^., the precipices). This position on the southern side of Wady Suweinit (the passage of 
Michmash), about a mile east of Jeb'a, suits very well the local indications in Judges xx. — 
e.g., (43) " they trode them down with ease over against Gibeah fowards the sun-risiitg." 

' Gesenius takes Riramon in Judges xx. and i Samuel xiv. to mark the same place ; while 
so striking are the points of agreement between "the c//^of the pomegranate tree" and "the 
pomegranate tree that was among the precipices " that there hardly seems room for any other 
opinion. 

'That the six hundred survivors at first, and | afterwards Saul and "about six hundred 
men," found refuge among the same southern cliffs of the passage of Michmash, and that, 
therefore, /lere was the great natural fastness of the tribe of Benjamin, would be finally 
established beyond question if there could also be found /ure firtt //v/f/- accoinmodation, and 

next sufficient water for 600 men for four 
months, since Saul and his followers might 
have managed^with a poor supply of both 
for a few days at the most. 

' A small but valuable book, " Byeways 
in Palestine," seems to provide the desired 
link. In 1852 Mr. Consul Finn was at 
Remmoon, inquiring for a large cavern that 
might have contained the 600 Benjamites, 
but he only found a few of inconsider- 
able size. Afterwards he passed through 
Mukhmas and crossed AVady Suweinit, and 
observes (p. 207), " At a short distance 
down the valley there are remarkable pre- 
cipices on each side, which must be the 
Bozez and Seneh, renowned for the bold 
adventure of Jonathan and his armour- 
bearer, and near these projections are some 
large old karoob-trees." Next he comes to 
Geba (Jeb'a), and adds : " The guide told 
us of a vast cavern in the Wady Suweinit 
capable of holding many hundred men, 
near to the above-mentioned karoob-trees, and therefore just the suitable refuge for the 
Israelites (i Samuel xiv. 11), besides the Bozez and Seneh; and he told us that half-way 
down the precipice there Is a course oftcater running towards the Ghor." 

'The value of this information lies in its being (apparently) the spontaneous statement of 
a person who thought that one who cared to look for a targe cave at Remmoon would like 
to see one wherever he could, and so far the existence of shelter and water in the required 
spot, besides being desirable, becomes also probable. 

' A most interesting report in this " Quarterly Statement " from the Rev. H. B. Rawnsley 
(on a curious spring and cavern marked Miigharet el Jai in the new map, and mentioned by 
Dr. Robinson as being large) both proves that Mr. Finn's informant spoke the sober truth, 
and, in my opinion, fixes the required position of the famous " rock of Rimmon," the dernier 
ressort of the tribe of Benjamin. 

' An old error, however, is not easily uprooted ; accordingly, at risk of being tedious, the 




.\lH-.llAKLi L-M.M hi lLhl-\ilX. 



{SHEET A77/.] 



ARCILEOLOGY. 



147 



claims of Remmoon shall be fully considered, and if false (I hope) annihilated. What, 
then, are its claims to be the " Rock of Rimmon ?" 

'(i) Its name and (?) mention in the "Onomasticon." {a) " Rcmmon in tribu 
Symeonis vel Judae : hodieque est vicus nomine Remnion, juxta (T.liam contra aquilonem 
in quinto decimo ejus milliario." (/') " Remmon, petra Rcmmon in tribu Symeonis, sive 
Zabulon." 

'(2) Lieutenant Conder says: "At Rummon there are many caves sufficient for any 
number of Benjamites." 

'(3) Its elevated position. "Rummon lies hit,'h, on a rocky Tell" ("Later Biblical 
Researches," 290). 

' (4) There is a spring of water in its neighbourhood. 

' (5) It is within the limits of Benjamin, as commonly drawn. 

' (6) It is in or on the borders of the wilderness. 

' Against the above site, and in favour of the position east of Jeb'a, it may be observed 
(i) that there was a Rimmon in the rival, or true position, according to i Samuel xiv. 2. 
" The pomegranate tree (Rimmon) in the 
precipice." The "Onomasticon " in («) has 
not in view the Rock of Rimmon, but the 
city Rimmon (Joshua xv. 32, xix. 7) ; and in 
{h) makes a ludicrous conjecture because 
" Rimmon " occurs in Joshua xix. 7 and 
I Chron. vi. 77. The name Rimmon in the 
right position has also just been recovered 
in " Wady er Rumman." 

'(2) Is well met by the counter-cave 
reputed to hold six iniiidred men. 

' (4, 5, 6) Even if proved for Remmoon, 
hold good equally well for the position 
directly east of Geba. 

' (3) This is the rock on which the claims 
of Remmoon must go to pieces. Give the 
word rock {sela) its proper weight — i.e., call 
it <-//^^and it must crush this pretender. 
Remmoon does not stand on a cliff, and so 
could not give the Benjamites the security 
they sought and found in the mountain fast- 
ness in Wady Suweinit. 

'That Sela means a cliff^/.i-., a rock 
more or less perpendicular — is clear from 
Biblical usage : 2 Chron. xxv. 12 ; Jeremiah 
li. 25; Amos vi. 12 ; i Samuel f.xxiii. 13 
(Sela-ha-macheloth. See "Tent Work"). 

Accordingly the Rock {Sela) Etam, though mlc hvkli lmm lx ueimin (imeriok) 
near Bethlehem, cannot be the Frank 

Mountain, which is the "Rock" {Tzur\ i Chron. xi. 15, near the traditional and true Cave 
of AduUam. 




19 — 2 



148 



THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 



' Happily, Benjamin had brains besides pluck, and so refused Remmoon and chose Se/n 
Rimmon ; otherwise it had never given a Saul to be the best and tallest king in Israel, and 
the " last and least of the apostles " in the Church. 

' So minutely accurate is the Bible, that it is hardly surprising that Mr. Rawnsley's report 
recovers " //le pillar-rock " in Wady Suweinit, which, though ignored in the Authorised 
Version, is mentioned in the Hebrew ; see i Samuel xiv. 5. " The one rock (Hebr. tooth) 
was api/Zar on the north, over against Michmash" (Sp. Comment). 

' This pillar is referred to as " a tooth of rock that, like a tower on a bracket, hangs in 
mid-air at the angle of the rock cliff.'" — W. F. Birch, ' Quarterly Statement,' 1S79. 

Mug hare t U mm et Tueimin (K u). — A large cave with 
an entrance in the south-west corner. It is of irregular shape (see Plan), 
measuring 220 feet by 140 feet. A number of natural columns are formed 
by the junction of large stalactites from the roof with the stalagmites 
beneath them ; on the east side of the cavern a sort of gallery ascends 
between these and the walls of the cave, and in the south-east corner the 
floor sinks, and a single stalagmite stands up like a statue. It is supposed 



ftU^ «> O ?0 ♦O so to «"> 



V.nirafi 




to be a petrified figure by the peasantry. Two smaller galleries run in 
from the cave, one on the east, one on the north. The first is 40 feet long 
and about 16 feet wide ; in this is a shallow reservoir cut in the floor; 
this contained water i foot deep in autumn, and a small rock-cut channel 
led from it to a cistern now filled up. The water is supposed to have 
certain medicinal qualities. 

The second gallery, entered behind a sort of screen of stalagmite, is 
80 feet long, and some 20 feet wide. At the further end is a pit some 



{SHEET XVIL] 



ARCH.EOLOGY. 



149 



60 feet deep and 15 feet across ; for 20 feet there is a steep slope ; for 
40 feet the sides of the pit are sheer. This pit is used by the neighbour- 
ing peasantry for the execution of women charged with immoraUty, who 
are thrown down it. 

The cave appears to be entirely natural, except near the reservoir, 
where the sides of the cave have been hewn, and the cisterns and water- 
channel cut in the rock. A mound of rubbish reaches from the cave door. 
It seems to be ancient, as some of the stalagmites have formed on it. 
The gallery at the back was full of bats^ and in the cave are many rock- 
doves. 

Visited and planned 17th October, 1S73. 

Miikhmas (N s). — In the village are remains of old masonry, 
apparendy a church. A pillar-shaft is built into a wall in the north-west 
corner of the village. Two lintel stones are built over the door of another 
house, one with three crosses in circles, the second with a design 
apparently cut in half 

Neby Samwil (Ms). — The ruins include the church of St. 
Samuel, finished in 11 57 a.d. (see Du Vogiie, ' ^glises de la Terre Sainte,' 
P- 339). with scarps and ruins which probably belong to the same period. 

The Church. — The transept and north aisle remain. The nave has 
been destroyed. The apse has also been apparently destroyed, and a 




Fttt 10 S W go 30 *C 50 60 70 30 f 



si 5) SP(^ -^ 

2r ^1 M tt A ci m 






modern wall exists on the east. The cenotaph of Neby Samwil 
stands about where the middle of the nave would have been. Various 
later Moslem additions have been made, including the walls round the 
cenotaph. The minaret stands in the south-east corner of the south 



150 



THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 



side of the transept. Numerous Hebrew inscriptions are written on the 
plaster of the walls, just outside the chamber, in which the cenotaph 
stands. They appear quite modern. The tomb of Samuel at this site 
is recognised in the Jichus ha Aboth (sixteenth century), but is declared 
to be a false site by Benjamin of Tudela in the twelfth century. 

The church measured i88 feet across the transept outside; the nave 




lOMR OF SAMUF.I,. 



(not including transept) was 58 feet by 26 feet inside, in three bays. The 
walls of the church were 7 feet thick. 

The arches used are pointed, but broad for their height. The masonry 
is small and well-dressed, with numerous masons' marks, as .shown on the 
special plan. Outside the west tower on the south side of the transept 
there are small drafted stones. 

On the north there was a narrow passage outside the church, which 
appears to have been arched over. 

The north aisle, now walled up and made into a mosque, has brackets 



[SHEET Xril.] 



ARCHEOLOGY. 



151 



to support the vaulting, as at Kuryet el 'Enab. The arches are 
groined and the roof is entire. There appears to have been a small door- 
way in the west side of the south transept, perhaps leading to a crypt, fof 
a cave is said to exist under the church. 

In the north aisle are Hebrew graffiti on the Crusading masonry. 
They are of some age, as they have been plastered over after being cut. 
The longest, on a voussoir with a mason's mark (double triangle), records 
the names of ' Mesha ben David . . ,' ' Levi ben . . .' and ' Shemon ' 
roughly written in square characters. 

East of the church is the modern village containing many ancient 
fragments, and among others a Crusading chimney. There is a scarp 






^ C a. S- C t 
^ 4. ia. ^- ^1. Ql . 

<ii ^ C-: % '^ ■< 4. 



lot rp^ 




of rock some 5 or 6 feet high running north and south on the east of 
the village. A narrow trench is cut between this and a sort of platform 
of rock, which is occupied by buildings. North of the church there is a 
sort of sunk court about 250 feet north and south by 500 feet east and 
west, to which the narrow passage leads. On the north-east of this is a 
flat platform of rock, reached by steps, with a cave below. 

East of the platforms the rock is levelled and forms two large shallow 
reservoirs communicating with one another, the largest some 300 feet side, 
the smaller, on the east, of irregular shape, 250 feet side. 

The buildings on the platform do not appear to be very ancient ; they 
include a long vault with a tunnel roof, and there are two curious shallow 



152 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

recesses in the scarp immediately to the north-east of the passage above 
mentioned, which may perhaps have been intended for guard-houses. 

Lower down the hill on the south-east is a good-sized birkeh cut in 
rock beside the road. East of this is a ledge of rock from which water 
trickles out in several places, especially at the 'A i n J a k u k, where there 
is a small tunnel 1 5 paces long and large enough to walk to the end. The 




NEBY SAMWtL. 



water comes out from this to a place where there seems to have been a 
trough, whence an aqueduct once led. 

Above this is a small chamber cut in rock, with a door having a pointed 
arch cut in rock. A litde higher is a small rock-cut stable (compare 
Khurbet Dustrey, Sheet V., Section B.) for four horses, with 
rock-cut mangers. It is full of rubbish to the height of the mangers. 



[SHEET Xl'IL] 



ARCHEOLOGY. 



153 



Further east is another chamber, said to be connected with a spring. 
It was 4^ paces square, with an arched door. 

The road leading up the hill is ancient. In one part steps well-paved 
occur. Between N e b y S a m w i 1 and Jerusalem the road shows traces 
of antiquity, having side-walls of rude blocks or slabs set on end and 
undressed, and remains of a paving of polygonal stones fitted together, 
apparently Roman work. The rock in places is levelled to receive this 
paving. 

Visited 9th January, 1874. 

Neby Turfini (Ks). — Close~to this place there is a group of 
unopened tombs. One of these, recently broken into by the peasantry, 




is described as lined with mosaic, and had a door of limestone, measuring 
about 2h feet by 2 feet, carved with two lions' heads and two bulls' 

VOL. III. 20 



1 54 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

heads. The lock was originally of metal, and a lead ring was attached 
beneath it. A somewhat similar door exists in the cave under the church 
at Samaria, but is of basalt, and larger than that now described, having 
only panels without any heads. The door at Samaria appears to have 
belonged to a Jewish tomb ; that from Neby Turfini is now in possession 
of Mr. P, Bergheim. 

Numerous panelled doors of basalt, with Christian emblems, have 
been found by the Due de Vogue in the Hauran. Doors of very similar 
character also occur (with plain panels) in many tombs in Asia Minor, but 
are generally false doors in the rock. 

Ra-fat (M s). — There are many ancient rock-cut sepulchres at this 
place, having from 2 to 8 kokiui in each tomb. (See Section A.) 

The modern village lies among orchards of pear and pomegranate, 
with a good grove of olives to the west, and vineyards on the south. 
The spring ('Ain Ra-fat), a copious perennial supply of good water, issues 
from a cave about 40 feet long in a rocky scarp west of the houses. A 
wild fig grows at the cave mouth. In the scarp are rock-cut tombs, of 
which fourteen were examined. They have entrances in the rock-scarps 
which face west, and they are all south of the spring. No. i, nearest the 
spring and near the top of the flat hill, is blocked, but has a square outer 
chamber 8 feet side. No. 2 is blocked up. No. 3 has an entrance on the 
west 5 feet 4 inches wide, 4^ feet high ; the chamber is 7 feet 10 inches 
square, with another opening broken through on the south-east. Nos. 4 
and 5, close together, rather higher up the hill to the south, have well-cut 
doors with arched fronts ; No. 4 is blocked ; No. 5 is 7^ feet square, with 
two kokim at the back and two to the right, well-cut : both the door and 
the kok'nn were closed by slabs fitting into sunk rebates. The kokiin 
measure 6^ feet by \^ feet and are 3 feet high. No. 6 has an ante- 
chamber 10 feet square, an inner chamber with seven kokiin, four to the 
left, three at the back, two to the right, and spaces left for two more 
kokim not cut — one at the back, one to the right. No. 7 is a large koka 
in the cliff No. 8 has two kokim, one to the right, one at the back. 
No. 9 is choked. No. 10, at a lower level and near the spring, is a 
square chamber. No. 11, south-east of the last, has three kokiin at the 
back, one each side, and an unfinished koka on the left. No. 12 had an 
outer chamber ; the inner one is. blocked up. No. 13, on the south side 



[SHEET XVn.] 



ARCHEOLOGY. 



^SS 





of the hill, is broken; it has two l-oka at the back. No. 14 is simply a 
koka in the rock. 

Revisited 23rd June, 1S81. 

R a-f a t (J t). — Traces of ruins. Cisterns, winepresses cut in rock 
and rough pillar-shafts, with ruins of a modern village and a Mukam. 
(See Palestine Exploration Fund Photograph No. 273.) 

Er Ram (M s). — West of the village is the Mukam of Sheikh 
Hasein, once a small Christian basilica. The remains of the north aisle, 
6 feet 8 inches wide, are marked by four columns 
2 feet in diameter. The chamber of the saint's 
tomb occupies part of the nave, and into its 
north wall the lintel of the old door is built, a 
stone 10 feet long, half of which is visible, with 
designs as shown. In the courtyard east of this chamber is an old well 
of good water and a fine mulberry-tree. In the west wall of the Mukam 
other stones, with discs in low relief, are built in. West of the village is 
a good birkeh with a pointed vault ; lower down the hill a pillar-shaft 
broken in two, probably from the church. On the hill are cisterns. 
Drafted stones are used up in the village walls. At K h a n e r Ram, 
by the main road, is a quarry with half-finished blocks still in it, and two 
cisterns. The Khan appears to be quite modern, and is in ruins. There 
are extensive quarries on the hill-sides near it. 

Revisited 23rd June, 1881. 

' At the shrine which is so conspicuous near this village are remains of a former chapel. 
The lintel stone (as it would seem), with a bas-relief of rosettes, has been found by Dr. Chaplin 
within the building, and a very curious stone mask is in his possession, obtained from the 
village. It represents a human face without hair or beard, the nose well-cut, the eyes and 
mouth very feebly designed. 

' The mask is hollowed out behind, and has two deep holes at the back as if to fix it to a 
wall. It is over a foot in longer diameter, and curiously resembles some of the faces of 
the Moabite collection of Mr. Shapira. There cannot well be any question of its genuine 
character, and nothing like it has been found, so far as I know, in Palestine.' — Lieutenant 
Conder, 'Quarterly Statement,' iSSi, p. 196. 

Ram-Allah (M s). — The rock-cut tombs marked on the map are 
blocked, except one, which is a square chamber, with a bench running 
round the walls. The entrances to the others are well cut. 



20- 



156 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

Er Ras (L u). — There are a good many rock-cut tombs at this 
village with locnli. 

Ras e t T a h u n e h (M s). — A heap of stones walled round. 

I. Rujm 'A fan eh. 2. Rujm ' A t i y e h. 3. Rujm 
el B a r i s h. 4. Rujm e d D t r. 5. Rujm e d D u r i b e h. 
6. Rujm et Tarud. — These curious cairns occupy the summit of 
the ridge above M alhah, and are conspicuous against the sky-line from 
near Mar Elias. Rujm el Barish is about 50 feet diameter at the 
top, and some 30 feet or more in height. A small excavation has been 
made in it, and it appears to be composed of small stones or shingle 
tightly packed in a dry stone structure with a little earth over it. On the 
south is a tomb cut in rock, a chamber without loadi. Some of the 
cairns stand high on the hill-tops, others lower on the slope. 

Rujm 'Atiyeh is a small cairn 9 or 10 feet high and 40 feet in 
diameter. On the south the soft, gritty chalk is quarried ; on the north- 
west is a cave 8 feet in diameter, in soft rock. Small stones compose the 
mound, with a covering of earth. A view north and north-east, but not 
west, is obtained. Olivet, Neby Samwil, Malhah, part of Jerusalem, Beit 
Jala, and the Rujm es Seleiyib on the south are visible ; but the cairn is 
on a saddle, not on the highest point. Ruj m 'A fan eh has the same 
view, but on the west it commands el Welejeh ; it is 96 feet in diameter 
at the bottom, 23 feet at the top, and 40 feet high. Another similar cairn 
exists between this and the next, in a fold of the ground, where no view- 
is obtained in any direction. Rujm et Tariid stands higher than 
the preceding cairns. On the south side is a cemented cistern, and a 
small cave with a well-cut door. The view includes, besides the places 
above-mentioned, Tell 'Asur, Soba, Kustul, and the Moab hills, Hausan, 
el Kabft, etc. This cairn is 40 feet high, 138 feet in diameter at the 
bottom, and 38 feet at the top. West of this, on a spur of the hill, is 
another cairn of medium size, and in the valley to the west again another 
very small one. On the spur north of el Welejeh is yet another cairn 
20 feet high, 12 feet in diameter at the top, 51 feet at the bottom. It 
commands a view to Beit 'Atab and Siirah ; the sea north of Ashdod is 
seen from it; and on the south Ras Shcrifch is visible. Rujm ed 
Duribeh forms the seventh of the group; it is near the last, and a 



[SHEET XVII.] ARCHAEOLOGY. ' i57 

Stunted pine grows by it ; the size is about equal to tlie last-noticed. 
Great cairns like these occur also in Moab, and the situation suggests that 
they may have been ancient 'high-places' of the Canaanites. 
Visited 31st October, 1874; revisited 8th August, 1881. 

' North of 'Ain Yalo we came across some very curious mounds, unlike any that I have 
ever seen in this country, with the exception of that near 'Amwas, which is called by the 
natives Rujm el Haik bint Sultan el Fenish, ' the Spinning Mound of the Phoenician King's 
Daughter,' as I mentioned in a former report. There are in all five of these mounds, of 
which four are on the crests of ridges, while the other is situated near the head of a shallow 
gully. The three largest are named Rujm el 'Atiyeh, et Tarud, and el Barish. Small 
tentative excavations — by Captain Warren, R.E., as I am told — have been made in this last, 
but a thorough examination of one of them would, I think, be likely to prove of great 
interest. 

'The mounds vary from 12 to 30 feet in height, and from 15 to 50 feet in diameter at top. 
The construction of all seems identical. Rough stones of no great size are closely packed 
with chips and a certain proportion of mould, and thus form a very compact mass, which can 
only have been erected with the expenditure of much labour. Hence Xhe pri ma-fa cie view is 
that they were piled up for some special and important purpose. The position of two of 
them, and the close proximity of all, precludes the idea of their being beacon-stations or land- 
marks. If, as seems not unlikely, they are tombs, we may hope to find objects of interest in 
them. The most practicable way of examining them would probably be to drive a mine to 
the centre along the ground level, as by this means any central interment or traces of incre- 
mation would be immediately discovered. These mounds differ essentially from those on 
the neighbouring Plain of Rephaim (so called), and known as Seb'a Rujum — the Seven 
Mounds. These latter are merely heaps of hard limestone thrown carelessly together, and 
have all the appearance of being composed of the rocks and stones collected during the 
process of clearing the adjacent lands for the purposes of cultivation.' — Mr. C. F. Tyrwhitt 
Drake, ' Quarterly Statement,' 1S74, p. 24. 

Es Seba Rujum. — Large stone heaps, apparently formed by 
clearing the surrounding land of stones for cultivation. 

S e 1 b i t (J s). — Foundations and caves. The ruins are extensive. 
A square building stands in the middle. There is a ruined reservoir 
lined with cement, the walls of rubble. 

Sheikh Abu ez Zeitun (L s). — A mosque, with chambers 
for pilgrims. Umm esh Sheikh is a larger building, but ruinous. 
There is W a k u f, or glebe-land, belonging to the mosque. (See 
Section C.) 

Soba (L t). — There are remains of a Crusading fortress at this 
place. Nearly at the top of the hill to the east is a rocky scarp, 20 feet 
high, sloping, and fitted with a sloping masonry revetement of good-sized 



158 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

drafted masonry. The draft has a diagonal dressing like that on twelfth 
century masonry. This fortress was destroyed by Muhammed Aly, and 
rebuilt by Abu Gh6sh. It was again destroyed at a later period. There 
are remains of Crusading buildings in all parts of the village, and a stone 
altar, with steps, marks the probable position of the church. The central 
tower, which is very conspicuous, seems also Crusading work, and one of 
the streets has a wall of roughly-dressed large stones, with joints packed 
(as at Kuryet el 'Enab) with small chips. A little to the west of the 
village is a large vaulted building, with drafted stones in the walls. 

South of the village there are rock-cut tombs. One of these was 
newly opened in 1875. It had nine kokiiii, each of which had a slab 
closing the end, still in place, and 4 inches thick. The roofs of the kokim 
were arched. Near this was a fine rock-cut wine-press with several 
chambers. Vineyards still exist round the village. For traditions see 
Section C. South of S 6 b a are the ruins of a Khan. 

Visited 25th May, 1875. 

Stir ah (J t).— Caves exist here, and ruined tombs; one was a 
square chamber without locitli ; another, a large tomb with a rock pillar, 
but now much broken, and the plan of the original form destroyed. This 
tomb is close to the Mukam of Neby Samit — a domed chamber, with an 
outer chamber to the west, and a door to the north, on which side is a 
courtyard, with a palm tree. The chamber has a mihrab, and by it are 
green rags, said to be the Prophet's clothes. In the court are two Arab 
graves. To the west are several kokim tombs full of bones and skulls. 
Other caves, cisterns, and a wine-press, north of the IMukam, were 
observed. 

Revisited July, 1881. 

Tell el Fill (M t). — A remarkable mound on the watershed in a 
conspicuous position. 

The place has been excavated, and proves to be artificial ; a building 
30 feet high, measuring 50 feet east and west, by 46 feet north and south 
at the top, the walls being sheer, and a cross wall running through the 
middle cast and west. The building is not rectangular. There appear 
to have been two chambers in the top, each 10 feet by 6 feet, and 9 feet 
deep. 



[SHEET XVII.] 



ARCHEOLOGY. 



159 



On the north and south there are two lower outer walls, which have a 



sloping outer revetement. 



The monument measures therefore 71 feet 




^yjS^SSSSSS- 




Sc-SleSZr* to 1 Inci 



north and south at the bottom, but on the east and west there are no 
outer walls. Possibly flights of steps may have led up on these sides. 
The slope of the revetement is about 60°. 

The whole of the walls, which are 7 or 8 feet thick, and 15 feet high, 
including revetement, are composed of stones of good size, rudely hewn 
and undressed. The joints are packed with smaller stones. Some of the 
corner stones are squared. The stones in the scarp are slanted, so as to 
form the sloping face. The masonry resembles some of that used by the 
Crusaders. The face-stones are set in mortar. 



i6o 



THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 



The monument stands on artificial terraces, extending about \ mile 
either way ; these are cut in the soft limestone. By the road is a ruined 
cistern, and to the south the rock is quarried : but there are no traces of a 
former town. 

Visited 14th December, 1874. 

Et Tabalieh, or Beit Yunan en Neby. — This ruin is 
near Khiirbet el Khamis and the house of Count Caboq-a. A circular 




Scale of Yards 



'£_. 



telIlia. 



font, 22 inches in diameter, 13^^- inches deep, was found here in 1881. 
The sides are fluted all round. Foundations of a building 40 yards 



[SHEET XVII.] ARCHEOLOGY. i6r 

by 30 yards, with walls 4 feet thick, also exist. The stones arc well 
dressed, and some have a rough draft. This building seems to be of 
Crusading origin. There are also two rock-cut cisterns with round 
mouths. 

Revisited nth July, 1S81. 

T e 1 i 1 i a (M t). — This appears to be an old camp on a commanding 
spur between two roads. The walls are 4 feet thick, of stones without 
mortar, and averasring; about 2 feet diameter. The inclosure measures 
65 yards north and south by 35 east and west. It has inner inclosures as 
shown. The only water-supply is from a cistern some distance to the 
east, now dry. 

Revisited 2nd July, 1881. 

T i b n a (K u). — Foundations. 
U m m el 'A m d a n (K u). — Foundations. 
U m m e d h D h i a b (J u). — Foundations, a conspicuous tree. 
Umm er Rus (K u). — Foundations, walls, and cisterns. They 
appear to be Crusading work. 

Umm es Semmeikat (J s). — Traces of ruins. 

Umm e s S u r (J s). — ^Traces of ruins ; a rock-cut cistern. 

Umm e t T a 1 a (N u). — Ruined watch-tower, and cistern. 

Urtas (M u). — From the spring below the village an aqueduct 
once carried water to B i r k e t el H u m m a m beneath J e b e 1 el 
Fureidis. (Sheet XXI.) The level of the spring is 2,300 feet 
above the sea ; that of the birkeh is 2,082 feet. The fall is therefore 
218 feet in a distance of 3f miles along the aqueduct. There was a 
reservoir below the spring, and a rock-cut channel, 3 feet deep and broad 
from it. The aqueduct ran along the north side of the valley, and was 
partly built of rubble masonry of small and large stones in hard cement, 
with pieces of flint and a facing of small ashlar. It was traced for about 
2 miles, and lost when it reached the soft chalky ground. 

Visited 3rd November, 1874. 



VOL. III. 2 [ 



SHEET XVII.— SECTION C. 

The population of the Jerusalem District is stated in the official return 
of 1850-51 to have included 65,000 Moslems, 2,350 Greek Catholics, 500 
Latins — a total of 67,850 males, or 203,550 souls. 

The population of Jerusalem, according to Consul Moore's return in 
1873-4, was as below : 



Jews 



( Ashkenazim 



( Sephardim 
Christians 
Moslems... 



6,000 
4,600 
5.300 
5,000 

20,900 



The Christian population is thus divided by Pere Lievin, whose 
estimate may probably be taken as correct 



Orthodox Greeks 
Latins 
Armenians 
Greek Catholics 
Armenian Catholic 
Copts 
Protestants 
Abyssinians 
Syrians ... 



2,800 
1,500 

510 
30 
16 

130 
300 

75 



5.3 



0/0 



{SHEET XVIl] TRADITIONS. 163 

The number of the Jews has of late increased at the rate of 1,000 to 
1,500 per annum. Since 1875 the population of Jerusalem has rapidly 
increased. The number of Jews is now estimated at 15,000 to 20,000, 
and the population, including the inhabitants of the new suburbs, reaches 
a total of about 40,000 souls. 

Three famous native families had their seats (Kurseh) on this 
Sheet, namely, the Abu Ghosh at Kuryet el 'Enab, the Abu 
Lehham at Beit 'A tab and the Abu D i s at the village of the 
name. 

Traditions are connected with several places on the Sheet as follows : 

Sheikh Abu Z e i t li n is so called because a man dreamed he 
saw a light burning on the hill, and the Sheikh appeared as a majestic 
personage, and commanded that a mosque should be built there in his 
honour. The dreamer went to the spot when he waked, and found a fine 
olive tree, which had sprung up in the night. He built the mosque, 
which is now very famous. The Sheikh's mother was the daughter (Bint) 
of Ahmed ed Dujany. 

At 'A m w a s the tradition of the B i r e t T a i u n is to the effect 
that a plague originated at the well. The inhabitants of the village died, 
but were brought to life by Neby 'Ozeir (E s r a). The place of kneeling 
down of the Prophet S a 1 e h ' s camels is also shown near the village, 
in the Khallet et Takah. The mound called Rujm el Heik, 
near the same place, is shown as the place where the daughter of the 
F e n i s h Sultan used to sit and spin. She had her palace at K h u r b e t 
I k b a 1 a, whence a wire led to S 6 b a, the summer palace of her father, 
whose winter house was at L a t r u n (all three Crusading sites). The 
name Fenish is supposed to be a corruption of F e 1 i s h or Philistine. 
The garden of the Fenish is shown at Beit Jibrin. (See Sheet XX., 
Section C.) 

Two famous legendary characters in the 'Ark u b district are 
Sultan Bedr and Sheikh Is main; descendants of the latter 
are said still to live in this district ; several places are named after him. 
At N e h h a 1 i n is the tomb of H a j 'A 1 e i y a n, of whom it is related 
that, having been refused entrance into the mosques because of his ragged 
and filthy appearance, he spread his Abba on the sea and performed his 
prayers on it. 

2 1 — 2 



1 64 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

S h 4 f a t is said to be named from a Jewish King (Jelioshaphat). 

The Kiilat es Suwan is said to be a place where the inhabi- 
tants were turned to stone for their impiety. 

The names, Wady el Mikteleh, 'Valley of Slaughter,' and 
Wady ed D u m m, 'Valley of Blood,' are interesting. The first 
represents the site of the great slaughter of Canaanites, by Joshua, in the 
valley of Ajalon. The second is close to the site of Adasa, where a fierce 
battle was fought by Judas Maccabceus. 

K h u r b e t N u h is connected with a legend of the deluge, said to 
have originated in the 'Ain et Tanniir. 

Z e i t u n e t en N e b y, south of Jerusalem, is supposed to be a 
place whence Mohammed shot at a Pagan monarch sitting in the Haram. 

The long aqueduct to Jerusalem from 'Ain K u e i z i b a is called 
' The Pagan Canal' 

The little ruin of A b u T h 6 r, south of Jerusalem, was sacred to a 
certain Sheikh who accompanied Omar to Jerusalem riding on a bull, 
whence the name, ' Father of the Bull' It was originally a Convent of 
St. Mark. The Sheikh's name was Shehab ed Din. 

Sheikh S a m a t, at S li r a h, is said to have been the brother of 
Shemshun el Jebbar. Neby Shui, at the village of Eshua, 
is said to have had a wooden sabre, with which he killed the Pagans. The 
legends told of these prophets, and of S h a m s h u n el Jebbar, or 
Abu M e i z a r, are corrupt versions of the Biblical stories concerning 
Samson. The enemies are represented throughout as being Christians. 
(See 'Quarterly Statement,' October, 1875, p. 211.) On revisiting Surah 
in 1 88 1 it was found, however, that these legends were not genuine, but 
had been related to the peasantry by Sheikh Goblan, a Christian of Beit 
Jala. 

The tradition, still repeated, of the ' field of peas ' is mentioned as 
early as 1172 a.d. by Theodoricus in connection with Rachel's tomb. 
Maundrell in 1697 a.d. says that the stones here gathered by pilgrims 
were supposed to be petrified peas, turned to stone by the Virgin as a 
punishment of a peasant who refused her a handful to satisfy her hunger. 
(Compare a similar tradition, Sheet V., Section C.) This story under 
varying forms is a common one. 

At e 1 Jib the principal spring is supposed to be haunted by a 



[SHEET XVIL] TRADITIONS. 165 

prophet. At Bir 'Azeir, west of this village, the coffin of Sheikh 
Hamed, whose Mukam is in the village, is said to have become immove- 
able as it was carried, and the saint flew thence to his shrine. He was a 
relation of the famous Derwish chief, Ahmed el Bedawy. 

At Khiirbet el Muriissfis there is a tradition of a certain 
K a d d t s K h a r e i t u n, or ' Priest Chariton,' who destroyed his enemies 
by a potion of serpent's blood. 

'■En route Lieutenant Conder made a plan of the crusading ruin of Khurbet Ikbala, south- 
east of Kiiryet el 'Enab, and about a quarter of a mile south of the bridge on the high road. 
This is said by the natives to have been Deir el Benat, a nunnery, where dwelt the Bint 
Sultan el Fenish — the daughter of the Phcenician King. Since the telegraph has been laid 
along the highway they have made an addition to the story, aad say that she communicated 
with her father, whose summer quarters were at Soba, by means of a long wire. Her father's 
winter quarters are placed at Rathin, as the natives almost invariably call Latron ; near 
this place is another relic of the daughter in a small tumulus, which I hope to open some 
day, called Rujm el Heik bint Sultan el Fenish. The aqueduct, which formerly led from 
near Tell Jezer (Gezer) to the Burket el Jamus at Ramleh, seems also referable to her, as it is 
named Kanat bint el Kafir — the water-channel of Infidel's daughter. 

'In Gen. i.x. 16 we read that Gezer was taken by Pharaoh, King of Egypt, from the 
Canaanites, and given to his daughter, wife to King Solomon, and in the following verse this 
latter monarch, we are told, rebuilt it. The connection between Pharaoh's daughter and the 
Bint el Kafir seems very probable.' — Mr. C. F. Tyrwhitt Drake, 'Quarterly Statement,' 
1874, p. 77. 



SHEET XVIII.— SECTION A. 

The present Sheet contains 204 square miles of country, including the 
plains of Jericho, the north end of the Dead Sea, the B u k e i a, and the 
downs of N e b y M u s a, with the eastern slopes of the main watershed. 

OROGRAniY. — The different divisions of country noticed above may be 
separately described. 

The Hill s. — The summit of Kiiriintul forms a sort of outpost, a 
steep precipice of hard rock, 800 feet high. From this point the line of 
'the hills runs south-south-west and north-west. At the base of these 
hills, south of Wady Kelt, a raised terrace commences, averaging about 
1,000 feet above the plain, and gradually widening. South of Wady 
Ekteif it forms a plateau called el B u k e i d, which rises gradually east- 
ward, 200 to 300 feet, into the line of peaks which stand above the 
western shore of the Dead Sea. On the west the BukeiA is bounded by 
the precipices and steep slopes of the main watershed line. The whole 
plateau consists of soft marls, and is intersected by deep valleys with 
precipitous banks. The soil is bare and uncultivated, but covered with 
grass and wild flowers in spring. 

Beneath the cliffs east of the Bukeid, there is a narrow strip of ground, 
much broken and intersected by the torrent beds dividing it into narrow 
knife-edged ridges of white marl. This reaches to the edge of the pre- 
cipitous cliffs, about 1,000 feet high, which stand above the shore of the 
Dead Sea, and have at their feet terraces of marl at a level about 300 feet 
above that of the water. 

Thus the cross section of the country gives a series of steps, 300 feet, 
1,300 feet, and 1,600 feet above the present Dead Sea level, the higher 
sloping gently down westward and reaching the feet of the main chain, 



^ir~~pra? 



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[SHEET Xnn.] OROGRAPHY. 167 

which rises in high knife-edged ridges above, the principal summits being 
el RI tin tar (1,723 feet above the Mediterranean), and Jebel Ekteif 
{940 feet). 

A curious feature of the B u k e i a is the isolated hill which bounds it 
on the north, standing 264 feet above the watershed of the plain (at the 
road), east of the mountain. It is called Jebel K ah mum, and con- 
sists of reddish marl, with very steep slopes, 30'' to 40°, and in parts it is 
precipitous. A second remarkable feature is the small valley running 
southward and separating the War ez Zeranik from the main chain 
of hills, which present precipices of hard limestone, surmounted by hard 
white chalk. The War ez Zeranik and War el A k h s h e i b e h 
present almost perpendicular crags on the west, and steep slopes averaging 
about 30° and reaching down to the B u k e i a on the east. They consist 
of soft marls. K h li r b e t RI i r d stands on a peak, which is a continua- 
tion of this line to the south. The formation is evidently due to a fault. 

Tracing the hills from K li r li n t u 1 northwards, we find them again 
receding, leaving an open down at the foot of the precipices (W a d y e 1 
'Au j ah). This terrace or down runs eastward to the Jordan valley, and 
terminates in various conical peaks, the most prominent of which is the 
'Osh el Ghurab, about 500 feet above the plain. 

The most remarkable feature in this district is the RI e i d a n el 
'A b d, an ancient shore line, at a level of about 800 feet above the Dead 
Sea. 

The main watershed is here intersected by two great valleys, W a d y 
Kelt and Wady Ntaeiameh, south and north of Kuruntul. The 
first of these is a deep and narrow gorge, flanked by precipitous cliffs, 
above which rise the white chalk hills, presenting a tangled network of 
narrow water-worn torrent beds, with knife-edged ridges between. The 
slopes are very steep, and numerous conical peaks and rounded knolls 
project along the ridges. The whole of this district is a barren and tree- 
less desert, uncultivated, and clothed only in early spring with green and 
wild flowers. 

Jericho Plai n. — The low ground has an average level varying 
from about 1,100 feet below sea level on the south, to about 800 feet below 
the RIediterranean on the north. The general slope is eastward from the 
hills towards the Jordan. 



1 68 THE SUE VEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

The broadest part is along the line of W a d y Kelt, where the plain 
measures 6\ miles from Jordan to the ascent of the pass. Further north, 
2^^ miles above Jericho, the downs project into the plain, which measures 
4^ miles from Jordan to the foot of the 'O s h el G h u r d b. 

The greater part of this plain is covered with herbage in spring. 
Between E r i h a and 'A in es Sultan there is an extent of wooded 
country along the course of the stream. The trees are of the Zizyphus 
species (S i d r or Do m), interspersed with the Z a k k il m or balsam 
tree [Balanites yEgyptaica), and acacia [Acacia Vera). 

The vine is cultivated at Jericho. There are also scattered tamarisks, 
and by the 'Ain es Sultan, castor-oil trees. A single palm grows by 
Jericho. 

In passing eastward from Jericho the plain becomes more and more 
barren, and the salt soil is covered only with low bushes of the Alkali plant 
[HubdhiU). A sudden descent leads from the level of the Ghor to that of 
the Zor, which gradually widens as it extends southward from \ mile to 
2 miles. This lower valley is about So or 90 feet below the plain. In it 
a scattered growth of the tamarisk, the Zizyphus, and Rishrash [Agnus 
Castns) — a kind of willow, extends, and in parts near the river the brush- 
wood becomes very thick. 

Going southward from Jericho the plain is even more desolate : from 
the neighbourhood of K il s r H a j 1 a h to the sea, and to the Tell e r 
Rusheidiyeh the plain presents nothing but a dead level of grey 
mud. The ground becomes extremely broken and intersected by valleys 
towards the shore, and low cliffs of mud terminate the plain beneath, which 
is a muddy tract on the same level with the Zor, a mile wide, sloping 
gradually to the shores of the sea. 

Two principal valleys run across the plain, W a d y Kelt on the 
south, and W a d y N u e i a m e h, north of Jericho. They resemble one 
another in character, being broad watercourses, covered with water-worn 
boulders and shingle, running between banks some 20 to 30 feet high and 
50 to 100 yards apart. Vegetation similar to that of the Zor, and canes, 
arc found along the bed of the stream. One group of palms still remains, 
as marked on the plan, together with the solitary palm at Jericho. 

The cliffs in the neighbourhood ofHajr el Asbah project eastward, 
the distance from the mouth of Jordan to the Sahsill Hameid being 



[SHEET XVin.] OROGRAPHY. 169 

5-I miles. Thus the plain of Jericho may be generally described as a 
basin 6^ miles at its widest, east and west, and 8 miles north and south. 
The Ghor es Sciseban, east of Jordan, forms the other half of this 
basin, which is broader than the Dead Sea. 

The Dead Se a. — The shores of this lake consist of a shingly 
slope reaching some 15 feet above the summer level of the water, at which 
height is deposited a large quantity of drift-wood brought down in winter 
by the Jordan. On the north the shore is barren and treeless, with only 
a few rushes growing near the Jordan mouth in the sort of delta of soft 
mud and marsh formed by the river. On the west, beneath the terraces 
on which K h u r b e t K li m r a n stands, there is a canebrake, which con- 
tinues to the neighbourhood of ' A i n Feshkhah. The cliff of Ras 
Feshkhah projects into the sea, and the shore by the spring is very 
narrow. In this neighbourhood the shore consists entirely of huge boulders 
and broken rocks fallen from the cliffs above. 

Hydrography.— The river Jordan runs across the Sheet from north 
to south in a direct course 10 miles, the course measured along- the various 
reaches being 1 1\ miles. In this distance it has a fall of 60 feet from the 
Ghoraniyeh ford to the mouth, or from 1,230 to 1,290 below the 
Mediterranean. 

The stream itself has an average breadth of about 30 yards, but in the 
winter of 1873-4 the whole level of the Zor was covered by a sheet of 
water. The banks of the stream are steep, as a rule, except in the neigh- 
bourhood of the fords. The river is almost entirely hidden for the greater 
part of its course by the jungle of cane and tamarisk on either side. This 
jungle does not, however, extend further south than the neighbourhood ot 
el H e n u, and below this point the stream is visible flowing between 
steep mud-banks, and bordered with reeds. On entering the sea it forms 
a muddy marsh covered with driftwood, and too soft to be crossed by 
man or beast. 

The following is a summary of the various levels along Jordan. 

Sheet VI. Sea of Galilee level, — 682 feet below Mediterranean. 

,, IX. Fall to the mouth of the Yermuk . 40 feet per mile. 

,, IX. ,, Jisr el Mujamia . • 7 u ,, 

VOL. III. 22 



170 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN EALESTIXE. 

Sheet XII. Fall to Makhadet Saidiyeh . lo feet per mile. 

X\'. ,, IMakhadet Umm Sidreh . 4^ „ 

,, XV. „ el 'Aujeh . . . 4a >> » 

„ X\'III. ,, el Ghoraniyeh . . 10 ,, „ 

,, XVIII. ,, Dead Sea . . . 6 ,, ,, 

Dead Sea level, - — 1,292 bdow INIediterranean. 
Total fall, 610 feet in a direct course of 65 miles, or 9-3 feet per mile. 

The details given above depend on the aneroid readings, which are 
not always very reliable in the Jordan valley, because of the great strain on 
the instruments. But it appears clearly from the various readings near the 
banks, including the trigonometrical stations at el Mirmaleh (Sheet XV.), 
889 feet, and K ti s r el Y e h u d, 1,167 ^et, that the course is flatter in 
the middle district of the valley, as is also no doubt indicated by the way 
in which the streams flow parallel with the river in this part. The Survey 
reading at the Ghoraniyeh ford also agrees very closely with that deter- 
mined independently by Captain Warren, R.E. 

There are five fords across the river in Sheet XVIII,: el 
Ghoraniyeh, an ancient ford now used as a ferry, el M a n d e s i, 
Makhadet Hajlah (the pilgrims' bathing-place), and el Henu 
which was pointed out by the Abu Xuseir Arabs as a ford, but which is 
so choked by the jungle that it appears impossible to cross the river at 
this point. Umm E n k h 6 1 a is the fifth ford. 

The Makhadet H a j lah is close to the junction of Wady Kelt 
with Jordan. A shingly shore here exists on the west, and the river takes 
a sudden bend westward, leaving a tongue of land on the opposite side. 
Just north of the ford on the west there are a number of fine and ancient 
tamarisks. The river is open, and free from jungle in the immediate 
neighbourhood. The stream here is very rapid, the eastern shore steep, 
and the channel deep on that side, whilst on the west the shore has a very 
gentle slope. The ford is impassable in winter. 

Springs. — Two fine springs exist at the head of Wady Kelt and 
Wady Farah. Both are perennial, and supply the aqueducts. 'A i n 
F arah is a very fine spring surrounded with a thick growth of reeds and 
with oleander bushes. Small fish have been found in the water. Water 
stands in Wady Kelt throughout the greater part of the year. In winter 




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[SHEET XVni.] HYDROGRAPHY. )7i 

a stream flows all alonj:^ the course from the springs to the Jordan. In 
November, 1873, a sudden thunderstorm swelled the stream. In less than 
half an-hour the water had risen in the narrow part of the valley near 
Deirel Kelt to a depth of 8 or 10 feet, and at the mouth of the pass 
where the banks are steep it was 3 or 4 feet deep. Later on in the year 
the valley was impassable; but the amount of rain was unusual during this 
season, and in January, 1875, the bed of the stream near Jordan was dry, 
though there was water near T e 1 1 u 1 Abu el 'Aleik. 

In the plain beneath a fine spring exists at 'A i n e s Sultan, where 
there is a copious supply of good cool water (about 80° Fahrenheit), peren- 
nial, and flowing for a distance of over a mile in summer. (See Tell es 
Sultan, Section B.) Ain Duk and Ain en Nueiameh are two 
springs within a few yards of one another at the foot of the mountain 
by a large Dom tree. (Palestine Exploration Fund Photograph, No. 216.) 
Smaller springs exist lower down ; the water is very pure and cool, and 
flows in a stream about a foot deep. Part of it is carried along a 
channel surrounded by a thick jungle of canes ; part flows down Wady 
Nueiameh. 

In the Jericho plain is a fine spring called 'Ain Majlah. The 
water wells up in a masonry well about 6 feet diameter. It is of dark 
blue colour, but fresh and cool. To the east of the spring there is a 
thicket of the R i s h r a s h willow [Agnis Cas/iis) ; the water finds its way 
in a small stream to Jordan. 

In the neighbourhood of the Dead Sea there are also two sprino-s of 
importance. The largest of these is 'A i n Feshkhah, near which is 
the litde spring called 'Ain e t T a n n u r. The water comes out from 
beneath the cliffs into a pool surrounded with canes, and runs over a 
shingly bed in several streams into the Dead Sea. The supply is copious 
and perennial, but has a slightly brackish taste and sulphurous smell. 
The colour in the pool is a deep green blue. 

'Ain el J e h e i y i r is a small pool, of salt and sulphurous water, dark 
blue in colour and surrounded by a canebrake. 

The water of the Dead Sea has a specific gravity of about i*2 ; the 
boiling point being 221° Fahr. The proportion of salts is estimated at 
24 to 26 per cent., out of which 7 per cent, is common salt ; the other 
chlorides include calcium, magnesium, potassium, manganese, aluminum, 

22 2 



172 THE SURVEY OE WESTERN PALESTINE. 

and ammonium, with a small proportion of sulphate of lime and 4 per 
cent, of bromide of magnesium. Bitumen still floats occasionally on the 
surface, and is collected by the Arabs. 

Topography. — Only one inhabited place is to be found on this Sheet, 
the modern village of E r i h a. This is a miserable mud hamlet, with a few 
black tents pitched among the houses. The houses and the village itself are 
surrounded by hedges of N e b k — a thorny briar [Zizyphiis Spina Christ i). 
To the south of the village there is a square tower with a courtyard, which 
is the residence of the M u t a s e 1 1 i m. The tower is thought to date 
back to the twelfth century, at which date it is mentioned by travellers. 
The number of the inhabitants of Jericho is supposed to be about 300. 
The village is surrounded with vines trained on low trellises. Wheat and 
barley is also cultivated in the tract extending between the village and 
the Shejeret el Ithleh, and west near T e 1 1 u 1 Abu el ' A 1 e i k. 
Eriha appears to be the place known as Jericho to the Crusaders, the 
distance from Ouarantania (Kiiriintul) to Jericho being given as 
2 miles. (Fetellus, as given by Du Vogiie ' Eglises de la Terre Sainte,' 
p. 429.) The water supply of Jericho is by a canal from 'Ain es Sultan. 

Since 1875 a clean and well-built Russian hospice has been con- 
structed west of the hamlet. Many fragments of Roman and Byzantine 
date were excavated and collected while the work was in progress. 

The various ancient sites, biblical and non-biblical, included in the 
Sheet, are as follows. 

Biblical Sites. 

Adummim ('the ascent of). — This was a point on the boundary 
lineof Judah. (Joshua xv. 7, xviii. 17.) The name is exactly represented 
by the Arabic T a 1 a t e d D u m m, and the position south of Wady 
Kelt and about half way to Jerusalem appears to fit well. The name 
' Ascent of Blood ' (or red) is no doubt due to the red brickdust coloured 
marl in the neighbourhood. In the ' Onomasticon ' (s.v. Adommim) the 
place is mentioned as ' Castellum Militum,' on the road from Jerusalem to 
Jericho. This castle remains (see Khan Hathrurah, Section B.), and is 
presumably the same as the mediaeval Tour Rouge. 



{SHEET XVI IL\ BIBLICAL SITES. 173 

Beth H oglah. — This name Is identical with the Arabic Hajlah. 
The site should be placed at 'A i n H a j 1 a h, where there are traces of 
ruins round the spring. At a later period this place was supposed to be 
En Eglaim, and is called En Gallim in the fourteenth century by Marino 
Sanuto, who places it east of Bet Agla, by which he apparently means the 
monastery of Kiisr Hajlah. 

D o c u s, a fort near Jericho (i Mace. xvi. 15). — The name is recover- 
able in 'A in Duk. The most probable position for the fort seems to be 
at Khurbet Abu Lahm. (See Section B.) 

The Crusading fort of Duk is noticed under the head Jebel Kurtintul, 
Section B. At a later period the place appears to have been identified 
with Kurn Surtabeh. (See Sheet XV., Section A.) 

Gilgal. — The site of this important place is to be sought east 
of the ancient Jericho. The name J i 1 j u 1 i e h was heard as applied to a 
Tell near the Shejeret el Ithleh by Herr Zschokke, in 1S65. Robinson 
also had heard of the name in this direction. It was recovered by me 
from three natives, as applying to Birket Jiljulieh in 1873. (See 
tradition of the City of Brass, Section C.) The site is on the direct road 
from Makhadet Hajlah to 'A in es Sultan, 4^ miles from 
the river and i^ miles from E r i h a. Josephus places Gilgal 10 stadia 
from Jericho and 50 from Jordan, but the latter number is impossible. 
(Joshua iv. 19 ; Antiquities v. i, 4.) 

In the fourth century (' Onomasticon,' s.v., Galgala), the site is placed 
2 miles east of Jericho, and is said to have been held in reverence by 
the inhabitants of these regions. Adamnanus (700 a.d.) places Gilgal 
5 miles from Jericho, but Willibald (724 a.d.), 5 miles from Jordan and 
2 miles from Jericho. In the Crusading period the site was shown 
further north. (See Khurbet el M e f j i r, Section B.) The remains 
of a monastery seem to show the site at Shejeret el Ithleh to be 
the early Christian site. There is nothing against its being the original 
one. 

Jericho. — -The natural site for a city is at 'A i n es Sultan, 
where, by general consent, the Jericho of Joshua is placed. The 
Crusading Jericho was probably the modern E r i h a. (See back under 
that head.) The Roman Jericho is placed at T c II u 1 Abu e 1 'A 1 e i k. 



174 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

In favour of which we have the probable identification of Cypros with 
Beit J u br (see Section B.), and the probabihty that the aqueducts are 
Roman work. (See Wady Kelt, Section B.) In the early Christian period 
there were two sites, one at 'A i n e s Sultan, one near the pass. 
This agrees with the traces of Byzantine ruins at the former. (See Tell 
es Sultan, Section B.) 

Para h. — A town of Benjamin, is probably Khiirbet Farah. 
(Joshua xviii. 23.) 

Z e m a r a i m. — A town of Benjamin, is identified by Robinson 
with Khiirbet es Siimrah. (Joshua xviii. 22.) The fact that there 
are two ruins of the name close together may be thought to have some 
connection with the plural form of the Hebrew name. 

The chief Biblical interest attaching to this Sheet belongs to the sites of Jericho and 
Gilgal. The following account of the district and the sites is extracted from Mr. Tyrwhitt 
Drake's reports in the ' Quarterly Statement ': 

' The determination of this site has always appeared to me the most important and 
interesting point in this part of the country. 

' Dr. Robinson, in his earlier travels, says that he was able " to ascertain definitely that 
no trace of its name or site remains." He would, however, place it in the neighbourhood of 
the modern er Riha, in accordance with Josephus's description, " on the east border of 
Jericho, 10 stadia from that city and 50 from Jordan." He was, indeed, informed that the 
name Jiljilia existed in the neighbourhood, but failed to identify its position. 

' I am indebted to M. Ganneau and to Major Wilson for directing my attention to the 
subject. A German traveller (Herr Zschokke) travelling in 1865, speaks of the discovery of 
a Tell Jiljiil, which he fixes by a compass angle to Kiisr Hajlah. Yet, although I went to 
the spot in M. Ganneau's company, we failed to find the place, and it was not till after his 
return to Jerusalem that, on revisiting the spot, I found the name was still known to a {qw of 
the older inhabitants of er Riha, though not to the Bcdawin who now accompany us. I 
took every precaution in making inquiries, which I put in various forms to three or four 
persons, and came to the conclusion that the name, though almost lost, still lingered in the 
memory of a few. 

' On the north side of the great Wady Kelt (the traditional Rrook Cherith), about i J 
English miles from the tower of the modern Jericho (Erlha), towards the east, is a solitary 
tamarisk known as the " Shejaret el Ithleh," to which a local tradition points as standing on 
the site of the " City of Brass." 

' The tradition of its siege by a great Imam, of the fall of its walls when he had ridden 
round them, of the destruction of the infidel inhabitants, and of the miracle of the sun 
standing still over Kiiruntiil at the Sultan's command ; all these confused reminiscences of 
the great events of the life of Joshua and of the siege of Jericho point to a connection wliich 
may, indeed, date no further back than early Christian times ; or, on the other hand, may be 
of really valuable antiquity, attaching the site to the history of the Jewish invasion. 

'There are not, however, any extensive ruins on or near the spot. A pool, choked with 



{SHEET XVI/L] BIBLICAL SITES. 



I7S 



soil, scattered stones, hewn but of ordinary size, and a large cemetery of tombs, seemingly 
Arab, though not strictly directed to the Ka'abah, were all we at first observed. On re- 
visiting the place I found that the name Birket Jiljulieh undoubtedly applies to the pool in 
question, situate about 150 yards south-cast of the tree, built with walls, some 2 feet 6 inches 
thick, of rolled pebbles, 6 to iS inches in diameter, well packed. No cement is visible. 
The dimensions of the Birket are about 40 paces by 30. 

' The remains which will, however, prove perhaps of greatest interest are situate south-east 
and east of this point, being a number of small mounds, seemingly artificial, and known as 
the Tellayl'at Jiljulieh. There must be about a dozen of them within a square mile, eight or 
ten feet diameter, and not more than three or four feet high. They are said to be very 
ancient, and remains of the City of Brass. The angle shows that it was to one of these that 
Herr Zschokke obtained the name Tell Jiljul. I hope again to visit the spot and open one 
of the mounds, making a sketch and special plan of the site at the same time. It may seem 
bold to propose that these mounds are traces of the permanent Israelite camp on the spot, 
yet we know that nothing in Palestine is more ancient than are such earthworks. 

' It might be objected that perhaps the name is only the lingering remembrance of a 
Crusading or early Christian site for Gilgal, the tradition of a tradition, but the Crusading 
site seems to have been placed far south at Kiisr Hajlah ; and not unnaturally so, for at 'Ain 
Hajlah exists the only spring of fresh water in the plains of Jericho, and the road from the 
ford of el Henu to er Riha passes close by. Even in earlier times Arculphus mentions the 
church of Galgalis (a.d. 700) as 5 miles from Jericho, evidently referring to the same site. 
It is, however, only fair to notice that Willibald (721 — 727) places it 5 miles from the Jordan; 
from it he went to Jericho, 7 miles from Jordan. This would apply to the site of Jiljulieh 
at el Ithleh, but it would also, though perhaps less easily, apply to Kusr Hajlah, which is 
indicated by the earlier author, unless a corruption be thought to have crept into his text. 

'The long time during which the camp at Gilgal was maintained points clearly to its 
having been well supplied with water. There was also perhaps a city on the same site ; 
although it does not seem by any means certain that this spot was the Gilgal visited by 
Samuel in his yearly round, which should rather be sought in the mountains ; perhaps at the 
modern Jiljilia, situate south of Selfit and north of Attara. In any case it becomes, as the 
early traditions fully recognised, a point of great importance to find a water-supply sufficient 
for a large host. 

On visiting Birket Jiljulieh to-day I 'found a rapid, though muddy, stream flowing right 
through it. This is generally diverted into other channels for the irrigation of the gardens of 
Jericho ; but the very existence of a birket shows that the site was once well supplied with 
water, the most natural source for which would be the 'Ain es Sultan. 

' Jiljulieh is on the direct road from the upper ford at Kiisr es Yehud (St. John on Jordan), 
about 4! miles from this point, and i J miles from er Riha. The latter distance is exactly 
that given by Josephus from Jericho, and reading 30 for 50 (a very easy clerical error in the 
Greek) we get the exact distance from Jordan also correctly. The whole plain is only about 
50 stadia broad, and thus the present reading will hardly allow a position for Jericho in the 
plain. 

' The interest of the site is great, not only for its own associations, but as showing the ford 
by which the Israelites would have prepared to cross the Jordan. Like many other of the 
sites which date from so remote an antiquity, in a country subject to continual inroads and 
devastation, there must naturally be a certain amount of doubt or difSculty attached to its 



176 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTIAE. 

identification, but it seems certain that no site previously fixed upon comes so near to the 
fulfilment of all requisites of the case. 

' Difficult as it seems to be to fix the site of the later cities of Jewish, Roman, and 
Byzantine times, there is happily but little doubt as to the position of the Jericho destroyed 
by Joshua. The " Sultan's Spring," or Fountain of Elisha, is indeed the only natural site for 
a city in the whole country surrounding it. Three fine springs are found within but a little 
distance of one another, while the rest of the plain can show but one, and that far less con- 
siderable. Nothing, indeed, but the curse on the site and the terror inspired by the subsequent 
fulfilment of that curse could account for the displacement of the city. The flight of the 
spies to the hills points to the same position. From modern Jericho flight in any direction 
would be equally dangerous, but from 'Ain es Sultan a deep ravine covered with bushes of 
the Zakkum and Spina Christi, and filled with a jungle of cane, leads to 'Ain Duk (the ancient 
Doch or Dagon), at the foot of the cliff of Kuriintul, amongst whose caves and rocky precipices 
the two Israelites, flying to "the mountains," might lie hid in safety. 

' The ruin at the spring itself seems to be that of a small Roman temple, such as is often 
found at springheads. Other foundations farther north contain capitals and shafts seemingly 
Byzantine. In the direction of er Riha, foundations, low mounds, channels for water, and 
portions of roads hidden in the thorny copse which here covers the plain, see m all to point 
to the former existence of a great town. 

' Still farther south, near Wady Kelt, two large mounds or Tells command the road as it 
descends the narrow pass from Beit Jubr. These have been considered as remains of Roman 
J ericho ; pieces of wall, and perhaps of an aqueduct, with the opus reticulatum of its masonry, 
seem to confirm this theory. Close by is the fine reservoir, fed by aqueducts, known as the 
Birket Mfisa, measuring about 190 x 160 yards. 

' There is a very large number of Tells in the neiglibourhood, all of the most important 
having been examined and excavated by Captain AVarren. Of these, Tell el 'Ain el Samanit, 
Abu Zelef, Abu el Hindi, and el Ariiis, with the Tullul Abu el Alayj are true Tells, artificial 
mounds with a central building of unburnt brick. Tell Deir Ghan'am, el Jurn, el Mutlub, 
I^erb el Habaysh, el Kus, el Mefuriyeh and Moghyfir, with others still less important, are but 
heaps of debris formed by ruins of various date. 

' Of our visits to the Hajar el Esbah, to Gumran, and 'Ain Feshkhah, I have nothing 
myself to relate. Nothing is more striking, however, than the general aspect of the country 
wc have thus passed oven The broad plain, b unded east and west by the steep rocky 
ranges, at whose feet lie the low marl hillocks of a former geological sea ; the green lawns of 
grass leading to the lower valley, where in the midst of a track of thick white mud the Jordan 
flows in a crooked milky stream, through jungles of cane and tamarisk — are all equally unlike 
the general scenery of Palestine. Round Elijah's fountain a tangled w^ood of Zakkum, Spina 
Christi, and near the water an occasional castor-oil plant, spreads out to Jericho. The yellow 
berries of the deadly solanum appear everywhere. The chorus of birds and the flow of water 
are sounds equally unusual and charming in the stony wildernesses of the Holy Land. 

'The palm groves of Jericho have disappeared since the eighth century. A solitary 
survivor grows close to the tower of er Riha, and in the valley north of Kusr el Hajlah I met 
with another clump. When the copses of the fountain are left behind, and the first descent 
is made into the flat mud valley below the half consolidated marl cliffs at Kusr cl Hajlah, 
then we are at once reminded of Josephus's expression, that the Jordan flowed " through a 
wilderness." The views of the lake— with its shining, oily surface, its salt and sulphurous 



[SHEET XVni.\ BIBLICAL SITES. 177 

springs, its brown precipices, with the fallen blocks at their feet, its white drit't logs, crusted' 
with salt, brought down by the freshets in the river, and now stranded along the crisp, shingly 
beach — are perhaps even more striking ; whilst the soft shadows and rosy suffused light in 
early morning, or at sunset, make the trans-Jordanic ranges all an artist could desire to study. 

' Were it not that negative information is, next to positive, the most interesting and useful, 
I should scarcely have touched on this subject, but having carefully examined in person the 
whole tract from Jordan mouth to the Ras Feshkhah, I do not hesitate to say that, if the cities 
of the plain were within this area, all trace of them has utterly disappeared. The ruins, 
which have been described in language not sufficiently moderate for the cause of truth, at 
Kumran and at Rujm el Bahr, I have visited. The former are probably late ; the heaps of 
unhewn stone at the latter (which seems to have been at one time the traditional site of the 
Pillar of Salt, judging from an expression of Maundrel) are, I think, unquestionably natural. 
A curious artificial Tell — Tell er Rusheidiyeh, situate near the Jordan mouth — is the only 
evidence of man's work I could find on that side. It is strewn with ancient pottery, iron 
coloured, and almost iron in hardness. It seems to me certain that the gradual rise of the 
level of the plain, caused by the constant washing down of the soft marls from the western 
hills, would effectually cover over any such ruins did they ever exist below the surface. The 
tract, however, presents literally nothing beyond a flat expanse of senii-consolidated mud. 

' I am tempted here to mention a curious possible identification of this point, though 
perhaps it will not stand criticism. The hill in question is a sharp conical peak, its name 
signifying, "The Raven's Nest." Two miles north-west of this is a Wady and mound, known 
as the Tuwayl el Diab. Here, then, we have the two famous Midianite leaders' names — 
Oreb, the Raven ; and Zeeb, the Wolf — in connection, reminding us of the passage 
(Judges vii. 25) relating that the men of Ephraim " slew Oreb on the rock Oreb, and Zeeb 
at the winepress of Zeeb." There is nothing in the Bible or Josephus to show that these 
places were east of Jordan, and it is quite possible that the kings, flying southward to Midian, 
sought to cross by the fords near Jericho, which had, however, been already seized by their 
enemies. The only difficulty is in the subsequent passage by Gideon at Succoth higher up. 
The peak is most remarkable, and would be well fitted for a public execution. 

' There is another point which might perhaps confirm this idea. Elijah, living by Cherith, 
was supported, as some suppose, by a tribe of Arabs hving at an Oreb, or having that name 
as an appellation. The proximity of the 'Ash el Ghorab to AVady Kelt, the traditional 
Cherith, is interesting in connection with such a supposition, and it has been thought that 
this Oreb might be identical with the rock Oreb in the history of Gideon. I feel, however, 
that the suggestion is one not to be put forward as more than a possible one. 

'The great events of which the Plain of Jericho had in early times been the scene, 
together with its traditional connection with our Lord's temptation, and actual interest with 
regard to His baptism, and other events, attracted the Christians of a very early age to this 
part of the country. Hence the precipices of Kiirimtul were burrow^ed with hermit's caves 
and small chapels, already described by Dr. Tristram, who seems amongst the earliest explorers. 
■\Ve were engaged for a morning in visiting those of most interest, planning the chapels and 
sketching the old and blackened frescoes on their walls. From Justinian's time the plain 
began to be covered with monastic edifices ; the splendid cistern of Kfisr el Yehud (St. John 
on Jordan), mentioned by Procopius as the work of this emperor, is still visible, in an almost 
perfect condition. The grand aqueduct from the 'Ain es Sultan to it is no doubt of the same 
date. The cistern is 30 feet deep, and is supported on rows of piers. The aqueduct is 

VOL. III. 2^ 



1 78 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

merely a long mound, showing hardly a trace of the channel, but running straight as possible 
through the copse over the flat plain between the mud mounds, until disappearing close to 
the convent. 

' The convent itself was destroyed and rebuilt in the twelfth century, to which date, in all 
probability, the ruins I have planned belong. The most remarkable point about the building 
is the use of an apparently artificial stone, containing flints and fragments of harder stone. 
The chapel is subterranean ; the outer stones are drafted ; fragments of tesselated pavement 
remain, and some inscriptions, or graphitcz, carved on the walls. This famous establishment, 
with the small chapel on the banks of Jordan belonging to it, are mentioned by almost every 
traveller of medixval times, and the " fair church of St. John the Baptist " was still standing 
when visited by Sir John Maundeville in 1322, but ruined before the year 1697. 

' In the fifth century there was another convent of St. Panteleemon in the plain, and in 
the twelfth the destruction of one of St. Gerasmius, near the Jordan, is mentioned. At this 
jjeriod of revival the greater number of these constructions were rebuilt, including the convents 
of St. Calamon and St. Chrysostom. 

'It does not appear that either of these names applied to the Kiisr el Hajlah, which, 
however, no doubt dates from the same century. The ruins of this fine old religious fortress 
are better preserved than those of Kttsr el Yehiid, and the plan occupied nearly two days, 
having never, I believe, been previously taken. Though much shaken by earthquake, its 
vaults are entire. The apse of the large chapel remains, and the whole of the smaller, 
including the octagonal drum supporting its dome. The surrounding walls are entire, except 
on the north. The frescoes are much defaced, almost every inscription and all the faces 
being purposely erased. A certain limit is given to the antiquity of the building by the 
occurrence of the name of John Eleemon, Patriarch of Jerusalem in 630, attached to a figure. 

Crusading graphita — the names " Piquet " and " Petre de le Senchal " — are scratched 

deeply, as though with a dagger, on the haunch of an arch. Tesselated pavement is found 
in fragments. The kitchen is entire, with its row of little ovens. Other cells, with a sub- 
terranean chapel, are covered with crosses and religious signs. The most curious frescoes 
are those representing saints receiving the white resurrection robe from attendant angels. 
They are fresher in colour, and no doubt later, than those of Kiiruntiil. 

'Tell Mogheifir, the Gilgal of some authors, is the site of another such convent, now 
entirely destroyed. Scattered stones, with fragments of frescoes and Greek letters, painted 
pieces of tesselated pavement, a small cistern (well lined), and ruins of aqueduct channels 
leading to the spot, are all that remains. It seems probable that we have here the site of the 
convent of St. Eustochium, mentioned by Willibald in 721 as in the middle of the plain, 
between Jericho and Jerusalem, a description applying perfectly if he travelled by the Mar 
Saba route to the capital. 

' Khurbet el Mifjir, north of 'Ain es Sultan, shows ruins excavated by Captain Warren, 
who found the apse of a chapel pointing south (perhaps the transept of a great church), remains 
of houses, and a chamber with frescoes ; these have now disappeared. The site covers about 
300 yards square, and is evidently that of an important establishment. 

' Yet another convent is to be found in the hills overhanging the north side of Wady 
Kelt, and a small rough chapel in Wady Dubliar marks the site of Deir el Mukelik. Thus 
we have five existing ruins, without counting the church mentioned by Sir John Maundeville, 
and still remaining on the summit of KuruntuI, whilst historically we know of the previous 
existence of no less than seven, of which, however, only three are identified. 



[SHEET XVI/L] BIBLICAL SITES. 



179 



' Deir Wddy Kelt merits a more particular description. Ijke every other monastery in 
the hills, it is hung on a precipice. It consists of a series of cells, and a hall supported on 
vaults, through which lies the entrance. The chapel, perched close to the rock, is not 
oriented, being in a line of 49° M., but the east window, beside the apse, is so turned as to 
bear at an angle 90° M. The evident reason of this is the direction of the rock scarp. The 
rest of the building is not in the same line as the chapel. There are at least three dates 
discoverable, as two layers of frescoes cover the wall, whilst the inscriptions of the newest are 
covered in part by the piers supporting the ribs of the roof. The chapel is built of dressed 
stones, whilst the cells and vaults are of masonry roughly squared. This part bears every 
sign of twelfth century work. Perhaps the little side chapel, with rock-cut chamber, and the 
vault containing ancient bones, to which a corridor covered with frescoes representing the 
Last Judgment leads, is the oldest part of the building. Numerous caves, now inaccessible, 
are visible in the face of the clifif, which for a distance of 80 feet is covered with frescoes, 
now almost entirely defaced. One of these cells has at its entrance a heavy iron bar placed 
vertically, no doubt originally to support a rope or ladder. Like the upper chambers at 
Kiiruntul, this is probably a funeral vault. 

' A badly cut inscription in Arabic and barbarous Greek, over the more modern part of 
the door, commemorates a restoration by a certain Ibrahim and his brothers. 

' The examination of the very complicated system of aqueducts which are connected with 
the old irrigation of the plain, formed one of our principal investigations. I have had a 
separate plan made of them, and will endeavour to explain their arrangement. There are in 
all six springs from which the channels are fed, and twelve aqueducts. The springs are 'Ain 
el Aujeh, 'Ain Nuei'ameh, 'Ain Duk, 'Ain Kelt, 'Ain Farah, and 'Ain es Sultan. From the 
first of these, situate about 8 miles north of er Riha, a cemented channel follows the course 
of the Wady el Aujeh on the south side. On gaining the plain it crosses the valley, and 
runs away north, having no less than five branches running about a mile from it at right 
angles, at intervals of a quarter to half a mile apart. There is no doubt that this is simply 
intended for irrigation. One branch leads to a mill. A second and far more important 
branch leaves the first aqueduct at about i|- miles from its source. It winds away south in a 
very devious course for 3I miles, when it reaches the two springs of 'Ain Duk and 'Ain 
Nuei'ameh, situate only a few yards apart. It crosses the valley on a curious bridge of many 
arches, all pointed, and apparently late or modern in date. From this point the aqueduct 
inclines eastward and follows a course equally undulating for upwards of 4 direct miles, passing 
through various cisterns by Khurbet el Mifjir, and over another bridge with pointed arches, 
having a well-cut cross on the haunch of one of the arches. A shorter aqueduct from 'Ain es 
Sultan joins this at Khurbet el Mifjir, and has pipes for the water channel instead of the 
cemented channel of the other. This devious course terminates at length at a birket called 
Heydar, a cemented cistern, the total length from 'Ain el Aujeh to this point being over 8 miles. 
' We next turn to the aqueduct from 'Ain Duk, which is there joined to the last. It feeds 
the Tawahin el Sukker, or Crusading Sugar Mills, and crossing Wady Kelt by a bridge now 
broken, terminates in the same ruins, including a birket not far east of Birket Miisa. A 
fourth aqueduct branches from No. 2 (the long one) just before the latter reaches 'Ain Duk, 
and runs east to the plain. I feel but little hesitation in attributing these aqueducts, with 
their branches, to Crusading times, with probable subsequent restoration by Moslem workmen. 
' We have next to consider no less than five aqueducts which follow the course of Wady 
Kelt, three from 'Ain Kelt and two from 'Ain Farah. A single channel runs from the 



I So THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

former spring, crossing the tributary Wadies by small bridges, and showing a cemented 
channel. Within a quarter of a mile east of Deir el Kelt, it reaches a fine bridge placed at 
right angles to its course. This structure, now broken, reaches a height of over 60 feet above 
the bottom of the ravine. But the aqueduct is at a level nearly 100 feet higher, and is boldly 
brought down a slide of about half over the face of the rock, and enters the channel of the 
bridge on a curve. At the first, or north buttress, there seems to have been a shaft, and 
part of the water descends to a still lower level, and follows the north side of the Wady, 
passing beneath the convent. The remainder crosses by the bridge, which again turns 
sharply at right angles, and another shaft allows part of the current to descend some 30 feet, 
separating into two aqueducts at different levels. Thus from this remarkable bridge we have 
no less than three channels to follow, without counting the branch which passes above Deir 
el Kelt at the original level of the single channel, and thus supplies the convent with water. 
The fact that the water has descended the great shoot is shown by the sedimentary deposits 
found upon it. The sharp turns were no doubt intended to break the force of the fall, but 
must have severely strained the bridge by the unequal pressure so produced. The good 
masonry, round arches, and cement filled with wood ashes, which are remarkable in its 
structure, seem to point to its having been an early Christian work. I need scarcely say that 
we carefully measured and examined it throughout. 

'To follow the northern aqueduct — it continues to the bottom of the pass, and then 
turning north, terminates near the Sugar Mills. It has a cemented channel in which pipes 
are laid. 

' The two southern courses flow parallel to the mouth of the pass, where the lower 
terminates in a blrket and the upper disappears. They are structural throughout, and 
opposite Deir el Kelt there is a fine wall of well-cut masonry, on the top of which the upper 
aqueduct runs, whilst a channel for the lower exists in its thickness below, the wall being 
built up against the cliff, which was too precipitous to afford a channel. 

' The date of the next two aqueducts is possibly earlier. Side by side they run from 'Ain 
Farah, follov.-ing the south side of Wady Kelt considerably above the last pair. At one point 
they cross and recross, and in many places they are tunnelled. One of the bridges, a solid 
and massive structure, placed to carry the high level, at a point where the low level, by a 
bend, is able to cross without, is remarkable for its rubble masonry pointed with dressed 
ashlar, for its rough but pointed arches, and for a vault or cistern, probably of Crusading date. 
A second vault, known as Beit Jiibr el Fokani, exists lower down, and here the aqueducts 
disappear. They run seemingly in tunnels to Beit Jubr el Tahtani, a small fort commanding 
the opening of the pass, and of Crusading date. Here the upper channel descends by a rapid 
shoot, and filling the birket immediately south of the fort, runs on to the great Birket Musa, 
which no doubt it was mainly intended to supply. The course of the lower channel, which 
is cemented without pipes, is not so easily made out, and it seems more than probable that 
the two unite at the tunnel and form one stream. 

' Only three more aqueducts remain to trace, which are fed by the 'Ain cs Sultan. No. 10, 
crossing Wiidy Kelt by a bridge still perfect, with pointed arches (evidently a restoration), is 
traceable into the neighbourhood of Tell Mogheifir, which it was doubtless intended to supply. 
Here it is lost, and careful search makes me feel certain that it went no farther south. 
No. n is a fragment, also in the neighbourhood of Tell Mogheifir, seeming from its direction 
to have branched out of No. 12, the great aqueduct from 'Ain es Sultan to Kiisr el Yehud (a 
distance of 6 miles).'— 'Quarterly Statement,' 1874, pp. 36—44. 



[SHEET XVIII.] BIBLICAL SITES. i8i 

' With regard to the site Jiljulieh, examined by Lieutenant Conder, there is much to be 
said. Josephus states it to have been lo stadia from Jericho, and 50 from the Jordan. 
Now this is impossible, as tlie whole plain at Jericho is only a little more than 6 miles, or 
about 50 to 52 stadia wide in this part. Instead, however, of laying, as it is but too 
much the fashion to do, the fault on Josephus's shoulders, let us see how a copyist's error 
may have affected the question. Fifty is represented by N, and this is so easily changed to \ 
(30), that if the case requires it we may do so without much hesitation. 

'If the Jericho of Josephus stood near the modern Eriha, these measurements of 30 by 
10 stadia exactly suit with the position of Jiljulieh. On the other hand, after hearing the 
legend from the mouth of one of the Abid, how the Imam 'Ali ibn Taleb, mounted on his 
horse Maimun, attacked the infidels inhabiting the Medinet el Nahas (City of Brass, which 
stood near the Shejaret el Ithleh and Jiljulieh), overthrew their walls and slaughtered them, 
but finding the day too short called out to the sun, ' Enthani ya mubarakeh,' and how the sun 
turned and stood still over the ridge still called Dhahret el Theniyeh ; after hearing this 
adaptation of the history of Joshua, I could not rid myself of the suspicion that this legend 
was derived from Christian sources originally, and consequently that the name Jiljulieh must 
be accepted with caution. Taking into consideration the fact that there were at least six 
monasteries in the immediate neighbourhood of Jericho, without reckoning Mar Saba, Deir 
el Mukelik, and Deir Kharaytun, it is not only possible, but even probable, that Bible 
histories have by their means been transmitted to the Arabs, who, as is usual in such cases, 
have transferred the names of the principal persons and places from the unknown to the 
knowTi. 

' Of the monasteries of which we find the ruins, four, namely, Kusr el Yehud, Kiisr el 
Hajlah, Tell Mogheifir, and Khurbet Mefjir (besides Wady Niiei'ameh) are in the plain, and 
three in the mountains, namely the caves of Kurimtiil, Deir AVady Kelt, and Deir el Mukelik. 
In all of these, except Kusr el Yehud and Khurbet Mefjir, frescoes more or less defaced have 
been found. At the former place are several grap/iifce, seemingly in Georgian, one in Greek, 
of which I could only make out a few letters and the following date (?), which would read 
900 + 20-1-90 + 9 = 1019. I may observe that this method of writing a date with several 
letters, when fewer would have sufficed, frequently occurs in the inscriptions I found in the 
'Alah (see ' Unexplored Syria,' vol. ii.). At this river there is pretty conclusive evidence that 
the coarse tesselated pavement was used by the Crusaders in the fact that in the upper story 
some of it still remains in situ over a vault with a pointed arch. 

' At Deir el Kelt, Arabic grapltitce in ordinary character (not Cufic) show- that the first 
frescoes existed up to a comparatively late period. These lower frescoes are much superior 
in composition to the later ones by which they are covered, these latter being simply mural 
paintings on coarse plaster. The figures of the various saints have, as usual, their name and 
quality written above ; one is of some little interest as showing that the monastery of St. 
Calamon was not then, as now, quite sunk into oblivion. The other names, such as 6 ayiai 
Mavaeiui •r:,\j aioy,oc, have no interest. The rude bilingual inscription over the door refers to 
the restoration of the monastery, but gives no date. 

' Deir el Mukelik is situated in by far the wildest and most inaccessible spot of all the 
haunts of the holy men of old, who certainly, as I told our Arab Sheikh Jemil, to his great 
amusement, lived amongst the rocks like the 'icab?' (coney or hyrax), which always choose the 
wildest and ruggedest spots for their habitat. This monastery is situated in even a wilder 
spot than that in Wady Kelt. Our road to it from 'Ain es Sultan lay through el Hazim, as 



1 82 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

the downs around Neby Musa are called. Striking the Haj road from this place to Jerusalem, 
which is kept in good repair on account of the great annual pilgrimage, we rode along almost 
as for as Rujm Halayseh. Turning to the left, we soon found traces of an ancient path con- 
structed on the sides of a rough Wady. Leaving our horses, we scrambled down on foot to 
the ruins, which are situated at the foot of a precipice some 60 feet or So feet above the Wady 
bed. The buildings that remain are small and insignificant ; high up on the face of the cliff 
are two niches of masonry, clinging like swallows' nests to the rock, containing frescoes, one 
of the Blessed Virgin and the other of the Crucifixion. From the subjects of the paintings 
I am led to believe that they are not of very ancient date. Below the ruins is a large cistern, 
and around are several caves which seem to have been used as lairs by the eremites. 

' The scene as we sat on the ruins was one of the wildest I have come across in Palestine. 
Above us towered the ledges and precipices of rust-coloured limestone ; the sky above was 
wild and covered with storm -scuds, reheved by frequent gleams of sunlight. Beneath us a 
ruddy torrent formed by the late rains washed and foamed; griffon vultures sailed majestically 
down the valley on full-spread wings, flocks of rock-doves dashed by occasionally, and now 
and again the clear full note of the orange-winged grakle rose startlingly shrill above the 
murmur of the waters. But for these the silence was unbroken, and not another living 
creature appeared in the solitude. What an existence must have been that of those who 
devoted themselves to death in life, to wasting the energies and vital power bestowed on them 
in droning and sleeping away their time instead of courageously doing their duty in the 
battle of life, may be seen by those who look deeper than the surfice in such convents as 
Mar Saba, Sta. Katarina in Sinai, and others similar. 

' It was almost by chance that we discovered the fact that a monastery, or at all events a 
church, had existed at Tell Mogheifir. Some stones had lately been dug up by the natives, 
and on turning over one of these I found a portion of fresco containing a few Greek letters 
attached to it. 

'The existence of the apse of a small chapel on the summit of this mountain is well known, 
but I am not aware that the remains of the strong Crusading fortress beside it, with its steep 
glacis and rock-hewn fosse on the land side, have ever been described. The main building — 
of which only the outer walls are traceable — is about 250 feet long by 100 feet wide. On 
the north, east, and south, it is protected by the precipitous cliffs. Westwards a crescent- 
shaped ditch — now much filled with debris — has been cut in the rock. I could find no trace 
of any cistern or reservoir, which must, however, have existed, as there is no water nearer 
than that of 'Ain Duk, which flows some 900 feet below. 

'A similar fortress, also cut off" from the land side by a fosse, is to be seen— but in even a 
more ruinous condition than that on Jebel Kiiruntid — on the extreme edge of the hills on the 
north side of Wady Kelt. De Saulcy called it Beit bint el Jebeil, but this name is not 
known at all. After much trouble I succeeded in finding the true name to be Nuseib el 
'Awcishireh. 

' Most of the Christian ruins near Jericho are built of a soft oolitic limestone, which seems 
all to have been quarried at Khurbct el Sumrah, an extensive ruin some 4 miles north of 
Eriha. Here the quarries and quarry caves are extensive, and probably date from a very 
early period. The oolite here is overlaid by beds of stratified mud and conglomerate con- 
taining flints and water-worn stones. 

' Khiirbet Kumran lies 2 miles north of 'Ain Feshkhah, on a sjnir at the base of the cliffs. 
The ruins are rude, and consist of a wall to the east ; the steep slopes to the soulli and west 



{SHEET XVin.] BIBLICAL SITES. 183 

seeming to have been considered sufficient protection in themselves, while to the north the 
ground is occupied by a collection of buildings, now an indistinguishable mass of rude stones. 
A small birket lies between this ruin and the wall, and like all the other remains, is built of 
unhewn stories, which are packed with smaller ones and roughly plastered. The most 
remarkable feature at this spot is the enormous number of graves which lie beside it. I 
computed them at from 700 to 750, including some outliers on two adjoining hillocks. 
Those south of the ruin lie 20° east of north, the head being to the south. They are arranged 
in regular rows, and close together, and are all covered with a paving, or rather roofing, of 
uncut stones : a large upright stone marks the head, and a somewhat smaller one the feet. 
On digging into one of these in company with M. Ganneau, we found, at the depth of 
41 inches, sun-dried bricks, 15 by 1 1 inches and 9 inches thick, overlying the body. The 
bones were much decayed, and I could only obtain some teeth, which were unusually large 
and in good condition. No objects of any kind were found in the grave. On digging into 
another tomb we failed to find anything at a similar depth, and were prevented from carrying 
on our researches further by the approach of night. 

' The curious regularity of the graves, their position — so unlike that employed by either 
Christians or Moslems — and the use of sun-dried brick, renders the identification of the place 
a puzzle which seems likely to remain unsolved, as no inscription or even worked stone was 
to be seen amongst the untrimmed materials used. The only thing besides pottery that I 
found was a small nearly defaced copper coin, presumably Jewish. 

'The pleasant clear weather, with cool breeze and warm but not hot sun, which succeeded 
the first rains, and the verdant appearance of the country, rendered the first fortnight of our 
stay at 'Ain es Sultan very enjoyable. This agreeable weather, however, is perhaps the most 
unhealthy part of the year ; and so it proved to us. Fourteen men out of seventeen connected 
with the Survey suffered from more or less severe attacks of fever. The change, however, to 
the high level of Jerusalem, and the great kindness and attention received there by those who 
were ill, has restored the whole party to their state of wonted health. 

'The climate of Jericho would seemingly have changed since the days of Josephus, or 
more probably the surplus irrigation was not then, as now, suffered to become stagnant pools, 
causing malaria and fever. The great Jewish historian in many passages vaunts the wonderful 
fertiUty of the place, and calls it Olioy x.ws/t-i', a region fit for the gods. At present the 
luxuriance of vegetation is almost tropical, but the inhabitants are lazy, dissolute, and incapable 
of continuous work. As the governor of the village told me, ' to rouse them you must take 
a stick, to make them work a kiirbaj ' (cowhide). All kinds of vegetables, such as tomatoes, 
vegetable-marrows, etc., are in season all the year round. Grapes grow to a great size, the 
vines being trained over trellises supported on poles 4 feet high, as in some parts of the 
Pyrenees, and occasionally in North Italy. Indigo flourishes, but is seldom cultivated; 
sugar, too, and cotton, would doubtless succeed. Sloth, however, and indolence on the part 
of the Government and peasants, now reign supreme, where a little care in drainage and steady 
cultivation might annually raise produce of equal value with the revenues of all the rest of 
Palestine. The timber, too, beside the Jordan, might with but little trouble be made to 
supply a great deficiency in the Jerusalem market, where nothing whatever but foreign 
timber can be procured, and that at a high rate ; for in addition to the transport from Jaffa, 
which is longer than that from the Jordan, the sea carriage must also be considered.' — 
'Quarterly Statement,' 1874, pp. 71 — 75. 

'Next day we went to the presumed site of Gilgal, which we had not been able to visit on 



1 84 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

our first journey to Jericho, the existence and the name of which I had spoken of to Lieutenant 
Conder. This place, situated not far from Tell el Ithleh (or Hithleh), has been pointed out to 
several travellers (Zschokke and Fr^re Lievin) under the name of JiljCdieh. The people of 
Eriha told us that this was a name pecuHar to the Franks. However that may be, we tried a 
few little excavations in the mounds of el Ithleh and Jiljiilieh ; these were not deep, and led 
to no great results. In the first, a large quantity of pottery fragments, cubes of mosaic, and 
lots of glass ; in the second, sand. It is certain that there was once an edifice here of con- 
siderable importance, to judge by the mosaics. But that proves nothing for or against the 
identification of Gilgal, which appears to me still a doubtful point.' — M. Clermont Ganncau, 
'Quarterly Statement,' 1874, p. 170. 

NoN-BiBLicAL Sites. 

In addition to the sites mentioned above there are a few which are un- 
connected with Bible history. 

E b a 1 and G e r i z I m were held in the fourth century to be 
near Jericho. (See 'Quarterly Statement, October, 1S76, p. 183.) It 
seems probable that the two points intended by Jerome (' Onomasticon,' 
s.v. Gebal and Golgol), are the remarkable conical summits, T u w e i 1 el 
'A k a b e h and N u s e i b ' A w e i s h i r e h, on either side of the pass. 
The title of the latter may be thought to have a connection with the 
tradition of Joshua's altar on Ebal ; and the name, Bint Jebeil, 
collected by M. de Saulcy, as referring to the ruin on the summit (see 
Section B), may perhaps retain a trace of the Gebal of Jerome. 

Cypros. — A fort built by Herod above Jericho; is possibly Beit 
J ia b r et Tahtani. (See Section B.) (Ant. .\vi. 5, 2 ; B. J., ii. iS, 6.) 
The present buildings are of later origin, but the original fortress was 
demolished in the time of Agrippa. 

M o n s Ma r d e s. — A lofty site near the Dead Sea, with a well and 
ruins. (' Acta Sanctorum,' ii. 306.) This is probably K h i1 r b e t Mir d. 
(Cf Rel. Pal., p. 879.) St. Euthymius in the fifth century found founda- 
tions and a well. 

Ouarantania. — The mountain above Jericho (Kuruntul) was 
pointed out from the twelfth century downwards as the site of our Lord's 
Temptation. (Robinson, ' Biblical Researches,' ii. 303.) It must not, 
however, be confused with the ' high mountain ' which was shown as that 
mentioned in the Gospel. Soewulf (1102 a.u.) speaks of this as 3 miles 



[SHEET XVII/.] NON-BIBLICAL SITES. 185 

from Jericho, and Fetellus (Du Vogtid, ' I^glises,' p. 429) places It ' Secundo 
miliaris a Quarantena contra Galileam.' These distances fit with those of 
the prominent peak, 'Osh el Ghiirab, and the name of the valley 
leading from it, Wady Mesaadet 'A i s a (Valley of the Ascent of 
Jesus), is no doubt connected with this tradition. 

Z u k. — The place where the scapegoat was precipitated. (Yoma, vi. 4.) 
The distance from Jerusalem points to the high mountain, e 1 M u n t a r, 
and the name B i r e s S u k, belonging to a well on this mountain, repre- 
sents the Hebrew. 

' There is no ceremony of the law of Moses which possesses greater interest to scholars 
than that on the Day of Atonement when the "scapegoat" (as the Authorised Version has 
rendered it) was sent out into the wilderness. 

' It is not my object to enter into the question 01 the true meaning of the term " the goat 
for 'Azdscl," which represents the Hebrew text (Leviticus xvi. S), or to inquire whether this 
word is properly to be connected with the demon of that name who was supposed to inhabit 
deserted and ruined places, and to have been a. fallen angel teaching many arts to mankind 
(Book of Enoch, chap. viii.). The name is still applied (according to Gesenius) by some 
Arab tribes to an evil genius, but it is sufficient here to take the words of Josephus that the 
goat was " sent out of their coasts to the desert for an expiation and a supplication for the 
sins of the whole multitude" (Antiq. iii. 10, 3). 

' According to the original law, the scapegoat was set free, and went away into the wilder- 
ness, but we learn from the Talmud that on one occasion a scapegoat found its way back to 
Jerusalem, and this was considered so ominous that an innovation was made, and the goat 
was effectually prevented from taking so unusual a course by being precipitated from the top 
of a lofty mountain. 

' The tract Yoma of the Mishna, devoted to the ceremonies of the great Day of Atone- 
ment, gives a full account of the ceremony as performed at the later period. The high priest 
stood in the temple court with the two goats " for Jehovah " and " for Azazel " before him. 
To the horns of the latter he bound a tongue-shaped scarlet cloth to distinguish it, and the 
lots were then cast, it being considered of good omen if the lot for Jehovah fell in the right 
hand. 

' The reason of the red cloth was, according to Maimonides, to distinguish the goat, but 
the doctors of the Gemara, ever anxious to put an unnatural meaning to every act, quoted the 
passage, "though your sins be as scarlet, they shall be white as snow" (Isaiah i. 18), and 
asserted that the atonement was not acceptable to God unless the scarlet cloth turned white, 
which it ceased to do forty years before the destruction of Jerusalem. 

'The goat, when chosen, was sent out with a special messenger to a place called Tzook, and 
passed on the road another place called Beth JUidoodoo. The passage in the Mishna runs as 
follows : — 

' Yoma, chap. vi. : 

' " (4) And the nobles of Jerusalem went with him to the first tabernacle, for there were 
ten tabernacles between Jerusalem and Tzook, and 90 stadia {Iiis\ and 7 J- stadia were 
I mile {Mil). 

VOL. III. 24 



i86 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTIME. 

' " (s) At every tabernacle they said to him, Behold food, behold waters (Mim), and they 
went with him from one tabernacle to the next, except at the last, for they did not go with 
him to Tzook, but stood afar off and watched what he did. 

' " (6) What did he do ? He divided the scarlet tongue, and placed half upon the rock 
and tied half between the horns of it (the goat), and he pushed it (the goat) backwards, and 
it rolled and fell down, and or ever it was half down the mountain every bone of it was 

broken. And he went and sat under the last tabernacle till the evening 

' " (8) And they said to the high priest, ' The goat has reached the desert.' And how did 
they know that he had reached the desert ? They made watchtowers on the road, and waved 
cloths, and knew that the goat had reached the desert. Rabbi Jehuda said, ' Was not this 
the great sign ; from Jerusalem to the entrance of the desert (Beth Hidoodoo) was 3 miles? 
They went i mile and returned, and counted for i mile, and they knew that the goat had 
reached the desert.' The foreign legend. Rabbi Ismail said, Was not this the sign, they 
tied the red tongue to the gates of the temple, and when the goat had reached the desert it 
became white, since it is said, ' Though your sins be as scarlet, they shall be white as snow '?" 

* We may here examine the three topographical terms here used. 

' T/ie Desert. — Midbar, " wilderness." The word has, according to Dean Stanley, the idea 
of a wide open space without pasture. It is applied in the Bible (Joshua xv. 5i) to a district 
including the northern shores of the Dead Sea, and extending at least to Engedi, and, on the 
west, apparently to the vicinity of Bethlehem. The distance from Jerusalem to the entrance 
was 3 miles, and Tzook in this desert was 13 Jewish miles from the capital, and probably on 
some important road. 

* Tzook comes from a root meaning " narrow," and equivalent, according to Gesenius, to 
the Arabic Dak spelt with Dad. According to Bartenora, the term applies to any prominent 
and lofty mountain, but it is generally taken to be a proper name, and in this view Maimonides, 
commenting on the passage, agrees.* A precipitous mountain, probably a narrow ridge but 
lofty, and easily seen from a distance, with a road leading to it from Jerusalem, is required 
evidently at a distance of 1 2 Jewish miles from the capital, somewhere in the direction of the 
eastern desert. 

'■Beth Hidoodoo. — The word stands Beth Horon in the Jerusalem Talmud, which appears 
to be a corruption. In the Targum of Jonathan on Leviticus xvi. the same, no doubt, is 
intended by Beth Hidoori, spelt with the He. Buxtorf translates the word, as does Surcn- 
husius, "the entrance to the desert." The root has, however, the meaning "to be sharp," 
and the word Hidoodim means " wrinkles." This term would apply well to the knife-like 
ridges of the desert east of Jerusalem. 

' The circumstances of the case may not perhaps allow of very certain identification, as it 
is doubtful whether either word is to be taken as a proper name ; but there are indications 
which may perhaps point to the exact spot. 

* In another passage (' Mishna Baba Metzia,' vii. 10) the word also occurs in the plural, 
// rasi tzookin, and in this case also Maimonides takes the word to apply as a proper name to 
Tzook, the ' Scapegoat Mountain.' It is worthy of notice that the Arabic name Si'ik, under the 
feminine form Sukijr/i, applies to a narrow ridge, Dhahrct Sukiyeh ; a valley, Wady Sukiyeh ; 
and a well, Bir Sukiyeh, in the same desert 4 miles east of Neby Yiikin. The distance from 
Jerusalem prevents identification with Tzook, but the origin of the name is probably the 
same. 



[SHEET XJ'II/.'] NON-BIBLICAL SITES. 187 

' The ancient road from Jerusalem to the desert, and to the curious ruin of Mird (Alons 
Mardes), is now traced throughout. At the distance of some 6 EngUsh miles from Jerusalem 
it reaches a long, narrow ridge, running north and south, having extremely steep sides and 
deep gorges running northwards, separated on the west by the Wady of ed Dekakin, and on 
the east overlooking the Bukei'a, or tableland above the Dead Sea This ridge culminates 
in the high point called el Milntar, about half a mile farther east, and is bounded on the 
north by the precipitous valley of Mukelik, above which, a little farther north, is the peak 
called el Haddeidun. 

' The name Hidoodoo, which, as we have seen above, means sharp or knife-edged, is 
applied to two points in the same district, under the Arabic equivalent form Haddadiyeh, 
having an identical meaning, and the term Haddeidun is not improbably a corruption of the 
Hebrew Hadudim. Thus the Beth Hidoodoo would be the entrance to the district of sharp 
ridges which is peculiar to this part of Palestine. 

' It is remarkable also that there arc a scries of wells, at the average distance of f of 
a mile apart, all along the ancient road to this ridge ; and, finally, it is still more interesting 
to find one of these, the first upon the ridge itself, bearing the name Suk. 

' This name has been collected by Mr. Drake as written with Sin., in which case it may 
be rendered " well of the market," though why a well in the middle of the desert should be 
so called is not apparent. The Shi and Sad are, however, so closely allied that they are not 
unfrequently confused, and some words (such as Sunt, the acacia) may be written with either. 
Curiously enough, this is the case with all words from the root Sak, including Suk. (See 
" Freytag Lex.") Spelt with the Sad, the Arabic is the exact equivalent of the Hebrew Tzook 
for the last letter is a Kof, representing the Hebrew Koph. 

' The antiquity of these wells is certainly considerable. Many of them are reservoirs hewn 
in the rock with great care and labour. They exist in a part of the country quite uncultivated, 
and are evidently intended for travellers along the road, which also shows marks of antiquity, 
being hewn in the face of the cliff in parts. The exact length of the Hebrew mile it is not 
easy to determine, but the Rh, as determined from Ivlaimonides, appears to have been 
125 yards, which would give 6i English miles as the total distance from Jerusalem to Tzook. 
This brings us to the summit of el Muntar, and the Bir es Silk may be supposed to mark the 
site of the last tabernacle. 

' These indications seem to point to the ridge of el Muntar as representing the Tzook of 
the Talmud, and the exact point whence the scapegoat was rolled down into the valley 
beneath.' — Lieutenant Conder, 'Quarterly Statement,' 1876, pp. 164 — 167. 

Roads. — The main lines of communication are : ist, the Roman road 
along the Jordan valley ; 2nd, the Hill roads ; 3rd, the Pilgrim road, 

Roman Road along the Jordan Valle y. — This road is 
shown in the Peutinger Tables (393 a.d.) as starting from Jericho. 
The traces of the ancient cobble pavement are visible in places along the 
plain. The construction is specially noted under the head K h ia r b e t 
Fusail. (Sheet XV.) The road is traceable south from 'A i n es 
Sultdn. It crossed Wady Kelt by the Roman bridge near Tellul 

24 — 2 



1 88 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

Abu el 'Aleik. (Section B.) Here the road down the pass joins, 
but there was also an ancient road southward to the Bukeia. This 
road ascends into the hills by the B i r U m m el F u s, and is remark- 
able for the fine engineering which directs it down the steep hill slopes 
(descending 1,200 feet in 5 miles, with a gentle gradient), and for the 
various large reservoirs, such as the well above-mentioned, the B i r e s 
S Li k and others, which have been hewn in the rock beside the road to 
supply travellers. The road passes west of K h u r b e t M i r d ; it is at 
various points carried through cuttings in the hill-side. It runs round the 
summit of el M i^i n t a r on the south, crossing by a narrow neck or saddle, 
and thus extends to Jerusalem. (Sheet XVII.) 

The road in the Jordan valley is directed in a fairly straight line north- 
ward, close to the foot of the downs, which lie north of 'A i n e s 
Sultan, thus avoiding the deeper part of the great valleys which cross 
the plain. 

Hill Road s. — A shorter line of communication with Jerusalem 
ascends the pass of Wady Kelt. The part immediately above the plain 
has a steep gradient, and the rock on the south side has been scarped. 
The general course is carefully engineered. A Roman milestone exists 
on the road (D a b b u s el 'A b d). The present road ascends 1,350 feet 
in 5 miles to the high top called TalAt ed Dumm, through a pass 
cut in the rock, and passes south of the higher part of the hill, on which 
the fortress stands. The road then again descends 200 feet in i mile 
in a winding course, with rock-cut steps and artificial scarps, into the flat 
ground west of the Khan Hathrurah and thence again leads up to 
Jerusalem. This course does not, however, appear to be that of the 
original Roman road, which was directed by a detour southward past 
Khan el Ah m a r, thus avoiding the steep ascent to T a 1 a t e d 
Dumm. The line from Khan el Ahmar is directed north-west, joining 
the present road in the valley near 'Arak Abu el Kard. 

The second hill road is that leading from Jericho to Bethel. It ascends 
the hills on the north side of Wady el Kelt from near Shukh ed 
D u b a and passes along the side of the ridge above. A path here joins 
it, which comes down the face of the cliffs south of Kuriintid. The road 
runs up Wady Rijan to the ridge called Ras et Tawil, whence its 
course is traced on Sheet XVII. 



[SHEET XVHL] ROADS. 189 

A third Roman road runs down from the north to 'A i n D u k from 
Taiyibeh. (Sheet XIV.) 

The Pilgrim R o a d.— A broad road leads south of Wady Kelt 
to the Makhadet Hajlah. It descends by the TalAt ed D u m m, 
diverging from the road of the Wady Kelt pass and going down 
'Akabet esh Sherif It passes through Wady Medhbah 
'Aiyad. On the plain it is a broad beaten track, not a made road, 
going past 'A i n Hajlah to the Jordan. 

The second pilgrim road is called Derb er Ruajib and leads 
to N eby M usa, which is annually visited by a large band of Moslem 
pilgrims. From Neby Musa a path leads into the plain by the winding 
descent called Maradd Hani. This road joins the Roman road at 
Khan el Ahmar. 

On the Roman road, near B i r U m m el F (i s, there are m e s h a- 
hed, or little piles of stones erected by the pilgrims to Neby 
M Ci s a. 

The ordinary route for travellers coming by Mar Saba descends 
into the Bukeii and joins the Roman road near Jebel K ah mum. 
The course thence is directed along the south side of the great valley 
(W a d y el K a n e i t e r a h), which is crossed at e 1 K u e i s e r a h. 
Travellers generally continue along the course of the valley eastward to 
the B e 1 a w e t e d h D h e h e i b a n. From the Dead Sea there is a 
track to K li s r Hajlah and thence to Makhadet H a j 1 a h. 

Cultivation. — The country described is a desert. The only cultiva- 
tion is in the neighbourhood of E r i h a and in the irrigated gardens amongst 
the thickets north-west of the village. In these gardens every kind of 
vegetable is grown, tomatoes, vegetable marrows, beitinjan kuza, 
etc. A little indigo is also grown. The grapes, trained on trellises four 
feet high, grow to good size. Wheat and barley is also of good quality. 

The wild vegetation has already been noticed. 



SHEET XVIIL— SECTION B. 

Arcii.eology. 

'A i n es Sultan (O s). — See Jericho, Section A, and Tell es 
Sultan, Section B. 

'A i n e d D u k (O r). — Near this spring a tomb was examined in 
the side of the hill. It is a chamber with 21 kokim in two tiers. There 
are other caves near it, and broken sarcophagi. The one excavated 
measures 16 feet by 17 feet. The lower tier contains three kokiin at the 
back, and 4 each side. The upper tier has only three on the left hand side. 
The kokiin are 2 feet wide, 6 feet S inches long, and 3 feet 4 inches high. 
Near the same place were found two shafts 3 feet long and 2 feet 8 inches 
diameter. 

Beit J u b r el F o k a n i is merely a single vault with a pointed 
arch. The vault is of rubble, the walls of small masonry. It may 
possibly date back to Crusading times, but there is no indication of 
date. 

Beit Jubr et Tahtani (O s). — A small fort on the south side 
of the Jerusalem road, commanding the ascent from the Jericho plain. 
The building stands on a rock-scarp artificially formed, and consists of a 
single tower 25 feet by 12 feet interior measurement. On the east is a 
doorway with a low pointed arch having a keystone. Above the doorway 
a loophole. On the south is another entrance. The roof, which is broken 
in, consisted of a simple barrel-vault, semicircular, of rubble and thin 
undressed stones wedged together. On the outside the corner stones are 
drafted with a rude draft and smooth boss (resembling the masonry of 
Khurbet Ikbala, Sheet XVI I.). The south door has been built up at a later 



[SHEET XVIIL] ARCHAEOLOGY. 191 

period, drafted stones being used up in the work. On the west the tower 
is defended by a fosse, separating the scarp on which it stands from the 
hill. 

Immediately south of the fort is a small ruined birkeh, which was fed 
by an aqueduct. (See Wady Kelt.) This reservoir is formed by a dam 
across the valley, built of strong rubble work. A pillar-shaft lies near it. 
The aqueduct descends to this level by a sudden shoot, visible beside the 
road immediately west of the tower. 

The general appearance of this ruin resembles the Crusading work at 
Kuryet el 'Enab, Khan Hathriirah and other places. It is 
of course possible that the place may be a reconstruction on an older site, 
and that the rock-cutting may be earlier. The birkeh resembles on a 
small scale the Birket es Sultan at Jerusalem, constructed by the 
Germans in the twelfth century. (See Cypros, Section A.) 

Visited 24th November, 1S73. 

Bir Abu Shualeh (N t). — A well with water-troughs close to a 
large cavern cut in the rock north of the well, and resembling Mugharet 
Umm el Hummam. 

Birket Jiljulieh (P s). — This pool is 150 yards south-east of 
the Shejeret el 1 1 h 1 e h, a fine tamarisk. It is quite choked with 
soft soil. The walls are about 2 feet 6 inches thick, of water-worn cobbles 
taken from some watercourse, averaging from 6 to 18 inches diameter, 
and well packed. The cement is all gone. The pool is rectangular, and 
measures 40 paces by 30. The style of work is similar to that found in 
Byzantine ruins (such as el Murussiis, Sheet XVII.). Northof this pool there 
is an Arab graveyard, and many hewn stones have been used up as head- 
stones to the graves. Scattered stones, hewn, but averaging not more than 

2 to 3 feet in length, lie near. East of the pool are the mounds called 
et Teleilat, about a dozen in all, some 8 to 10 feet in diameter and 

3 or 4 feet high. These when excavated proved to contain fragments of 
pottery and glass, sand and tesserae. 

There are sufficient traces to indicate that a large building once existed 
near the pool, and by comparison with other ruins, such as Tell Mogheifir, 
it is probable that there was a convent on the spot. (See Gil^al, 
Section A.) 

Visited November, 1873, February, 1874, January, 1875, October, iSSo. 



192 



THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE, 



Birket Mljsa (O s). — A large pool fed by an aqueduct (see 
Wady Kelt) measuring 660 by 490 feet. The walls are only about 5 to 
6 feet high, but the reservoir is probably much filled up. The masonry is 
small, but the walls are nearly 10 feet thick. The pool appears to have 
belonged to the system of aqueducts which lead to it, and to be of the 
same date. 

D a b b u s el 'A b d (O s). — A column-shaft beside the road, 
apparently a Roman milestone. 

Deir el Kelt (O s). — A ruined monastery perched in the side of 
a perpendicular precipice on the north bank of Wady Kelt. (See Plan.) 
It is approached from the east, on which side is a narrow plateau (120 feet 
east and west, 30 feet broad) having above it a cliff. For over 80 feet in 




length this cliff is covered with cement, which was once painted in fresco, 
with figures now obliterated. In the cliff above the monastery are caves, 
now inaccessible. In one an iron bar was visible, probably once used for 
fixing a rope or rope-ladder, by which a communication with the hermit 
in the cell mifjht be effected. 

The monastery itself shows three distinct dates of building. The edifice 
includes an entrance-hall with vaults below, a chapel and cells. The chapel 
is not in the same axis with the rest of the buildings, and appears to be 
earlier. The masonry in it is better dressed than in the rest of the work. 
The chapel is 36 feet long by 17 feet broad, interior measure. Its bearing 
is 45°. At the east end is an apse 7 feet diameter ; this has a window in 
the side placed askew, so as to have a bearing 90°, or due east. Behind 



{SHEET XVII l.\ ARCHAEOLOGY. 193 

the chapel Is a small chamber having a tomb beneath the lloor, cut in the 
rock, and containing remains of bones much decayed. This chamber has 
also an apse. The small cell beyond this is cut in rock, and measures 
10 feet by 13 feet. 

A corridor leads from the south door of the main chapel to the smaller 
chapel. 

The buttresses in the large chapel are evidently later additions, for 
they are built across the second series of frescoes ; they support the ribs 
of the vault, and they are of finely dressed ashlar. 

The interior walls of the chapel, of the corridor, and of the small 
chapel behind, are all covered with cement and painted in fresco, with 
figures and inscriptions. Two sets of these frescoes are visible in places ; 
the older are much defaced, but appear to have been better executed, and 
resemble those in the chapels on J e b e 1 K li r ti n t ia 1. 

The inscriptions are as follows, the letters referring to the plan. They 
belong to the later period. 

I St. In the chapel at A. The figure of a saint holding a cross in his 
hand, and the head surrounded with a nimbus, with the following title 
round it. This, with the remaining inscriptions, is written in capitals in 
a character the date of which is discussed under the heading Jebel 
Kuruntul. 

ayioQ iVdavaaiog tov aOoivog. 

At the point B is the figure of a saint holding a roll with a defaced 
inscription on it. Round the nimbus is the title : 

O ayiog loioi'i'ijc: o Xw^^f/BwDjc. 
The Holy John of Chozeboth. 

Above are figures of angels much defaced. The cement on which the 
fresco is painted was observed here to have bits of chopped straw in it. 
On the roll in the saint's hand was written : 

ASe\(j)s 

X fo 

- - - - - a 

V 

VOL. III. 25 



194 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

The point marked C shows a defaced picture with two inscriptions : 

+ 0( 0(/lE)'Wl' - - - 



KOI 


TTUTpiapyjiyv 






(TWiKp 


... - 


KM a 


>; 


- - 


- 


- VACIKIO 


- ' 




- ' 


- 


- pvor - 


- - 




. - 


- 


- 0O vv. 







The lower fragment beneath the picture : 

ova fovi - - - (otp 

TOV Itva - - - UKOdTOVrpOQ 

■vpovov. 

The apse of the chapel Is ornamented with a conventional pattern of 
Vandykes, green and yellow. There are two square tablets painted with 
crosses flanked by letters now effaced. 

Over the niche at D, is the following inscription : 

- - - oro(ff^(oi'(t>i' V (K Tiov - - - HfrroAwi' i;/io f/c aruvuo - - oi' crvXoi' a/^ici'. 

Evidently a prayer. In the niche is another inscription, apparently a 
gloria. 

At the point E is the figure of a saint holding a book. On either 
side of the nimbus the title 

ayioQ o TOV KaXapovov rtpaai/.iog. 
' The Holy Gerasimus of Calanion.' 

Perhaps Kulmon near Jerusalem, Sheet XVII., or Calamon near 
Jericho. 

On the book is an inscription which Is almost illegible. 

At the point marked F on the plan is a design with a large central 
figure. The head is a man's, the figure appears to be throned, and has a 
plate on the breast. On the left is a female saint ; on the right two male 
saints, the further in the act of benediction. 

At the point G a saint holding a roll with defaced inscription. Round 
the nimbus the inscrii^tion 

O Ayioc IwuKiip o TraTi]o r)(c OcoroKOv. 

' The Holy Joachim, father of the Mryin.' 



{SHEET X VIII. ] AR CH^OIOG i \ 



195 



At H is a fresco representing the Virgin Mary, the hands raised, the 
palms towards one another ; on the breast a circle containing the head 
and shoulders of a smaller figure, representing our Lord, having the usual 
nimbus with a cross upon it. The face of the Virgin has been purposely 
obliterated. Round the nimbus is the inscription : 

'The Mother of God.' 

Beneath this design remains of the older frescoes are visible. 
At the point I is the figure of a saint and of a cherub painted on the 
intrados of the arch. Over the head of the saint is the title : 

rox) Ayiov IwaKi/n. 

Beneath the angel : 

Ay-yEAog Kvpiov, 

' The Angel of the Lord.' 

The saint being St. Joachim. 

At K, at the back of the chapel, are designs representing the Entomb- 
ment, the washing of the Apostles' feet, and the death of the Virgin ; 
beneath are effaced inscriptions and geometrical patterns. 

The north wall of the corridor is covered with a design representing 
the Last Judgment. 

The chapel behind on the east has also frescoes on the walls. Over 
the north door leading into the cells are the figures of St. Joachim and 
of St. Anne, with inscriptions, and beneath a subject, apparently the 
Agony. Above the two saints are two hands coming out of clouds in the 
position of benediction. 

In the apse niche is a cross with inscription : 



I C 



X c 



A V 



In the smaller niche on the rieht : 



I c 


xc 


N 


K A 



25- 



196 



THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 



The vault, or tomb, beneath this chamber was full of bones and skulls. 
Just north, at a higher level outside the chapel, there are rock-cut cells and 
niches covered with cement, on which yellow crosses of all sizes are 
painted in great numbers, perhaps representing visits of pilgrims. 

The inscriptions and frescoes thus described are evidently mediaeval. 
Graffiti in the modern Arabic character are visible on the lower or 
older layer of plaster, perhaps previous to the date of the restoration and 
of the second inscriptions. But on the other hand the interior buttresses 





)jj\ <vJU^ J-8lJ(1Ijh3 










of the chapel cut these designs and inscriptions across. They are of well- 
dressed stone, and as old as the roof. It would seem probable that the 
chapel had been built near the hermits' cave, and afterwards restored when 
the rest of the monastery was erected in the Middle Ages. For the 
argument as to date, see J e b e 1 K u r u n t ti 1. 

The entrance-hall or tower measures 10 feet by 30 feet, and has a gate 
in its east wall, which also seems to be of two dates. The wall and the 
pointed archway with keystone, and masonry drafted like that at 
K h u r b e t I k b a 1 a, has every appearance of Crusading work when 
compared with other monuments. 

This archway is filled in with good masonry, and a low door scarcely 
high enough to creep through is surmounted by a ilat lintel, above which 



[SHEET XVIIL] ARCHEOLOGY. 197 

is a low relieving arch, the stones of which are drafted and well cut. 
Above this is a very barbarous inscription in Arabic and Greek, and a 
loophole over the inscription. 

Part of the text is very doubtful, but seems to belong to the Greek, 
unless it contains the date. 

The Greek is rendered by M. Ganncau : 

AviKiVKsOi] - - 1) - - - i^io Sia ^ipOQ j3pa^(jii Kai 
TOuc aceXfovi; avTOvg 

X^ 

The translation is, ' Was repaired the .... monastery by the hand 
of Brachim and of his brothers . . . .' 

The Arabic is even worse carved than the Greek ; it reads, ' This 
.... was made by Ibrahim and his brothers .... Musa el Jufnawi 
(the man of Jiifna), may God be merciful to them and .... and he 
said Amen.'""' 

The vault beneath this chamber has a simple barrel-roof not older than 
the twelfth century, and resembling the roof at Beit Jubr. The cells and 
all the buildings are of rudely squared undrafted stones of moderate 
masonry. It would appear probable that this work is of the Crusading 
period, resembling the walls of the church at K u r y e t el 'E n a b. We 
have thus indications of the various dates of the buildings : f 

I St. The chapel and the original frescoes, dating possibly back to the 
early Christian period (fifth century). 

2nd. The monastery, the vaults, and the second series of frescoes. 

* The second word in the Arabic is ahiiost illegible. It was thought by Mr. C. F. 
Tyrwhitt Drake and myself to be c/i A'a/i/, which means ' Gift ' or ' Dowry.' Thus we 
have in another direction Deir Nahleh (Sheet XVII. ), which may be rendered, 'The En- 
dowed Monastery.' 

t Tobler identifies tlje Deir el Kelt with a convent of St. John of Chozeboth. 
With regard to the names Calamon and Gerasimus, a monastery of St. Calamon existed 
somewhere in the neighbourhood of Jericho in the twelfth century, and another of St. 
Gerasimus was undermined by Jordan. (Phocas, 22 — 24, as quoted, 'Biblical Researches,' 
ii. 270.) 

Pere Lievin ('Guide,' p. 382) also speaks of this monastery as that of the anchorite John 
of Chozeboth, and mentions a medixval tradition that St. Joachim retired to this spot. This 
accounts for the three frescoes of St. Joachim and that of John of Chozeboth on the 
walls. 



198 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

Probably Crusading, from evidence of the character employed in the 
inscriptions. 

3rd. The restoration of Ibrahim and Musa of the town of Jufna, 
which is still a Christian village. 

A squeeze of the inscription over the door was taken by M. Ganneau. 
The aqueducts and the fine masonry of J i s r e d D e i r, near the monas- 
tery, indicate that the site is an old one. (Cf. W a d y Kelt.) 
Visited 26th November, 1873. 

The inscription over the door is given with a slight difference by Ganneau : 

' The afternoon was devoted to visiting, with Mr. Drake and M. Lecomte, the convent of 
Deir el Kelt, situated in the wildest part of the Wady of the same name, the plan of which 
had been taken a few days before by Lieutenant Conder. I went there principally to take the 
squeeze of a Greek and Arabic inscription which Lieutenant Conder had found and copied. 
In order to reach the place we followed on foot the aqueduct which descends the Wady on 
the north side. The road was as bad as possible, and the heat considerable. 

' There is nothing very remarkable about the convent ; the frescoes which decorate the 
interior of the church and the ruined chapel appear to belong to several periods. They are 
covered with graffiti, painted or engraved. The only detail which struck me was that the 
church having no orientation, on account of the direction of the rock to which it clings, the 
builders had to compensate for this infraction of the rules of religious architecture by placing 
sideways the window of the apse, of which the two sides (themselves oblique) form between 
them, and with the apse itself, such angles that the mean axis of the window is directed 
exactly towards the east. Symmetry is thus unhesitatingly sacrificed to the exigencies of 
custom. 

' The inscription spoken of is over the entrance. It is bilingual, and probably of a late 
period. The Greek is exceedingly incorrect in orthography and in syntax. It is, besides, 
negligently carved, and very difficult to decipher. 

' This is what I have read of it up to the present : 

+ AN0EKEN + was dedicated 

. . . AIAXIPOC by the hand 

BPAXIMTOUCA of Ibrahim and his 

aea<i>otCatT()TC .... brothers. 
xn 

' While the Arabic inscription reads as follows : " This . . . has been built by Ibrahim 
and his brothers . . Moussa from Jifne (?) . . ALay God hold them in his mercy. And he 
said : Amen." 

' Terhajis the Arabic word which I cannot translate refers to the building of the gate itself.' 
— 'Quarterly Statement,' 1874, p. 88. 

Deir el Mukelik (O t). — A smaller monastery of the same 
character with the last, near the bottom of the valley of the same name 
on the north side. A small square building, built against the cliff, 



[SHEET XVI/L] ARCH.EOLOGY. 159 

about 70 feet above the bed of the valley, remains. In the cliff are 
hermit cells. There are also remains of a tesselated pavement and several 
rock-cut domed cisterns. In the rock there are two niches, cemented and 
painted with a fresco, representing the Virgin, and another of the Cruci- 
fixion. A vertical shoot cut in the rock communicates with one cistern. 
This building has also been rebuilt at a later period, as the tesselated 
pavement has been built over. 
Visited 27th November, 1S73. 

H aj r el Asbah (O t). — Though a natural feature, may be here 
here enumerated. It is a large block, about 9 feet high, cracked in the 
middle, measuring 1 1 feet 7 inches one side, 5 feet 4 inches the second, 
10 feet 10 inches the third, 15 feet the fourth ; one angle is rudely square. 
The theory connected with this stone by M. Clermont Ganneau is noticed 
in the 'Quarterly Statement,' April, 1S71, p. 105. The stone is evidently 
a block fallen from the cliffs above. Other smaller blocks exist near. 
Another stone of the same name will be found in Sheet XII. Both are 
of a rusty colour, streaked with white. 

Visited 29th November, 1873. 

The ' Stone of Bohan the Son of Reuben ' (Joshua xv. 6) lay between Bethhogla ('Ain 
Hajlah) and the neighbourhood of C'.ilgal, which was east of Jericho. The Hajr el Asbali is no 
less than 6 miles south-west of 'Ain Hajlah, and cannot apparently have been on the boundary- 
line, as it would naturally be drawn. 

M. Ganneau, in identifying this site at Hajr el Asbah, argues: 

I St. Stone of Bohan = ' Stone of the Thumb.' 

2nd. Hajr el Asbah - ' Stone of the Finger,' Arabic Usbcfa. 

Besides the great topographical objection, there is the objection that the word is Asbah, 
or Subh, which means 'Streaked with white.' The stone is a square block, not resembling a 
finger or a thumb. 

The ingenious theory of M. Ganneau is founded on an incorrect spelling of the name, 
(Usba'a having the Sm and 'Aitt, while Asbilh has the Sad and Uek), and appears to me 
topographically impossible. — C. R. C. 

The following is M. Clermont Ganneau's account : 

' The day before yesterday we returned from Jericho, having taken advantage of Lieutenant 
Conder's presence there to visit the place, in the hope of verifying certain points. We 
passed five days in the Survey Camp, meeting with the most friendly reception from the 
officers in charge, and came back here on the third. 

'The two points which were the motives of this journey were (i) the examination of the 
site of the Hajr el Asbah, which I had for a long time, for various reasons, proposed to 
identify with the Stone of Bohan; and (2) the project to excavate a cemetery near Kumran 
pointed out as curious by MAI. Rey and De Saulcy. In view of the latter I had brought 



200 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

with me two peasants of SiUvan, formerly workmen under Captain Warren, and taken certain 
tools, such as picks, shovels, and crowbars, from the Society's storehouse. The Jericho people 
are of no use for this kind of work, as they even employ the fellahin of the mountains to 
cultivate their own lands. 

' Our journey was accomplished without incident, except that, arriving after nightfall, and 
badly guided by our two peasants, we wandered about for two hours in the darkness and the 
thorn thickets before discovering the camp, masked as it was by the Tell el 'Ain, at the foot 
of which it was placed. 

' We started the next day, accompanied by Messrs. Conder and Drake, for Hajr el Asbah 
and the Khurbet Kumran. We arrived at the territory (Ardh) of the former after crossing 
in succession the Wady el Kelt, the Wady Daber, and the little Wady el 'Asala. It is a small 
plain extending between the foot of the mountains and the sea, to a bold and well-marked 
promontory, which one of our guides called, I believe, Edh-dh'neib e'yeir {?). In the northern 
portion of this region, almost at the foot of the peak, lie four or five great blocks of rock, 
probably fallen from the summit or flank of the mountain. The most northerly of these, 
very nearly cubical in form, and measuring 2\ metres in height, was pointed out to us as the 
Hajr el Asbah : it is cloven in the middle. The scantiness of its proportions forms a striking 
contrast with the importance accorded to this simple piece of rock, which, without any 
thrilling character, has nevertheless given its name to a surrounding piece of country com- 
paratively large. The form of the stone hardly appeared to me to justify the signification 
which in my memoir on the subject I had assigned to the Hebrew Bohan, and to the Arabic 
word Asbah (for Asb'a), thumb or finger. On the other hand, I discovered close by, and 
standing on the side of the hill, a remarkable isolated peak, which struck me at first sight as 
well as my companions. This point of rock presents a striking resemblance to a fist closed 
with the thumb raised, as will be easily seen by looking at M. Lecomte's sketch. Nothing 
more natural than to apply to this finger-shaped point of rock the characteristic denomination 
of Ihumh or finger, only unfortunately the guides assured us that the Hajr el Asbah was 
really the fallen block we had just visited, and that this other rock was called S a h s o u 1 
H'mein or Gourdet Sahsoul H'meid, which it seems difficult to attach etymo. 
logically to E b e n Bohan. 

' What are we to understand from these facts ? It may very well be that the Arabic 
translation of the Hebrew word at first applied to the peak has been transferred to one of the 
blocks fallen from the mountain close by. What would seem to justify this conjecture is that 
the name of Asbah is extended over the whole of the plain, as we have seen. There seems 
nothing impossible in supposing that after this extension of meaning it should be again con- 
centrated on a single block within the space, and that towards the point by which the place 
was ordinarily reached, the north. The transference of name might possibly be dated back 
to the falling of the stone itself from the mountain ; such an accident may have struck the 
next visitors so much as to have caused them to fix the denomination of the whole region to 
this single stone. 

' I collected from the Bedawin who accompanied us a variation of the name Hajr el 
Asbah, viz., Hajr e§ Sobch. 

' Not only the peak itself in which I wished to find the Stone of Bohan has a highly 
characteristic form, but the shadow which it threw on the side of the hill, at the moment 
when we passed before it, gave a curious profile, suggesting also the signification of the name. 

'Lastly, I will add to these observations one which appears to me of great value in this 



[SHEET XVII I.'] 



ARCHEOLOGY. 



2CI 



important question of Biblical topography. Tliis peak marivs the exact point where the 
mountains which fringe the western side of the Dead Sea change their direction, or at least 
to the eye appear to change it. It is at the extremity of the cape which, looking from north 
to south-, closes the landward horizon, appearing from this side to plunge into the sea. It is 
a point which forms a natural position, and there is therefore nothing astonishing in its being 
chosen as one of the points in the border line between Benjamin and Judah. This con- 
sideration appeared to me so important that on our return I begged M. Lecomte to make, 
from the top of the Tell 'Ain es Sultan, a panoramic view of the plain of Jericho and its 
horizon of mountains from the T a w a h i n e s S u k k e r to the sea. 

' We must remark that the peak only presents its profile clearly indicated when one looks 
at it from the north ; seen from the south, as we remarked on returning, it had lost its first 
aspect ; on the other hand, it resembled now, in a very striking manner, a colossal statue, 
seated in the Egyptian manner.' — 'Quarterly Statement,' 1S74, p. 80 — 83. 

Jebel Kurunti'il (Or). — This mountain rises 1,000 feet above 
the level of the plain as a vertical precipice. The precipice is burrowed 
with hermits' caves ; and two chapels, one still in use (as are some of the 
caves), are built against the rock. On the summit of the mountain are the 
remains of a fortress. A good path leads to the chapels. 

Chapels and Cave s. — Two chapels were visited on the side of 
the mountain. (See Plans.). The lower one is reached through a hole 
in the roof of an excavated chamber, about 12 or 15 feet wide. There 




Middle Cfuipel 




Upper Cliapel 



Lower Oiapel 



was originally a staircase outside, cut in rock, but this is broken away. 
Two large reservoirs exist at the cave below, which is of irregular shape. 
The chapel above is covered with mediaeval frescoes on the cemented 
walls, also having inscriptions and graffiti of numerous pilgrims on the 
frescoes. On the south side is a rock chamber, with a masonry door built 
against the cliff, to which the rock staircase once led. The arch of the 
door is pointed with a keystone, cut away to make the point of the arch- 
way. Beyond this vestibule is a 1 i w a n or open chamber, having a large 
pointed arch over the window. The east portion of this chamber is raised, 
VOL. III. 26 



202 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

and there were originally windows here on the south side. In the raised 
part the altar seems to have stood. On the left is a niche ; on the walls 
are frescoes (see coloured Sketches) representing the Saviour enthroned, 
with inscription : 

o TTai'TWKpaTW|0 

' The Ruler of All.' 

and the Virgin to the left of the spectator, with title : 

Mj)TJ?|0 0£Ol) 

' Mother of God. 
and Saint John Baptist to the right, with title : 



Aytoe \usavvr\q . - - 

' Holy John the (Forerunner '). 

On the left of the altar at the back is the fresco representing the angel 
Gabriel, now black with age, with the title : 

Ajo^ ra/3/3(i)X. 

Beyond this picture is another of a saint, almost entirely defaced. 

On the north wall towards the left is the representation of Saint 
Sabas e.xtracting the thorn from the lion's foot. (See coloured Sketch.) 
This serves to date the frescoes as not earlier than 532 a.d., when 
St. Sabas died. (Robinson's ' Biblical Researches,' ii. 27.) Beneath this 
are the figures in brown paint on a light ground, as sketched, with their in- 
scriptions. They are executed with more artistic feeling than the other 
figures, and appear probably later. 

In the niche a cross is painted in red paint, with the letters iCand XC 
either side. The form is that of the Latin cross. The rest of the frescoes 
are quite indistinguishable ; but the colour of the roof is rich and dark, and 
when new the frescoes were, no doubt, very effective. Above the vesti- 
bule a hole is seen leading to a vault at a higher level. A bough is fixed 
across this opening. The vault was visited by Dr. Tristram, and appears 
to have been used as a place of burial above the chapel. The frescoes 
appear somewhat older than those at D e i r el Kelt and K ii s r 
Hajlah, but the entrance doorway cannot be attributed to an earlier 
period than the twelfth century, because of its pointed arch. 



[SHEET XVI//.] ARCHEOLOGY. 203 

The chapel measures 27 feet long by 18 feet broad. 

The second chapel is still in use as a hermitage, and is higher up the 
mountain. It is reached by rock-cut steps, lately repaired, and by a ledge 
extending along the face of the precipice. 

This chapel is of masonry, built in front of a cave, and the walls 
covered with frescoes. A little tunnel leads into the vestibule on the 
north, and a doorway from it into the chapel. Behind the chapel on the 
west is a cave of irregular shape. The vestibule is about 9 yards by 
7 yards, with a cave behind it. The chapel has a communication with an 
outer platform on the south, looking over the precipice, and at a slightly 
lower level, being reached by a descent of two rock-cut steps. 

The chapel has an apse 6 feet diameter, and its total length from the 
back of the cave to the inside of the apse is 25 feet. Its total breadth, 
including the side apse on the south, is 18 feet ; the outer platform has a 
wall on the east and another on the west, and is 1 2 feet north and south 
by 1 1 feet east and west. In the west wall is a door to a square chamber, 
which communicates with the cave beyond the chapel on the west. The 
roof of the chapel is of masonry and groined, the arches of the doors of 
the chapel are pointed, the masonry is well cut but small, of stones about 
I foot square, and not drafted. The walls are about i foot 6 inches thick 
In the south-east corner of the chapel is a staircase, five steps leading to 
a little platform, in the face of the precipice at a higher level, measuring 
about 6 feet east and west by 14 feet north and south, being open on the 
south. In its west wall is a niche cut in the rock, and in it a stone marked 
with a cross measuring 3 feet 6 inches across. This was shown as the 
point where our Lord stood during the Temptation. 

The frescoes in the chapel are much defaced, and covered with 
graffiti of pilgrims. One representation of the Angel Gabriel is dis- 
tinguishable, as also the figure of the Virgin on the roof of the apse. The 
following saints are recognised by their titles : 

ayioq TpriyopiOQ o OioXoyog 

' The Holy Gregory the Theologian.' 

ayiOQ BaaiXitog o Mcyag 

' The Holy Basil the Great.' 

26 — 2 



204 THE SUR VE V OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

fiyioc w I - - - Xpffutrro^iou 
'The Holy .... Chrysostom.' 

aytoi' KQavaoioq aA))0£(ac Maprug 

'The Holy Athanasius, ISIartyr for the Truth.' 

These serve to date the inscriptions as not earlier than the fourth 
century, but the character employed has the following peculiarities in 
common with the inscriptions at D e i r el Kelt and K u s r H a j 1 a h. 

I St. The use of a peculiar form for the Greek [x. 

2nd. The use of a peculiar form for the Greek v. 

3rd. The use of peculiar contractions of ov and u. 

4th. The use of accents and lines over the contractions. 

5th. The use of abbreviations for the oblique cases, and for well- 
known words such as MjjTjjp. 

6th. The superposition of the vowels in a smaller character. 
These peculiarities are distinctive of the inscriptions of the twelfth and 
thirteenth centuries according to Du Vogiie (' Eglises de la Terre Sainte,' 
p. 91). There can therefore be but little hesitation in ascribing the 
frescoes, at the three ruins mentioned above, to the Crusading period in 
common with those at Bethlehem ; and the pointed arches in the three 
ruins lead to the same conclusion. The caves are, however, probably 
older, as hermits began to inhabit the mountain in the fifth century. 
St. Chariton was one of them, and died 410 a.d. Numerous hermits lived 
here also in the thirteenth century (Jaques de Vitry (a.d. 1220), ch. liii.). 

Tahdnct el Hawa (On). — Fortress on the Summit of 
Kiiruntiil. — The top of the mountain is of a conical form (320 above 
sea), and on the highest point are the foundations of a fortress and of a 
little chapel with a bearing ']-^. (See Plan.) 

The fortress is protected north and south by steep valleys. On the 
east is the precipice ; on the west a fosse has been cut in the rock about 
8 yards in width to separate the fort from the rest of the hill. The 
foundations are scarcely visible, but the castle appears to have occupied a 
rectangle of about 250 feet by 100 feet. The masonry is like that of 
K li s r el Y e h u d ; some stones have a rude boss. The chapel apse is 
7 feet 6 inches in diameter. The ditch on the west is crescent-shajjed. 
(Compare Beit Jibrin, Sheet XX.) No cisterns were observed. 



[SHEET XVIIL] ARCHEOLOGY. . 205 

There is little doubt that the buildings are mediceval, though the site may 
have been occupied earlier. The spring of 'A i n D u k is 790 feet 
beneath. This fortress is probably Duk, mentioned as a fortress of 
the Templars between Jericho and Bethel in the thirteenth century. 
(See Robinson's ' Biblical Researches,' ii. 309.) (See Section A., 
Docus.) 

Visited 17th November, 1873. 

Jisr Abu Ghabbush (P r).— The name of the bridge by which 
the aqueduct crosses W a d y N u e i a m e h. The arches are pointed ; 
the masonry resembles that of the bridges over Wady Kelt. (See Kanat 
Miisa.) 

Jisr ed Deir (O s). — This fine bridge Is connected with the 
system of aqueducts in Wady Kelt. It spans the valley west of the 
monastery of Deir el Kelt. (See plan and elevation of bridge.) 

The bridge is now broken. The total height of the water-channel 
above the bottom of the valley is 70 feet. The main arch has a span of 
46 feet, the smaller of 1 5 feet each. A roadway on arches crosses beside 
the brldo-e, 44 feet below the water channel. The arches are semi- 
circular, and the whole structure is of well-squared masonry ; the stone 
similar to that used in the K u s r el Y e h u d. At the springing of the 
main arch there is a course of stones drafted with smooth boss and irregular 
draft, as in Byzantine buildings (Deir el Kulah, etc.) ; the stones are from 
I foot to 2\ feet in length and 9 inches high, the size of the early 
Crusading masonry. The water channel is lined with cement, white and 
hard ; beneath this is a layer of grey mortar full of ashes i inch thick, 
beneath this again a layer of broken pottery, and flints in cement 3 inches 
thick. This grey mortar is often found in Byzantine ruins, but also in 
Roman work. The arches are covered with stalactites formed by the 
dropping water, now dry and hard. 

The aqueduct enters the bridge on the north side by a shoot at a slope 
of about I to I, descending the face of the cliff from a level of about 
100 feet higher. This shoot Is also covered with stalactitic sediment. 
The channel approaches the bridge by a sharp curve. It appears that 
part of the water is conducted to the foot of the bridge by a shoot, the 
rest crosses, and by the southern piers there is another vertical shoot. 



2o6 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

Thus two aqueducts start from the bridge south of the valley, and one 
from the north pier. (See Wady Kelt.) 

There is no exact method of dating this bridge, but the round arches 
indicate that it is not later than the middle of the twelfth century, and it 
may originally be Roman work repaired at a later period. 

Visited 26th November, 1873. 

Kanat Musa (O s). — Under this head may be described the 
whole system of aqueducts which exist north and west of Jericho. The 
second system of the Wady Kelt aqueducts is described under the 
name of that valley. 

The first of these aqueducts rises at the 'A i n el 'A u j a h (Sheet XV.), 
and runs south to the two springs 'A i n D u k and 'A in N u e i a m e h. 
(See Section A.) It crosses the valley below these springs on a bridge 
some 50 feet long and 30 feet high, of many arches, all pointed. The 
bridge is apparendy not of great antiquity. From this point it follows a 
winding course for over 4 miles direct, and communicates with various 
cisterns and with Khtirbet el Mefjir. It crosses another valley 
by a bridge, also with pointed arches, having on the haunchstone of one 
of the arches a well-cut cross built in. The water was conveyed in a 
cemented channel about 2 feet broad. The aqueduct finally terminates 
in a cemented cistern called Bir Heider at a distance of over 8 miles 
direct from 'Ain el 'Aujah. 

A shorter aqueduct from 'Ain es Sultan joins the above at 
Khurbet el Mefjir. The water in this case is conveyed through 
pipes like those of the high level aqueduct in Wady Kelt. 

Another aqueduct starts from the 'Ain D fi k, and follows the side of 
Jebcl Kiiruntul, its course being marked by a growth of wild canes. It 
communicated with the Tawahin es S u k k e r, and thence ran to 
Wady Kelt, which it crossed by a bridge now broken down. It led 
to some ruins east of the B i r k e t M u s a, among which are remains of 
a cistern. The bridge is of small masonry, and has pointed arches. 
There arc beneath the piers foundations of rough masonry forming 
starlings, with the point up stream. The aqueduct is here of rubble work, 
like those in Wady Kelt. 

The fourth aqueduct starts from 'Ain e s Sultan, and runs south 
to the neighbourhood of Rujm el Mogheifir. It crosses Wady 



[SHEET XVIJI.] ARCH.EOI.OGY. 207 

Kelt by a bridge still perfect. Part of its course is merely a channel 
dug in the earth. The bridge has a modern appearance and pointed 
arches ; like the ruined one, it has starlings beneath, but, in this case, of 
squared masonry well dressed. 

I twill be remarked that all these aqueducts supply mediaeval Christian 
ruins, though probably used also for irrigation. Hence it is natural to 
suppose that they are of Crusading origin, though probably repaired at a 
later period. They only exist in the immediate neighbourhood of Jericho. 
No traces were found, though most carefully sought, further south. 
Kusr Hajlah was not connected with this system, nor did the natives 
know of any such aqueducts south of R u j m el M o g h e i f i r. 

In the thirteenth century the sugar-cane was cultivated round Jericho 
(Jaques de Vitry, ch. liii.), and probably the irrigation would have been 
effected by these channels. There are traces of various short channels 
diverging in different directions on the south side of W a d y Kelt. 
They appear connected with the last-noticed aqueduct, and similar traces 
are found which appear to have belonged to the third. (See Sheet XV.) 

Khan el A h m a r (N s). — The ruins of a Saracenic hostel beside 
the old road to Jerusalem. It resembles that next mentioned, and has 
large cisterns supported on arches beneath, on the east. A few courses of 
the walls are standing ; the masonry is of moderate size and well 
dressed. 

Khan Hathrurah (N s). — A Saracenic hostel, standing on 
high ground, and just north of the present Jericho road. A {ft\N piers and 
some of the walls are still standing. On the opposite side of the road are 
two or three small caves, in one of which is a stone with an Arabic 
inscription. 

Cisterns, well-built and supported on arches, exist beneath the Khan, 
and contain water.* 

North-east of this, on the highest part of the hill, are the remains of a 
strong fortress, which commands the road here, ascending through a 
narrow pass between walls of rock on the east. On the west also there 
is a winding ascent to the neighbourhood of the Khan. The rock 

* Pere Lievin ('Guide,' p. 383) speaks of the Khan as having been built by Ibrahim 
Pasha 



208 



THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 



especially on the west, Is of a ruddy colour, like burnt brick, whence the 
title, T a 1 ci t e d D u m m, ' Ascent of Blood ' Is applied to the whole hill, 
and sometimes to the castle on the summit. (See Section A.) 

The fortress Is surrounded by a rock-cut ditch, which is crossed at the 
north-west corner by a narrow ramp. The ditch is 23 feet deep and 
19 feet broad on the north and 14 feet deep on the east, on which side the 




terreplelne has a command of 8 feet above the counter-scarp. The scarp 
is cut perpendicularly in rock, but there are traces of a revetement, sloping 
at 60°, resembling that of the thirteenth century work at Csesarea. 
(Sheet VII.) 

The site enclosed by the ditch is a trapezoid (see Plan), measuring 
205 feet on the north, 181 feet on the south, 217 feet on the east, 155 feet 
on the west. The bearing on the south is 39°. The ditch is 17 feet 
wide on the south, 23 feet on the west. The ramp is 1 1 feet broad, 
19 feet long. In the trapezoidal area are remains of a donjon towards the 
south-east, and of vaults to the north-west. The donjon measures 30 feet 
square outside, with a projecting tower, 9 feet by 16 feet 6 Inches, in the 
north-east corner. On the west side Is the entrance to a little vault, 
II feet long, 12 feet broad ; this is a later construction. South of this the 
entrance to a larger \'ault by a doorway, 5 feet 6 inches broad and 8 feet 
2 Inches deep. In the south side of the doorway is the arch of a staircase 
ascending In ihc thickness of the west and south walls of the donjon by 



{SHEET XVIIL] ARCHEOLOGY. 209 

two flights. The staircase is 3 feet broad, the wall being 8 feet 2 inches 
thick. The larger vault is 18 feet long, 14 feet broad (see Plan); the bear- 
ing of the north wall is 203°. The staircase is exactly similar to that at 
K u 1 ia n s a w e h. (Sheet XI .) 

The courtyard of the castle appears to have been on the west of the 
donjon, a wall running north for 43 feet from the north-west corner of the 
donjon. 

The vaults on the north-west seem to be either more modern or to 
have been restored at a later period ; two remain, opening eastward into 
the courtyard, iS feet by 31 feet and 18 feet by 29 feet respectively, the 
partition wall 2 feet thick, the outer walls 7 feet on north and south, 
12 feet on the west. The vaulting here appears to be later than the walls, 
and to belong to the same period with the little vault built against the 
west wall of the tower. 

The masonry throughout is small. The roof of the tower is a barrel- 
vault, with pointed arch. The style of the work generally resembles the 
later work at Caesarea, at R a s el 'A i n, and in other twelfth and 
thirteenth century Crusading sites. 

There can be but little hesitation in supposing this to be the Tour 
Rouge, built by the Templars to protect pilgrims to Jericho. (See 
Adummum, Section A), which is noticed as early as the fourteenth century 
by Marino Sanuto and others. 

Visited November, 1873. 

Khiirbet Abu Lahm (O r). — Somewhat extensive ruins of 
houses near the M u k a m I m a m 'A 1 y. They appear to be modern, 
On the hill above the Mukam there are remains of a rude wall and 
ditch, and towards the south traces of a small tower. (See Docus, 
Section A.) The tomb itself (Mukam Imam 'Aly) is an ordinary Moslem 
building, small and low, protected by a drystone wall. There are many 
M e t a m i r, or pits for holding grain, round the building. The site of 
these ruins is a strong one, close to 'Ain Duk, and commanding the 
surrounding valleys.* 

Khiarbet Farah (Ms). — Heaps of stones only. 

* The medireval chapel of the apparition of Michael to Joshua stood beneath the 
Quarantnnia mountain. (Phocas, De Locis Sanctis, 1185 a.d.) This is not improbably the 
present Mukam associated with a confused tradition of Joshua. (See Section C.) 

VOL. III. 27 



210 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

Khiirbet Jinjis (^I t). — Foundations, apparently modern Arab 
work. 

' Eight ancient cisterns and twenty ruined houses.' — Gu^rin, 'Judea,' iii. loi. 

K h li r b e t K a k u n ( O s). — Foundations and walls. There is no 
indication of the date, but the main buildino; seems to have been a larg:e 
one. The masonry is small. 

K h ft r b e t K u m r a n (O t). — The ruins lie on a natural platform, 
300 feet above the Dead Sea level, at the base of the cliffs. The remains 
are very rough. On the west side is a wall, but on the south and east the 
slopes are very steep. At the north end of the wall are ruined buildings, 
now presenting nothing beyond heaps of rough stones. Outside the wall 
on the west is a small birkeh, rudely lined with stones, unhewn, the joints 
packed with smaller stones and roughly plastered. A flight of steps leads 
down the side. (Compare the birkeh at Bidieh (Sheet XIV.), which it 
resembles.) 

The peculiar feature of the site is the immense number of graves 
occupying the plateau and the eastern slope. There are some 700 or 
more in all, arranged close together in regular rows. They have a direction 
20° west of north along their length, and are therefore not Moslem graves. 
One was excavated and found to be 3 feet 5 inches deep, about 6 feet long 
by 2 feet 3 inches. The top of the shaft was covered with loose stones 
carefully arranged. At the bottom of the shaft is a narrow trough for the 
body, covered with sundried bricks 15 by 11 by 9 inches in dimensions. 
The bricks were supported by a ledge projecting on the sides of the grave. 
Remains of a skeleton with the head to the south were found, the bones 
much decayed. 

Visited 29th November, 1873. 

' After a brief halt at Hajr el Asbah, we continued our journey to the south, to examine 
the site of the Khiirbet Kumrrm, and especially the cemetery pointed out here by MM. Rey 
and Dc Saulcy. The ruins are quite insignificant in themselves : a few fallen walls of mean 
construction ; a little birket, into which you descend by steps ; and numerous fragments of 
irregular pottery scattered over the soil. Our attention was principally attracted by the 
numerous tombs (perhaps a thousand), which cover the mound and adjacent plateaux. To 
judge only by their exterior aspect, they might be taken for ordinary Arab tombs, composed 
of a small elliptical tumulus, surrounded by a range of rough stones, with two large stones 
placed upright at the two extremities. All that distinguishes these sepulchres distinctly from 
modern tombs is the orientation : they all have their major axis north and south instead 
of cast and west. This particularity had been already noted by the Mussulman guides of 



[SHEET XVIIL] ARCHEOLOGY. 211 

M. Rey, and it called from ihcni the remark that they were the tombs of Kouffar (not Mussul- 
mans). 

' I resolved to open one of the tombs. Our two men of Silwan set to work under our 
eyes, while we followed — Mr. Drake, AT. Lecomte, and myself — the progress of the e.xcava- 
tion. After digging about one metre in depth, our workmen came upon a bed of rough clay- 
brick measuring 0^40 x -20 x -12 metres, and resting on a kind of flange cut in the earth 
itself On removing these bricks, we found in the grave the bones, partly destroyed, of the 
corpse which had been buried there ; and managed to pick out a bit of a jawbone, with 
teeth adhering, which will perhaps enable anthropological conclusions to be drawn. There 
was no article of any kind in the tomb. The head was turned to the south, and the feet to 
the north. You will gather from M. Lecomte's sketches some idea of the dimensions and 
disposition of the tomb which we opened, as well as of the general aspect of this enigmatical 
cemetery. The principal plateau, which contains the greater number of these tombs, is 
crossed from east to west by a kind of alley dividing the tombs into two zones. It is difficult 
to form any opinion on these sepulchres, principally on account of their abnormal orientation. 
Can they belong to some ancient Arabic tribe of the Jahiliyeh period? If they were 
Christian tombs, they would offer some characteristic sign or religious emblem, for the 
employment of bricks to cover the body, and the comparative depth of the graves, show that 
the tombs have been constructed with a certain amount of care.' — M. Clermont-Ganneau, 
' Quarterly Statement,' 1874, p. 83. 

Khurbet Kurm 'A trad (Ok). — Remains of rude drystone 
walls, which are traditionally supposed to have belonged to former vine- 
yards by the Arabs. 

Khurbet el IM e f j i r (Or). — Considerable ruins exist here. The 
water supply is by an aqueduct, which is here supported on arches pointed 
but slightly. The buildings are of small masonry the foundations alone 
visible. The stones average 8 inches to 18 inches in length, 9 inches in 
height, or the usual dimensions in Crusading buildings. The ruins include 
a vault 19 feet by 16 feet, with a wall 4 feet 6 inches thick, and entrance 
from the east. About 150 paces north of this is a wall running east and 
west. Another wall on the west appears to have had an entrance-gate. 
In the vault Captain Warren found traces of frescoes. South of the vault 
is a building with an apse pointing southward, having a bearing 3° west 
of north. The apse is 6 feet in diameter, the chapel being 16 feet wide. 
Between this building and the vault are foundations of another room or 
building. 

A very simple moulding runs round the wall of the apse, probably at 
the springing of the apse dome. The appearance of the masonry is 
similar to the interior masonry of some of the Crusading churches. 
The apse, if belonging to a church, must have terminated one of the 



2 12 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

transepts, a disposition which is not usual in the Crusading churches of 
Palestine. 

This spot was jDointed out to Captain Warren by some of the Arabs 
as the site of Gilgal. It seems probably to have been a mediaeval 
monastery similar to Kiisr Hajlah. It is worthy of notice that 
Marino Sanuto (1300 a.d.) speaks of Gilgal, and marks it on his map as 
north of 'A in es Sultan. (See Section A.) Brocardus also places 
Gilgal near Quarantania, west of Jericho (a.d. 1283). (See Robinson's 
' Biblical Researches,' ii. 272.) 

Visited 2nd December, 1873. 

K h u r b e t el M e s h r a b (O s). — Traces of ruins only. 

Khurbet Mird (see Mons Mardes, Section A.) (N t).— A ruin 
in a very strong natural position on a precipitous hill, standing 1,000 feet 
above the level of the plain east of it. The site is divided on the west 
from the main line of the cliffs by a low saddle, and the road here 
approaches along a very narrow ledge of rock. An aqueduct, which 
appears to collect surface drainage on the slopes of e 1 M u n t a r and 
connected with the B i r el 'A m m a r a, forms the water supply of the 
present ruin. It is pardy tunneled in the rock, pardy of masonry, the 
channel, i foot 6 inches wide, lined with hard white cement. The aqueduct 
crosses the saddle along a narrow ledge of rock, and once supplied two 
pools, or Burak, 30 to 40 feet square, north of its course in the saddle. 

There is also a well on the north of the ruin, and another on the south, 
which is ruined. There is a wall to the birkeh at the saddle, built in a 
series of steps of masonry about i foot square and hard mortar. The 
cisterns in the ruin are lined with very hard white cement. Masonry 
tombs are said to exist among the ruins. The largest cistern is about 
30 feet deep. Vaults with semicircular arches were observed, and walls 
of small masonry. The site is evidently that of a town of some 
importance, and the buildings resemble Byzantine ruins in other parts 
of the country. 

Visited loth November, 1873. 

Khurbet es S vim rah (P r). — A double ruin. Traces only 
remain, with caves ; and the rock in the neighbourhood is extensively 
quarried, the various monasteries and other buildings in the Jericho plain 



[SHEET XVin.] ARCHEOLOGY. 213 

consisting of stone similar to that found in these quarries. The site 
appears ancient. (See Section A, Zemaraim.) 

K h u r b e t e s S u m r a h (O t). — Scattered stones and terrace walls, 
said to be remains of vineyards by the Arabs. 

Khiirbet ez Zeranik (N t). — Traces only of ruins, apparently 
modern. 

Kurm Abu Tubk (O t). — Scattered stones, said to be remains 
of a vineyard, and a small cave of the same name. 

K u r m el 'A j a z (O u). — Resembles the last. (Compare K h fi rbe t 
Kurm 'A t r ad, and see also S eb be h, Sheet XXVI.) 

K u s r H a j 1 a h (P s). — An important ruin of a mediaeval monastery. 
The ruin included a large chapel, a second smaller to the south, and a 
third in the vaults below. The whole is surrounded by a wall, which 
remains almost perfect on three sides, but is destroyed on the north. The 
total measure north and south is 125 feet, and east and west 163 feet. 
There is a projecting tower on the south and west walls, and smaller 
towers on the north and east. The tower on the south projects 9 feet, 
and was 17 feet wide ; that on the west is 14 feet by 35 feet. 

Chapel. — The principal chapel has a bearing 99° west. It has 
an apse with a domed roof on the east, the diameter 12 feet 10 inches, 
the depth from the chord 8 feet to the back of the curve. On the south 
side were remains of a staircase leading to the walls above the apse. The 
second or smaller chapel was more perfect, having a sort of tower or 
octagonal lantern over the body of the building, supported by groined 
vaulting forming pendentives, the arches springing from the corners of 
the building. The chapel measured 9 feet 6 inches across by 14 feet long, 
interior measure ; it had a door 2 feet 5 inches wide on the west, a window 
2 feet 8 inches wide on the north, two windows 2 feet broad on the south. 
On the east was the apse, equal in breadth to the chapel, but having two 
little apses within it, the northern 5 feet 2 inches diameter, 3 feet deep, 
the southern 2 feet 5 inches in diameter, and i foot 10 inches deep. The 
total height of the chapel was 16 feet ; the lantern above on the interior 
was a circle 9 feet diameter with four windows ; it was 6 feet high to the 
cornice, making a total 22 feet from the floor. There is a vault 10 
feet deep below the chapel. 



214 



THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 



The main chapel would appear to have had a nave 44 feet long, 14 feet 
6 inches broad in clear, and a side aisle on south without an apse, 8^- feet 
broad in clear, divided off by piers or pillars now destroyed. The arches, 
judging from the interior piers on the south wall, which show three bays, 
had a span of 1 2 feet. A doorway in the central bay of the south wall led 




to a vestibule west of the smaller chapel, 9 feet 6 inches broad, and 1 7 feet 
9 inches long, interior measure. It seems that a corridor measuring 
16 feet broad east and west ran behind both chapels on the west, from 
which they were entered. The northern outer wall of the monastery is 
traceable near the north-west corner, and shows that there was a northern 
aisle to the main chapel 12 feet wide. 

South of the smaller chapel there is a large cistern or birkeh, which 
must have formed the principal water supply of the monastery. It 
measures 30 feet by 10 feet, and is 24 feet deep. 

These buildings are supported on vaults at a lower level, as shown in 
the plan, the birkeh being sunk yet lower than the vaults. 

The vaults, entered from beneath the southern chapel, include a small 
chapel, the apse of which, with a cross rudely painted, was beneath the 
nave of the larger chapel. The kitchens appear to have been near 
the south wall of the monastery, remains of cooking places being still 
visible in 1874. 

The interior walls of both chapels were painted in fresco, and there 
appear, as at D c i r el Kelt, to be two periods. The floors of both 



{SHEET XVin.\ ARCILEOLOGY. 215 

chapels appear to have been covereJ with marble mosaic, like that at 
Deir es Salib. (Sheet XVII.) 

The roof of the main chapel was covered with a representation of our 
Saviour, crowned and enthroned, surrounded by the twelve Apostles. 
The face of the central fiyure has been purposely effaced. 

Lower down is a design representing the coronation of the Virgin, and 
beneath this, one much defaced, apparently the Annunciation. 

The frescoes in the southern chapel were much better preserved. 
The north apse was painted with a central figure in act of benediction, 
surrounded with figures dressed in robes, covered with large checks of 
black and white. In the smaller south apse was painted a saint, with 
nimbus, holding a book. The robes of this figure are also in checks, black 
and white. 

On the south wall of the chapel were figures of saints. One held 
a book and had the inscription on either side of the nimbus as below : 

Aytoc A»'cp£oc Kf)r/ri)c 

' The Holy Andrew of Crete' 

A second similar figure, with book in hand and nimbus round the head, 
had the inscription : 

' The Holy John Eleemon.' 

(630 A.D. is the date of this patriarch.) This was on the north wall. 
On the south wall was another saint, with the inscription as beneath, 
also robed in chequers, with a book and nimbus. 

fCytOC 2lAll(JTpOC TTHTTOC PoJyUJJC 

' The Holy Silvester, Pope of Rome.' 

Silvester II. (99S a d.) was a famous Pope. 

A fourth figure was on the north wall, with inscription round the 
nimbus : 

(l-ylOC 2(i)^f)0V(C l£pO(ToAll/l(tll' 

' Holy Sophronius of Jerusalem.' 

Over the north window was a design representing the Annunciation. 
On the pendentives and roof were figures of angels. One of the best pre- 



2i6 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

served frescoes was on the south-west pendentive, representing saints 
receiving robes from angels, with the short inscription : 

O ^l/ilWV 

'Simon.' 

The figures were very badly drawn, especially the smaller ones. Some 
of the frescoes, painted in umber and ochre, resemble the smaller figures 
in the lower chapel on J e b e 1 K u r u n t li 1, but none were so well 
drawn. 

On the pier at the west end of the larger chapel, on the west face, were 

two mediceval graffitce, which appear to read ' Piquet ' and ' Petre 

le Senechal.' There was also another mediaeval graffito in connection 
with a Latin and a patriarchal cross. 

The painting of the cross in the chapel below in the vaults was very 
rude, and appears later. The place, when visited in 1875, was inhabited 
by a Greek monk from Mar Saba. 

The character of the inscriptions is sufficient evidence that the frescoes 
are of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries (probably previous to 1187 a.d., 
when Jerusalem was taken). The character of the masonry and archi- 
tectural details points to the convent being of the same date. 

The stone used is soft limestone, like that at K h u r b e t e s S u m r a h. 
The masonry is of moderate size, like that at K li s r el Y e h li d. The 
stones in the outer wall are the largest, and are surrounded with an 
irregular draft, like the ruin at Khurbet Ikbala and the church at 
K li r y e t el 'E n a b. (Sheet XVI 1.) The tower in the south-east corner 
consists entirely of these drafted stones. In other parts of the monastery 
only corner stones are drafted. 

The arches are all pointed. Some of the vaults have barrel vaultings, 
others groined roofs of rubble. The general style of this work resembles 
that of the roofs in the M u r i s t a n at Jerusalem (i 130 — 40 a. p.). 

The arrangement of the chapel and detail of the vaulting is also 
mediceval. The windows have pointed arches. 

This monastery is sometimes known as M a r Y o h a n n a H a j 1 a h 
— 'St. John of Hajlah.' In the sixteenth century it was inhabited by 
monks of the Order of St. Basil, and was known to the Latins as the 
monastery of St. Jerome as early as the fiftcenlh. (Robinson's ' Biblical 



{SHEET XVIII.] 



ARCH^OIOGY. 



217 




Researches,' ii. 271.) In the fourteenth century the place is called Bet 
Agla by Marino Sanuto. Its earlier history is not known. It may 
perhaps be the monastery of Calamon, which existed in this neighbour- 
hood in the twelfth century. (' Biblical Researches,' ii. 270.) 
Visited 17th November, 1873; ist January, i875.'^' 

K ti s r el Y e h u d (P s). — Resembled the last, but was less per- 
fect. The work appeared to be Crusading. Beneath the building 
was a chapel, the west end broken away. 
It had an apse on the east 7 feet 8 inches 
from chord to back of the circle, and 
1 2 feet diameter. The chajDcl nave was 
15 feet 8 inches across. Its length is 
not determinable. The vaultfng is a 
simple barrel-vault of rubble work. The 
masonry of the interior of the chapel 
averages 2 feet by 9 inches by i foot. 
It is very well cut, but no draft was 
observed on any of the stones. 

South of the chapel are two other vaults running east and west with 
similar vaulting: they are respectively 11 feet 10 inches and 16 feet 
6 inches broad ; the south wall of the chapel is 6 feet 6 inches thick, and 
the wall between the vaults the same. Doorways communicate across 
near the east end. 

Another vault, 14 feet broad, also entered by a door close to the apse, 
exists north of the chapel. 

These vaults once supported buildings now entirely destroyed, except 
part of a wall standing on the south wall of the chapel. The exterior 
walls of the monastery are also destroyed except 
on the south. The tower in south-west corner 
is still left with small vaulted chambers having 
groined roofs within. The building was origin- 
ally 140 feet long east and west, 90 feet broad north and south. It had 

* This place was revisited by me on 8th April, 1882. The Greek monks from Mar Saba 
were engaged in building a new monastery on the spot, and had deliberately scraped off all 
the frescoes, not a vestige remaining. A better instance of the value of the Survey work 
could hardly be given. — C. R. C. 

VOL. III. 28 




2i8 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

projecting corner towers on south-east and south-west, and two inter- 
mediate buttresses remain on the south wall, 4 feet projection, 3 feet 
2 inches and 2 feet 7 inches broad respectively. The south-west tower 
projects 16 feet 6 inches, and is 35 feet broad outside, the walls 4 feet thick. 

In the north-east corner the wall remains, and in it a little niche i foot 
6 inches diameter, probably the north apse of a chapel. There is a door 
4 feet 10 inches broad here in the north wall. 

The building stands on the edge of marl cliffs, which protect it on 
every side. It is most easily approached on the west, on which side are 
traces of a door 4 feet wide. 

The wall remaining at the higher level has projecting jjiers on the 
south side : they are 12 feet apart, and project 2 feet. They have a simple 
moulding at the top, resembling the mouldings in other mediaeval 
churches (as at Beit Jibrin). There appears to have been a tesselated 
pavement in part of the building. 

The arches observed were pointed, the stone similar to that used in 
the preceding ruin. On one of the piers an Armenian inscription was 
observed, and there are many graffiti in Greek and Arabic. * A Greek 
monk was inhabiting the vault when visited. The existence of a pointed 
arch in a vault below the tesselated pavement indicates that the pavement 
also is Crusading work. 

Immediately west is a very fine cistern, 30 feet deep, with piers and 
arches. It is apparently in connection with a raised causeway, leading 
straight to the site from the 'A in es Sultan, which may have been 
an aqueduct, but this is doubtful, as the channel was not found. The 
causeway disappears near the building. , 

Although the buildings described have every appearance of being 
Crusading work, the site was occupied by the monastery of ' Saint John 
on Jordan ' at an early period. Justinian in the sixth century built a well 
for the monastery of St. John Baptist near Jordan. (Procop. de ^dif. 
Justinian, v. 9) and Arculphus (a.d. 700) mentions the monastery as 
standing, not on the brink of the river, but on the high ground near it. 
Theodorus (530 a.d.) states that the original monastery was built by the 

* One of the Greek graffiti was supposed by Mr. C. F. T. Drake to be a date ; 
= 900 + 20 + 90 + 9 = 1019. 
The method of writhig a date in several letters he states to be used in inscriptions. 



[SBEET XVI/I.] ARCH.-EOLOGY. 219 

Emperor Anastasius. The monastery was destroyed by earthquake in the 
twelfth century, and rebuilt by the Greek Emperor. (Phocas, quoted by 
Robinson, ' Biblical Researches,' ii. 270.) It fell into ruins before the 
fifteenth century. 

Visited 17th November, i873.'^'' 

Mar Saba (N u). — A monastery of Greek monks. (See Photo- 
graph.) The present buildings are comparatively modern. The settlement 
of monks dates from St. Euthymius and St. Sabas in the fifth century 
{circa 480). It was restored and enlarged by the Russian Government, 
1840 A.D. A few of the frescoes appear to be old. Numerous rock-cut 
caves exist in the face of the cliff south of the monastery, and appear to 
have been at one time inhabited by hermits.t 

The monastery was revisited on 7th April, 1882. It is entered from 
the west by a low door, and a descending passage with flights of steps 
leads to the court under the cliff west of the chapel, which is supported 
by huge buttresses against the face of the cliff The cells extend north 
and south of the court on the west side of the gorge, and are included by 
a surrounding wall. A good view is obtained from near a detached 
tower on the south beyond the walls — built to accommodate female 
pilgrims, who may not enter the precincts. In the courtyard is an 
octagonal chapel enclosing the tomb of St. Saba beneath a dome. This 
chapel is covered with modern frescoes. The church east of this is in 
five bays, measuring 70 feet by 30 feet, with an apse and dome ; between 
the pilasters are two tiers of frescoes on the walls. There is a fine screen 
of wood, gilt and carved. Wooden and metal boards serve for bells in 
the north corridor. The refectory is newly built, and painted with very 
poor and gaudy frescoes. On the south a rock-cut gallery leads to the 
cave of St. Saba, which is small and quite dark, with a smaller cave or 

* This place was revisited by me in October, 1881. A modern Russian-Greek monastery 
has been built over the ruins, and a large guest-chamber projects on the south-west on the 
higher story. Two Byzantine capitals were found during this work, as well as the ancient 
iron-cased gate of the monastery, which is now again in use. Traces of frescoes were also 
found, and medireval capitals. — C. R. C. 

t The other name of Mar Saba is Deir es Sika. This name is traced back to 
the time of Eutychius. In the 'Annals' he speaks of Mar Saba as the new Deir es Sik, 
the Convent of Chariton (Khiirbet K h u r e i t u n, Sheet XXI.) being the old one. 
(See 'Quarterly Statement,' July, 1875, p. 173.) 

28—2 



220 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN FALESTE\E. 

cupboard at the further end. West of the tomb of St. Saba is a rock 
cave, which is called his original chapel. The skulls of monks, martyred 
by the Arabs, are here shown behind a wire screen. At a higher level 
to the north is a chapel with the tomb of St. John of Damascus (eighth 
century). The frescoes and paintings on wood on the apse screen of this 
chapel appear to be of some antiquity. There are many other small 
buildings, caves, cells, and kitchens. The library has recently been re- 
moved from l\Iar Saba to Deir es Sahb, near Jerusalem. 

IMiigharet Umm el Hum mam (N t). — A birkeh in the 
bottom of the valley, cut in the side of the cliff It was possibly filled 
by infiltration of the water from above. In one corner cement was found 
in three coats, hard and white. The place is lo paces broad, 20 paces 
lono-, with three large recesses on one side, each 6 paces broad, 20 paces 
cut back. The entrance is narrow and double. 

Visited nth November, 1873. 

ISIiigharet Ekteif (O s). — A very curious excavation In the 
north side of the valley. It slopes downward at a gradient about 
I by 2 for 120 feet. At the entrance it measures about 3 feet across, and 
is 6 feet high. Steps are here cut. Lower down it is choked with rubbish. 
It ends suddenly, being only about 2 feet high by 2 feet 6 inches broad at 
the further end. Its use and origin is enigmatical, but it may have been 
the entrance to a subterranean chamber now choked up. 

Msited 24th November, 1873. 

N e b y JNI u s a (O t). — A deserted mosque on the downs, with a 
short minaret. It is a place of yearly Moslem pilgrimage. A cenotaph, 
shown as the tomb of Moses, exists in the mosque. The place was built 
by Melek edh Dhahr Bibars, 668 a.h. The minaret dates from 880 a.h. 
(Mejr ed D in, History of Jerusalem.)""' 

Visited 24th November, 1S73. 

Nuseib el 'Aweishireh (O s). — A very prominent conical 
point on the north side of Wady Kelt. There are traces of ruins on the 
summit, and of a fosse on the west side, like that on Jebel Kuruntul. 

Rujm el Bahr (P t). — This small island is covered with unhewn 

* Pbre Lievin (' Guide,' p. 344) states this mosque to have been originally a monastery, 
founded in the fourth century by St Euthymius. 



[SHEET XV/n.] ARCHEOLOGY. 221 

stones, and is connected with the mainland by a long jetty of similar 
stones, some of considerable size. There is, as far as could be ascertained, 
no conflict of currents at this point which could account for this collection 
of stones, and it would therefore seem most probably an artificial pier 
constructed at some period when boats were used on the lake. Josephus 
mentions ships on the lake. (B. J. iv. 8, 4, Rcl. Pal. p. 252.) 

Rujm el Mogheifir (P s). — The ruins occupy a considerable 
extent. On some of the stones remains of frescoes were observed, and 
Greek letters similar to those in the inscriptions at Kiisr Hajlah. Walls 
and heaps of masonry remain, the plan being quite indistinguishable. 
Cisterns remain beneath the surface, with barrel vaults similar to those at 
Ktisr Hajlah, well cemented inside. In one a stone with carved design 
of a quatrefoil in a circle was found. 

There can be little doubt that this ruin is that of another mediaeval 
monastery ; perhaps the name Tell el K u r s i, also applied to this site, 
may be a corruption of Chrysostom, a monastery of that name existing 
in the twelfth century near Jericho. 

Visited 25th November, 1873. 

Sheikh Maseiyif (N t). — Arab graves. 

Tahunet el Mefjir (Or). — Ruined mill connected with the 
aqueduct to the ruin of the same name ; it resembles the next. 

Tawahin es Sukker (O s). — Walls of mills, vaults, and 
foundations connected with the aqueduct from 'Ain Duk. The masonry 
is small, the arches pointed, the vaulting of rubble. There are remains 
of a shoot for bringing the water down from the aqueduct to the mill, 
which is constructed at a lower level on the side of the hill. The cultiva- 
tion of sugar was carried on here by the Crusaders. (See Kanat Musa.) 

Visited 17th November, 1873. 

1. Tell Abu Hindi (O s). — An artificial mound excavated bv 
Captain Warren. 

2. Tell Abu Zelef(0 s). — An artificial mound excavated by 
Captain Warren. 

3 Tell el 'Arais (O s). — An artificial mound excavated by 
Captain Warren. 



2 22 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

Tell el Bureikeh (O r). — A small hillock, with a ruined 
cistern. It is apparently artificial, and of the same class with the pre- 
ceding. 

Tell Deir Ghannam (Or). — Traces of ruins and heaps of 
stones. It is not one of the ' Tells ' properly so-called. 

Tell Derb el Habash (O s). — Resembles the last. 

Tell el Jurn (O s). — Heaps of stones. It is not a ' Tell ' in the 
strict meaning of the word. 

Tell el K 6 s (P s).— Resembles the last. 

Tell el K u r e i n i (M s).— Probably a natural hillock. 

Tell el MahfCiriyeh (O s).— Heaps of stones. It is not a 
' Tell ' in strict application of the term. 

Tell el Masni (O s).— Resembles the last. 

Tell el M a 1 1 a b (O s) .—Resembles the last. 

Tell M u h a 1 h a 1 (O t). — A grave, apparently modern. 

Tell er Rusheidiyeh (P t). — A low mound of mud covered 
with fragments of ancient pottery, black and hard. 

4. Tell e s S a m a r a t (O s). — A large artificial mound excavated 
by Captain Warren. 

5. Tell es Sultan (O s). — This is the largest and most im- 
portant of the seven great Tells which are found in the neighbourhood of 
Jericho, viz., those numbered 1-7. The remaining places bearing the 
title do not belong to the same class. (Compare Sheet IX.) 

Tell es Sultan is generally held to be the site of the Jericho 
of Joshua, and under this head the various ruins connected with 
ancient Jericho may be noticed together. 

The mound itself is double, and the height of the summits is some 
20 to 30 feet above the spring, the total extent about 50 to 60 yards 
north and south. The mound was excavated by Captain Warren. 

The spring (Elisha's fountain) comes out beneath the mound on the 
east, and has on the west a wall of small masonry in hard cement. In 
this wall there is a small semicircular niche, facing east, probably intended 
to hold a statue of the genius of the spring. The water comes out 



A Q U E I) V C T S 
near .Jeritho. 











[SHEET Xr III.] ARCHEOLOGY. 223 

beneath piles of broken stones into a shallow reservoir, 24 feet by 40 feet, 
of hewn stones, well dressed, and of moderate dimensions. The stream 
is conducted from thence by various channels, and irrigates the land 
between the Tell and E r i h a. 

On the north side of the Tell there are many traces of ruins, called 
Khurbet Ras el 'Ain. The buildings do not appear to have been 
large, or of fine masonry. A pillar shaft, 9 inches diameter, of Santa Croce 
marble, and fragments of cornices were found ; also a capital of the rude 
Ionic style common in Byzantine buildings, measuring i foot 9 inches 
above, and i foot 3 inches diameter ; the volutes 5 inches diameter at the 
ends, 2 inches in centre. Two bosses, cup-shaped, 5^ inches diameter, 
are placed between the volutes. The total height of the capital is 
9 inches. (Compare el B u r j, Sheet VII., etc.) This capital is cut 
in coarse limestone, and much weathered. 

East and south-east of the Tell there are, among the thickets, extensive 
ruins on the way to E r i h a, mounds, scattered stones, small foundations, 
and portions of an aqueduct. These ruins do not, however, appear to be 
of great antiquity. South of the mound is a small vaulted building, 
apparently of the same date with the Tawahin es Sukker. 

The general impression obtained was that the earliest city must have 
stood on the Tell, but that in Byzantine times a town extended along the 
lower ground on the north and east, and was of considerable extent ; and 
in Crusading times other buildings were erected on the south and west, 

Jerome (' Onomasticon,' s.v. Jericho) mentions two sites as existing 
in his time. One he supposes to be ancient Jericho, the other Roman 
Jericho. The Bordeaux Pilgrim [t^t^t, a.d.) places the latter at the descent 
of the mountains. (See Tellul Abu el 'Aleik, and Section A., 
Cypres.) Jericho was inhabited in the fourth and fifth centuries, to 
which date the buildings near the Tell are most probably to be ascribed. 
In the Crusading period the site is always mentioned as distinct from the 
fountain, and to this period the tower in E r i h a is ascribed. 

Study on the spot leads, therefore, to placing the various sites as 
follows : 

Jericho of Joshua . . 'Ain es Sultan. 

Roman Jericho . . Tellul Abu el 'Aleik. 

Crusading Jericho . . Eriha. 



2 24 THE SURVE Y OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

6, "J. T e 1 1 u h Abu el 'A 1 e i k (O s). — Two large artificial mounds, 
south of the last; one on either side of Wady Kelt. They were 
excavated by Captain Warren. The excavation in the northern one 
shows a rectangular chamber, the outer wall built of sun-dried bricks 
(compare Khiirbet Kumran), and the interior lined with undressed stones, 
once covered with a coating of cement, which was not very hard or 
good. This chamber had apparently a door on the east, but was too 
much ruined to make this certain. The southern mound has remains of 
buildings and walls, and there are also remains of a bridge over Wady 
Kelt at this point. Both the bridge and the buildings are of the ' op7is 
reticulahim' or masonry of small size, arranged with the diagonal of the . 
stone in a vertical line. This is evidently Roman work (Palestine 
Exploration Fund Photograph No. 253). It has been suggested that these 
two mounds are remains of the towers of Thrax and Taurus, destroyed 
by Pompey (Strabo xvi. 2, 40), in or near Jericho. The placing of 
Roman Jericho in this neighbourhood would agree with the identification 
of Beit Jubr with Cypros. (See Section A.) Scattered stones, broken 
pottery, and traces of ruins are observable on both sides of Wady Kelt in 
this neighbourhood, and the aqueducts from Wady Kelt also lead to the 
same site, which is not otherwise provided with water. 

' It was very necessary to ascertain something of the mounds in the Ghor — whether they 
were artificial, and if so, what was their composition; and in February, 1S6S, the weather 
preventing work at Jerusalem, an expedition was made to 'Ain es Sultan for the purpose of 
cutting through the several mounds scattered about Of this the following is a short account. 

' The mounds about 'Ain es Sultan were considered the less satisfactory in the Ghor for 
trying on, as the country about has probably been occupied by the Romans, Christians, and 
Saracens ; but it was the only part where we could collect a good number of workmen and 
get a fair amount of work out of them ; higher up in the Ghor we should have found great 
difficulties with the Bedawin ; as it was, at 'Ain es Sultan we could do just as we liked, as 
our workmen were friendly with the Bedawin of that part. 

' Nine mounds were cut through, two at Wady Kelt, three at 'Ain es Sultan, and" four 
within a short distance of the spring. Leaving Jerusalem at 6 a.m. on 24th February we 
arrived at 'Ain es Sultan at 8.50 a.m. (a journey of five hours and a half by Mimerz), when 
we met our party of 174 workmen, and by 10 a.m. they were all distributed on the several 
mounds. The men were from the villages of Lifta, Siloam, and Abu Dis, and were put to 
work by villages, and allowed to quarrel as much as they liked so long as they did not fight 

' The trenches were cut across the mounds from east to west, so as to get shelter from the 
sun as soon as possible. During the day-time, when not exposed to the north wind, the rays 
of the sun were scorching. At night it was bitterly cold. After the trenches were cut 8 feet 
deep, the work was continued by shafts 8 feet square at intervals of from 4 feet to 6 feet, as 



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\_SHF.ET XJ'in7\ ARCHEOLOGY. 225 

the clay would not bear the cutting of one deep trench. These shafts were in most cases 
sunk below the level of the surrounding country. Very little was found except pottery jars 
and stone mortars for grinding corn. 

' The general impression given by the result of the excavations is that these mounds are 
formed by the gradual crumbling away of great towers or castles of sunburnt brick. 

' Details. — No. i Mound. South bank of Wady Kelt, about \ mile below its entrance 
into the plain. 

' On the top of the mound at the surface were found the ruins of buildings, stone (cakooli) 
obtained from a cave-quarry about 3 miles to north-east. A good deal of glass was found 
about these ruins, the flakes on the surface being brilliant with the prismatic colours. After 
about 6 feet we got through the rough foundations of the buildings and came upon the clay 
of the mound ; at about 8 feet were found the remains of a large amphora. The neck, handles, 
and base were entire, and it appeared to have stood about 5 feet high. A Roman inscription 
was on the neck. 

' Marly rock was found in this mound about 8 feet below the surface of the surrounding 
country, and on the rock a large jar 2 feet in diameter, which crumbled on being touched. 

' No. 2. A heap of stones and walls. This mound is evidently formed from the 
remains of a masonry tower of no great pretensions ; the foundations are below the general 
surface, but not on the rock. The stones are partly mezzeh, partly hard flint. 

' No. 3. A large mound south of 'Ain es Sultan ; trench cut from east to west, graves 
found 6 feet below the surface ; all except one of sun-dried bricks ; those of bricks 
measured 5 feet 9 inches by i foot 10 inches in the clear; wall 7 inches thick and 
I foot 4 inches in height ; that of stone was 4 feet 5 inches by 1 2 inches in the clear ; walls 
9 inches thick and i foot 3 inches in height. Bones appeared to have been thrown in after 
the decomposition of the bodies. Shafts sunk to 40 feet in depth with no results. 

' Mounds 4, 5, 6, are grouped together west of 'Ain es Sultan; they are about 60 feet above 
the surrounding country. 

' The spring of 'Ain es Sultan issues from the foot of No. 6. These mounds are 
formed for the most part of a light clay (yellow) which, on being touched, crumbles into an 
impalpable powder. 

' In some cases no strata or layers could be discerned in the clay ; in other cases, layers 
of brick, stone, and mortar were clearly visible. 

' The photographs and sections together will give a pretty clear idea of what has been 
done. 

' No. 4 mound. Two shafts were sunk to south about 20 feet deep, in which were 
found gravel, clay, pottery, fragments, and a black bituminous stuff, also at about 10 feet 
some remains of charred wood. 

' A cutting was made through the centre of the mound from east to west 40 feet deep ; 
on east side of cutting several large sun-dried bricks were found, and a portion of the mound 
itself is formed of sun-dried bricks in fragments ; black flinty stones are mixed up with the 
soil, and here and there layers of pebbles. 

' In some cases the strata could be seen, but it is very irregular. Pottery fragments were 
found at all depths, also two large stone mortars (for grinding corn ?), i foot in diameter, at 
about 6 feet below the surface. 

' To the west the clay is grey, and a layer of limestone and mortar (?) was distinguishable, 
also an irregular layer of stones (16 inches cube). 

VOL. III. 29 



2 26 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

' In the shafts at the foot of No. 4, to the west, rock (mezzeh) was found at 
17 feet, and a wall, in situ, running north and south, built of rough rubble (stones 
12 inches cube). 

' No. 5. Two isolated shafts 20 feet deep, and a cutting east and west 40 to 45 feet 
deep. 

' Out of shafts were brought up limestones, pottery, and clay, one block of rubble of sand- 
stone, and a small mortar. 

' Out of cutting were brought up pottery, clay, flintstones, and limestones, part of a stone 
dish, and other fragments ; no layers were visible ; a quantity of black bituminous fragments 
were found at 13 feet, and a round pot of earthenware which crumbled on being 
touched. 

' No. 6. Two isolated shafts were sunk, and a cutting 30 feet deep from centre to west; 
pottery, stone, and clay brought up ; a good deal of dark blue limestone ; two horizontal 
layers of bituminous stuff \ to 2 inches thick, 8 feet below the surface ; at 15 feet below the 
surface was found a mortar about 18 inches in diameter. 

' These mounds from top to bottom abound in fragments of pottery ; many of the jars 
were perfect until exposed to the air, when they were resolved into the same kind of clay as 
the rest of the mounds. 

' A few small sohd-looking jars were preserved, and they arc now in England. A 
section of each mound is enclosed, and the photographs of these mounds are already in 
England. 

' Nos. 7 and 9. Small mounds to east of 'Ain es Sultan, in the meadow land ; they were 
cut through, but nothing of importance was found in them. 

' No. 8. This mound is north-west of No. i, and on north bank of Wddy Kelt ; it is 
about 20 feet in height. 

' The brick walls in this mound are still in situ, and some plaster was found with colour 
on it ; the bricks are 14 inches long, and 5 J inches thick ; they are sun-dried. 

' The walls of the building are probably intact ; the cutting, however, only laid bare a 
section of them ; there are no signs of marble or of any kind of veneering to these 
walls. 

' On the northern bank of ^\'ady Nuei'ameh, about a mile from 'Ain es Sultan, north- 
east, are the remains of a village which some Bedawin in 1S67 called Jeljul, but in 1S6S the 
tribe about knew no, other name than Es Sumrah. Excavations were made about, and the 
sites of several houses were exposed, and eventually a chapel, 27 feet long, 16 feet broad, 
with an apse end towards the south, semicircle of 6 feet in diameter ; also a square 
chamber, about 40 feet from the chapel, 18 feet by 16 feet 6 inches. This chamber had 
its walls adorned with frescoes ; the designs were hardly visible, as the plaster was 
much broken ; one stone, however, was well preserved, with the picture of what 
resembled a Swiss cottage, curving overhanging roof, and with projecting balcony ; the 
whole very well executed, but it soon faded away on being exposed. The roof of this 
chamber ajjpears to have been formed of wood, richly carved, and studded with mosaics, 
fragments of which have been forwarded home ; also there appears to have been a window 
closed with a white marble lattice, parts of which have been preserved. 

' The building stone throughout is of the kind called " cakooli," obtained from a cave 
quarry about 2 miles to the north-east. 

'This village appears to have been Christian.' — Charles Warren. 



[sheet XriII.'\ ARCHEOLOGY. 227 

U m m el A u t a d (O u). — Ruins of a Bedawin camp, the stones 
arranged round the tents and cooking-places remaining ; hence the name 
' Mother of Tent-pegs.' 

U m m S i r a h (O s). — Resembles the last. 

W a d y J o r e i f G h u z A 1 (P s). — In the north bank of this valley 
a little chamber is excavated roughly in the soft marl. It is entered on 
the south by a door 2 feet broad. The chamber is 5 feet 6 inches wide, 
13 feet 6 inches long. On the west are two round recesses, 2 feet 6 inches 
across. On the east is one 2 feet wide. On this side are two niches for 
lamps. On the north is a passage 3 feet wide, with a recess i foot 
6 inches deep, 3 feet 3 inches across, on the east. The passage is blocked 
at the end. This cave seems possibly to have been a hermitage. 

Visited ist December, 1873. 

Wady Kelt (O s). — Five aqueducts exist in this valley. Of 
these aqueducts, two come from ' A i n F a r a h , and three from 
'A in Kelt. The latter diverge at Jisr ed Deir, which see. 
From the spring to this point there is a single channel, which runs 
100 feet above the bridge, which is reached by a shoot, as already 
described. The channel runs along the side of the hill on the north. 
Small bridges of a single arch span the tributary ravines. There is also a 
continuation of the channel at the higher level, which supplies Deir el 
Kelt, reaching as far as a cave above the monastery. 

The channel, which runs from the bottom of the northern pier of J i s r 
e d Deir, follows the north side of Wady Kelt and turns north at the 
opening of the pass. It was traced to the neighbourhood of the Sugar 
Mills (T a w a h i n e s S u k k e r), and in parts was found to have pipes 
like those of the aqueducts from 'A i n Farah, laid in a cemented 
channel. 

Two channels start from the southern pier of Jisr ed Deir; one 
at the level of the channel on the top of the bridge, one from the level of 
the bottom of the pier. They How side by side at these two levels, one 
40 feet beneath the other, along the south side of the valley. The upper 
aqueduct was not traced beyond the mouth of the pass, the lower ends 
in a birkeh near the mouth. They are of masonry throughout, some- 
what resembling that of the aqueducts from Solomon's pools. Just 

29 — 2 



228 



THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 



opposite Deir el Kelt is a fine wall of masonry, similar to that of 
Jisr ed Deir, about 30 feet high, built against the cliff. The channel 
of the upper aqueduct runs on the top, and beneath there is a culvert 
through which the lower aqueduct runs, near the bottom of the wall. 
There is another small channel, about \ mile long, which joins the upper 




el Owund SlOTV ' 



aqueduct at Jisr e d Deir, coming from the south side of Wady 
Kelt. The upper channel runs occasionally uphill, though never, of 
course, as high as its original level at the 'A i n Kelt ; on the top of the 
wall it is roofed in with flat stones, like the channel of the aqueduct at 
Caesarea. The dimensions of the channel are given on the bridge. 

As far as can be judged, these aqueducts are of the same date with the 
bridge, which is probably older than the Crusading epoch. They are 
probably to be ascribed to Roman times, or perhaps the Byzantine period; 
but are evidently older than the system described under the head K a n a t 
Mlasa. 

The two aqueducts from 'A i n F ti r a h run at a higher level, beside 
the road, south of W a d y K e 1 1. Their course is extremely devious at 
one point ; the channels cross and recross one another. In places they 
are tunneled through the hill. The high-level is carried across a ravine 
in one place, on a massive bridge of rubble-work, faced with ashlar, 
120 feet long, 35 feet high, with a pointed arch. Near this is a cistern, 
resembling Beit J u l:i r el F 6 k a n i, in masonry. At this point the 



[sheet XV1II^^ ARCHAEOLOGY. 229 

low-level channel crosses by a detour, without a bridge. Both aqueducts 
disappear at Beit Jubr el Fukani, and seem to run in tunnels to 
the neighbourhood of B e i t Jubr et Tahtani. Here the higher 
channel descends by a steep shoot, as previously described. The course 
of the low-level is not easily traceable, but it appears to have supplied the 
B i r k e t M u s a. 

The high-level near Beit Jiibr et Tahtani has a cemented channel, 
with a semicircular arch to the roof. The low-level has also a cemented 
channel. The wall supporting the high-level (of rough masony) is visible 
on the Jerusalem road, nearly opposite Deir el Kelt ; and here there are 
remains of pipes of red earthenware. 

There is nothing to fix the date of this pair of aqueducts beyond the 
pointed arch of the bridge. This may, perhaps, be a reconstruction. 
The buildings in connection with the channels are all comparatively late, 
as far as it is possible to determine their date. 



SHEET XVIII.— SECTION C. 

Traditions. — The Arabs have numerous traditions, which in some 
cases appear to be derived from Christian sources. The mosque of 
N e b y M u s a, one of the most sacred spots in the country, is 
supposed to contain the tomb of Moses. According to the INloslem 
tradition, Moses fled from the east of Jordan to this place, and was here 
entombed by the angels. (See ' Quarterly Statement,' July, 1874, p. 172.) 
The canal called K a n a t M Ci s a, and the B i r k e t M u s a, are also 
traditionally ascribed to Moses. 

Another tradition connects the Wady Kelt aqueducts with Moses, 
who is supposed to have traced the line with his rod from the spring to 
Birket Musa. In this case, as at Csesarea, the existence of two 
aqueducts is explained by a supposed competition. Moses is said to have 
contended with a Christian woman who should first bring water to Jericho. 
The Katat Musa, or 'Place cut by Moses,' is probably connected 
with the same story. An enchanted spring is also supposed to exist in 
Wady Kelt. (See 'Quarterly Statement,' April, 1875, p. 103, where the 
tradition is fully given by M. Ganneau; and by Pere Lievin, 'Guide,' 

P- 344-) 

A second tradition of importance is connected with the Shejeret 
el 1 1 h 1 e h, where stood originally, according to the Abu Nuseir Arabs, 
the City of Brass. (See 'Quarterly Statement,' April, 1875, pp. 36, 72, 87, 
and July, 1875, p. 1 72.) This was inhabited by Pagans (Kufar), who were 
attacked by the Imam 'Aly Ibn Abu Taleb(see Mukam Imam 
'Aly, Section B) on his horse M e i m u n. He rode round the city, and 
blew at the walls, which fell. The Pagans fled, and were pursued in the 
direction of Kiiruntul ; but the close of day favoured their escape. Hence 
the Imam called to the sun, 'Return, O blessed one' (Enthani ya 



[sheet XVIII.'] TRADITIONS. 231 

Mubaraki), whence the hill behind which it was disappearing is called 
Dhahret eth Thentyeh. The sun staying in its course, the call 
to prayers was then made by B e 1 a 1, who appears as the servant of the 
Imim ; the place where he stood is thence called M u w e d h d h e n el 
Belal. It may be noted that Belial Ibn Rubah is an historical 
personage, the M u e d h e n of the Prophet ; he came with the Caliph 
Omar to Jerusalem 636 a.d. (Besant and Palmer, 'Jerusalem,' p. 424.) 
Another tradition connected with this exists among the Arabs east of 
Jordan. (See ' Quarterly Statement,' April, 1SS2, p. 92.) 

This tradition is evidendy founded on the Biblical account of the fall 
of Jericho. It is curious to remark that in Jerome's time the site of 
Gilgal (Shejeret el Ithleh) was held in reverence by the natives 
of the country. 

Close to Neby Musa is the little Mukam of Hasan er Rai. He 
Is traditionally supposed to have been the shejoherd of Moses. 

The name of W a d y Mesaadet 'A i s a, 'Valley of the Ascent 
of Jesus,' may also be noted as showing the mediaeval tradition of 'Osh 
el Ghiirab, as the 'high mountain' of the Temptation, still to remain 
among the Bedawin. 

Khurbet Mird is traditionally supposed to have been built 
by Nimrod, who is said to be there buried. The tradition given by 
M. Ganneau concerning the death of Nimrod, due to a mosquito in his 
brain, is a very common mythological tale. In the Talmud it is related 
of the Emperor Titus. (Tal. Bab. Gittin, 56 b, ' Quarterly Statement,' 
April, 1875, p. no). 

Talat ed Dumm, 'Ascent of Blood,' is said by the natives to 
be due to a former battle there. Jerome (' Onomasticon,' s.v. Adommim) 
gives the same explanation, stating it to be due to the blood shed by 
robbers. 

The natives (Abu Nuseir and 'Abid) have a tradition that in former 
times the Bukei4 was covered with vineyards. Hence the name of several 
ruins in this district. They attribute this cultivation to Christians, and 
suppose that Christians could again renew it. 

The Arabs round Jericho are of a tribe called Abu Nuseir. They 
venerate a place called el Hirmeh or RIakabaret ed Dawarah, 
'The Place of Sepulchre of Dawar.' This personage was their 



232 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

ancestor, and the Abu Nuseir bury their dead here in the K ab il r e d 
Dawari, 'Tombs of the Dawar People.' Arabs of any other tribe 
passing this spot make use of the expression, ' Permission, O Dawar,' and 
the valley is sacred, and ploughs, grain, etc , are deposited here for safety. 
The usual votive offerings, sticks, rags, bracelets, etc., are found near the 
tombs. 

Robinson gives the origin of the tribe of Dawar as coming from the 
northern G h 6 r ; they were D e r w i s h, and much respected by other 
tribes. The members of the tribe entombed in W a d y el H i r m e h 
were killed by mistake by the Government, being supposed members of 
another tribe. (See ' Biblical Researches,' ii. 242.) 

Another ancient tribe of Madadi have their graves within this 
Sheet. (Kabur el Madadi, O t.) 

The inhabitants of the Jordan valley are all Arabs of various tribes. 
Armenian hermits are found on Kiiriintul, and Greek monks at Mar Saba. 
The inhabitants of E r i h a are a mixed and very degraded race. 
Fellahin from the hills descend to cultivate their land for them. An 
early Christian tradition at Mar Saba states that the palm, still existing on 
the north wall of the monastery, was planted by the saint, grew up in a 
single night, and produced fruit without any stones. These dates are a 
sovereign remedy for childless women. This story is not confined to the 
Mar Saba monastery, and is connected with the worship of sacred trees. 



SHEET XIX.— SECTION A. 

Orography. — This Sheet contains i2g'6 square miles of sea-coast from 
Ascalon to south of Gaza, the whole being an open rolling plain, cultivated 
in patches with corn. The blown sand has encroached further inland 
than in other parts of Palestine, being only arrested by the hedges of 
prickly pear, and by olives ; the rate of progress is said to be a yard a 
year, and the sand has covered the ruined walls of Ascalon, and half the 
gardens within. The broadest part measures nearly 4 miles across. 

Hydrography. — The plain is very dry ; Ascalon, Gaza, and other 
places are supplied by wells of sweet water, and in the course of W a d y 
G h u z z e h water is found not far below the surface in the pits 
(Hiifiyir) dug by the Arabs. Wells occur even on the sea-shore, as 
at Sheikh 'Ajlin, and Sheikh Hasan; in the interior there 
are ruined rubble cisterns at all the ruined sites, showing the former 
water supply to have been artificial. 

Topography. — There are eleven inhabited places on the Sheet 
belonging to the Government district of Kada Ghuzzeh, under the 
Governor of Jerusalem. 

1. Beit Ha nun (D v). — A small mud village surrounded by 
gardens, with a well to the west. The ground is flat, and to the east is a 
pond beside the road. 

2. Beit Lahi (D v). — A small village with fine gardens and 
groves of large and ancient olives in the middle of the sand. It has a 
well to the south. This place is probably the Bethelia of Sozomen (Hist. 
Eccles., v. 15), where was a temple. It is called by him ' Vicus 

VOL. III. 30 



234 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTIAE. 

Gazeeorum.' There is a small mosque in the village, which may occupy 
the site of the old temple. (See Rel. Pal., p. 638). 

' Peopled by 250 inhabitants, it occupies an oblong valley, well cultivated, and surrounded 
by high sand-dunes, which cause a great heat. It is a little oasis, incessantly menaced by 
moving sand-hills, which surround it on every side, and would engulf it were it not for the 
continued struggle of man to arrest their progress.' — Guerin, 'Judea,' li. 176. 

3. Deir el Bel ah (B .\). — A large mud village on flat ground, 
with wells and a small tower in the village. To the west is a grove of 
date-palms, whence the place is named. The small mosque is built over 
a former chapel. (See Section B.) This place is perhaps the mediseval 
Darum (explained by Jaques de Vitry to mean ' Greek house ' — D e i r e r 
Rum), which was fortified by King Amalric with four corner towers 
(Will, of Tyre) ; Marino Sanuto places it south of Gaza ; Geoffrey de 
Vinsauf (1192 a.d.) makes it near the sea (Itin. Ric. bk. v., ch. xxxix.), 
and north of the Egyptian border (ch. xii.). It was taken by Richard 
Lion-Heart, and had then seventeen towers and a ditch. The place is 
now the See of a Greek Bishop resident in Jerusalem, and its former 
name is stated by the inhabitants to have been Deir Mar J i r i u s, 
' Monastery of St. George.' The mosque is now called el K h u d r, or 
St. George. The gate of Gaza, on the road leading towards the village, 
was called Bab ed Darfin. (See Section B.) The village had 
Christian inhabitants some thirty years ago. 

4. Deir S i n e i d (E v).— -A moderate-sized mud village with wells, 
gardens, and a pond. 

5. G h li z z e h — GAZA (O w). — The capital of the district ; is a town 
principally of mud houses, but with mosques and other buildings well 
built of stone. It stands on an isolated hill in the plain, rising 180 feet 
above the sea, and some 100 feet above the surrounding flat ground. 
The place is divided into four H a r e t, or quarters, occupying about 
f mile either way. (i) Haret ed Deraj, on the west, occupies the 
west slope and the top of the hill; (2) Haret et T u f e n is on the 
flat ground to the north; (3) Haret es Sejjiyeh, on the east, is 
also on the lower ground, and built of mud ; (4) Haret ez Z e i t u n, 
on the south, extends down the sides of the mound. 

There are two principal mosques, besides others smaller. The one on 
the hill in the middle of the town (J amid el K e b i r) is an ancient 



{sheet A'/.V.] TOrOGRAPHY. 235 

church rebuilt as a mosque. The second, which is newer, is composed of 
much ancient material. Five minarets rise over the town, including that 
of 'Aly el Merwan in the eastern quarter— the traditional tomb of 
Samson, and that of Sidna Hashem (the father of the Prophet), 
who is buried on the north-west side of the town, near the brow of the 
hill. The Serai, or Court-house, is north-east of the great mosque. 
West of the town is the little sacred place of Sheikh Shaba n, and 
on the north beyond the houses is Sheikh N a b a k. 

There is a Greek church in the town (see Section B), west of the great 
mosque. 

The water supply is from good wells of sweet water in the town 
and in the surrounding gardens. The names of 15 of these wells (all 
marked on the Plan as B) were collected, but are unimportant. 

Fine gardens surround Gaza, stretching 4 miles north and south, and 
2\ east and west. There are many palms in these, and fine olive-groves 
exist beyond them on the Vi^est and north. The avenue of ancient trees 
along the north road, stretching for 4 miles, is the most remarkable 
characteristic of the town. 

There is a cemetery east, and another west, of the hill. On the south 
is the quarantine building in the gardens. 

There is a bazaar in the town, and soap is manufactured, as well as a 
peculiar black pottery. The potteries are west of the town. Cotton is 
sometimes grown, and dates, figs, olives, lentils, apricots and mulberries, 
melons and cucumbers, are grown in the gardens. The town has the 
reputation of being very healthy, probably from its dry and elevated 
position. 

The population is said to be at the present day 18,000 souls, of 
whom some 200 are Greek Orthodox Christians. The Samaritans had 
a synagogue in Gaza about a century ago. 

The remains of the ancient walls seem to be represented by the great 
mounds on the hill, visible on the east and south beyond the houses. 
The houses on the hill are the best built, being of stone, and many 
ancient fragments are here used up in the walls. (For antiquities see 
Section B.) 

6. H e r b i e h (E v). — A good-sized mud village, with a pond, a well, 



236 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

and gardens. To the south are remains of a former fortress. This is 
probably the mediaeval Furbia. (Itin. Ric. ch. xxxiii.) 

7. Jebalieh (P w). — A large mud village, with gardens and palms 
and a well on the north-west. It has a mosque called J ami a Abu 
Berjas. 

8. El J u r a h (E u). — A mud village on flat ground outside Ascalon. 
It is probably the Yagur of the Talmud. (See Sheet XVI.) 

9. El Meshaherah (D w). — A small village, or suburb of Gaza, 
on low ground in the gardens. It is well supplied with water from wells 
on the north and west called Biyaret el Bukkarah, Biyaret 
el Ghabari, and Biyaret el Wahasheh. 

10. En Nuzleh (D w). — A small hamlet, a suburb of No. 7, 
with a well to the east. 

11. Tumrah, also called Beit Dimreh (D w). — A small 
village of mud on the side of a hill, with a garden and well below it on 
the north. 

In addition to the above, the ruined site of the ancient Ascalon is 
to be found on this Sheet (see Section B), and the ruin of K h urbet 
el 'Adar may perhaps represent the ancient Eder. (Joshua xv. 21.) 

Gaza had a port called Majuma (Reland, p. 791), which Julian the 
Apostate named Limena of Gaza (Xij^iiva tik ra^c;)- 

This is probably the landing-place called el Mineh. There was 
here a separate town, which became a bishojaric in the Byzantine period, 
and the ruins of el K i s h a n i near the landing-place are no doubt 
those of Majuma Gazns. 



ASCAI.ON. 



Scale' of Feet 



100 So 100 900 300 *^0 600 600 700 300 SCO 1000 



f 



lij itTuJ lower 



Jf A mW- I "'V Tower H4 

4 bS^5fc- B,undTowe^- 



i Turnt fallen 










Tower Rd' 



ViiicRnlBroolw I)ay^. Soiv, In.ht. 



SHEET XIX.— SECTION B. 

ArCH/EOLOGY. 

'Aly el Muntar (D w). — The curious hill south of Gaza is 
crowned by a Mukam, sacred to ' Aly of the Watchtower.' The Kubbeh 
is modern, with three domes. Several slabs with masons' marks are 
built into the pavement of the porch. 

There is also a lintel over the door, with a sculptured design on it 
representing two medallions with geometric designs, and in the centre a 
sort of niche with a cockle-shell ornamentation to the roof. This appears 
to be Byzantine work. (Compare Deir 'Arabeh, Sheet XIV.) 
The top of the hill is 272 feet above the sea at the trigonometrical station. 
The whole of the ground round the Kubbeh is covered with Moslem 
graves. 

Visited April, 1875. 

'Askalan (E u).— The famous walls of Richard Lion-Heart, built 
in 1 192 A.D., are still traceable, and in parts standing to a considerable 
height. The town is bow-shaped, measuring | of a mile along the 
string north and south, and f of a mile east and west, the total circum- 
ference being if miles. 

The walls are, on the south especially, covered by the rolling sand. 
The interior is occupied by gardens, and some 10 feet of soil covers the 
ruins. Palms, tamarisks, cactus, almonds, lemons, olives, and oranges are 
grown, with vegetables, including the famous shallots, named from the 
place. There are also a few vines. The place is well supplied with 
sweet water. In the gardens there are ■^^ wells, each some 3 feet 
diameter, and in some cases over 50 feet in depth. By each is a cemented 
reservoir, and a wooden roller for the rope. Marble shafts have been 



238 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

used up for fixing the ropes, and by each well is a capital of marble which 
has generally the appearance of Crusading work. 

On the base of a pillar near a well in the middle of the ruins was the 
following inscription : 

ni KA(2)P-- 

The rest of the lettering is broken off. 

Quantities of masonry pillars and sculptured fragments are found in 
digging to a depth of some 10 feet. Inscriptions on slabs of white marble 
have also been discovered. There are many fine shafts of grey granite, 
some 3 feet diameter and 1 5 feet long, lying among the ruins in various 
parts. Many have also been used as thorough-bonds in the walls. 

The masonry of the walls is throughout small, and the stone a friable 
sandy limestone, but the mortar used is extremely hard and full of black 
ashes, and of shells from the beach ; the walls have fallen in blocks, and 
the stone seems to have given way in preference to the cement. 

There is no harbour, but on the coast are rocky precipices from 
20 to 70 feet high. To the south near the jetty there are reefs of rock 
below the water. The lowest part of the town is between the ruined 
church in the north-west corner and the sacred Mukam of el K h u d r. 
A sort of valley here runs down, and the cliffs above the beach are lower. 
The cliff in the north-west corner is the highest part. 

There are remains of five towers on the land side of the wall. In the 
north-west corner of the town are remains of a wall, with a deep masonry 
well 4 feet diameter, beside which is a cistern. A large ruined tower is 
situate 150 yards north of the mainland entrance. It is 40 feet square, 
with round turrets 12 feet diameter in the north-east and south-east 
corners. The interior is supported on vaults ; the turrets were solid at 
the base. At an equal distance south of the gate is a tower projecting 
28 feet, and 34 feet wide outside. The wall south of it is carried back 
28 feet, so that flank defence is obtained on that side. At the south-east 
angle of the wall is a fourth ruined tower ; a fallen block of masonry is 
alone visible. Near the south-west corner of the fortification is a tower 
50 feet broad, projecting 64 feet, and apparently there was here a postern 
gate. 

In addition to the towers there were buttresses on the walls, appa- 



\SBE£T XIX.'\ ARCHEOLOGY. 239 

rently at intervals of 100 feet. These projected 8 to 13 feet, and were 

4 feet wide. There are also on the east three large buttresses, 24 feet 
by 6 feet 9 inches, and south of the main gate is a wedge-shaped buttress 
14 feet thick at the back, 2 feet in front, 17 feet along one side, 13 feet 
along the other. 

The eastern or land gate is constructed like most of the twelfth 
century fortress gates, in such a manner as to secure flank defence. The 
entrance was from the south, in a wall runninsf out at rig^ht angles to the 
main wall east and west. There are remains of an outer wall east of the 
main wall about 35 yards from it, and this appears to have covered the 
entrance. The angle between the main wall and that projecting from it 
was strengthened by a polygonal tower on the south, foundations of which 
remain. A block of masonry lies fallen on one side ( Palestine Exploration 
Fund Photograph, old series. No. 257). It is 20 feet diameter, and 

5 feet 9 inches in height, being apparently the base of a turret, probably 
flanking the gate. This must have been overthrown by violent means, 
probably in the destruction of the walls by Saladin, according to the 
treaty of 1192 a.d. (Itin. Ric. bk. vi., ch. xxviii.) 

Excavations have at some time or other been made at this srate, and 
at the tower on the wall north of it. 

The sea gate is in the sea wall, near the south-west corner of the 
fortifications. The same care is shown here also in constructing the 
entrance. There is an outer wall running parallel with the west wall. 
It is 3^ feet thick, and the clear space between is 9 feet. It appears to 
have extended for 66 feet. A wall also runs out from the main wall, and 
joined the outer wall apparently at its south end. 

The gate in the wall is immediately north of this projecting wall, and 
on its north side is a buttress projecting 2 feet, and at a clear distance of 
8 feet from the projecting wall. The passage thus formed protects the 
gate either side, and a party approaching had first to proceed south for 
66 feet, and then turned east through a passage 8 feet wide, and entered 
the gate, which was only 3 feet wide. A tower stood on the wall north of 
the gate, and projected imoards for 22 feet, forming an internal flankinf? 
defence to the gate. Inside this tower was a vaulted cistern, 7 feet east 
and west by 19 feet north and south, lined with hard white cement. 

Steps led up the side of the precipice to this sea gate, and below a 



240 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

small jetty ran out into the water. It was formed, like that at Caesarea, of 
the shafts of granite pillars laid side by side. Similar shafts project from 
the walls all along the sea face of the town, for the ashlar has here been 
either removed or disappeared, and only the rubble core of the walls 
remains, with the pillars sticking out from it. 

In the north quarter of the town are remains of a church. The 
bearing is 94° west, and traces of one of the apses were visible. The 
walls remain, running in the direction stated for 60 or So feet, and, on the 
north, part of the wall is standing to a height of some 6 or 8 feet ; 
but the plan is now not distinguishable, and the ashlar has been taken 
away, leaving only rubble. Inside the church are several pillar bases 
of white marble, which have been dug up. They have on them marks 
which resemble Phoenician letters, and which are cut on the upper sides, 
so that they were covered by the bottom of the shaft of the pillar. 



Similar marks on the shafts of pillars were found in 18S1 in the 
Temple at 'Amman; they are possibly intended by the masons as 
' good-luck ' marks to ensure stability. 

On the north wall also two masons' marks were noted : 

+ L 

The remaining ruins are of less importance. There is a small building 
on the cliff, further south than the church, to which the name el 
Khudra is now given. It measures 9 paces either way, with an 
entrance on the north, on which side is a porch of the same size. The 
windows of the building have round arches, and it may perhaps be of 
early date. Between it and the sea, on the edge of the cliff, is a grave, 
apparently modern. 

In the south quarter of the town are the foundations of a large 
building, measuring 37 paces along a line 112° west, and 15 paces at 
right angles. It has a projection to the east, as if there had been an 
apse. But the masonry has a comparatively modern appearance. 





1- o- 



O fo 



■J> => 



o 



■. iv -V 



-•^ 



[SHEET XIX.] ARCHAEOLOGY. 241 

The natives say there were formerly two churches in the ruins. 

A curious vessel of black basalt, like a mortar, with two trunnions, 
and with a Maltese cross cut in relief on the side, was sketched. Various 
pieces of ornamental sculpture and a bracket of marble representing a 
lion's paw were observed, with many marble capitals of small pillars. A 
fine Gothic inscription from a Crusading tomb has been taken to Jaffa 
from Ascalon ; and many fragments, Roman and mediaeval, are con- 
stantly found by the peasantry. 

Visited 3rd, 9th, and loth of April, 1875. 

Surveyed with a chain and prismatic compass. 

It does not appear that the walls described above were the actual work of King Richard, 
who, in fact, rebuilt the ramparts and towers which had been hastily demolished by Saladin. 
The following description of the fortress by William of Tyre shows that it was existing a 
hundred years before Richard's conquest : 

' Ascalon is one of the first cities of the Philistines. It is situated on the seashore in the 
form of a semicircle, the diameter of which is on the coast and the circumference lies on the 
east. The whole city is in a sort of hollow declining towards the sea, girt round on every 
side by artificial mounds, above which are ramparts flanked by numerous towers of solid 
work, the very cement of the joints being harder than stone. The walls are of suitable 
thickness, and are proportionately high, and there are also ante-walls of strong construction 
built round and carefully fortified. There is no spring within the city nor without, but it 
abounds in wells both within and without which yield agreeable and pleasant water. The 
citizens have also constructed cisterns within the town for the reception of rainwater. There 
were on the circuit of the walls four gates carefully provided with lofty and solid towers. The 
first of these on the eastern side is called the Greater Gate, or the Jerusalem Gate, because it 
looks towards the sacred city. It has two very lofty towers, which seem to overlook the whole 
town, as its strength and protection. This gate is preceded by three or four smaller gates in 
the ante-walls, through which it is approached by certain winding ways. The second is that 
which looks to the west, and is called the Sea Gate. The third, on the south, is called the 
Gaza Gate, because it looks towards that city. The fourth, on the north, is called the Joppa 
Gate, because that city is the nearest. There is no port or safe approach for ships, but only 
a sandy shore dangerous of access. Outside the city the soil is beset with sand, yet con- 
venient for vine and fruit-trees. Towards the north a few valleys, fertilized by irrigation, 
yield some advantage of fruit and herbs to the people.' 

It is probable, therefore, that the works of Richard were a restoration rather than a 
reconstruction. The final destruction is due to the Sultan Bibars in the year 1270. Possibly 
a search among Arab historians would explain the history of those fortifications described by 
AMUiam of Tyre. 

Guerin, who visited the ruins in 1854, and reported on them in 1857, examined them 
with special attention to the description given above. After following the walls round the 
city, he states that he found within their enclosure — 

I . The site of a church in the middle of the city, the remains consisting of the vestiges 
of an apse and of the side walls. These walls were thick, built of rubble with an external 

VOL. III. 31 



242 THE SUR VE Y OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

coating of regular and well-cut stones perfectly cemented. It is oriented to the east, and 
perhaps belongs to the Byzantine period. 

2. South-east of this monument two great walls are upright, unfallen, built of the same 
masonry, more than 6 feet thick. His guide called it el K a 1 a t i. 

3. Vaulted chambers, about on a level with the ground, communicating, according to 
the guide, with the seashore by means of a subterranean passage. These are called el H a b s, 
the prison. 

4. A great circular hole 13 paces in diameter, called the Bir Abraham el Haurain. He 
suggests that this is P u t e u s P a c i s, spoken of by Antoninus Martyrus, and the B e r 
Abraham el K h a 1 i 1, mentioned by Benjamin of Tudela. 

' 5. The remains of a second church built upon the site of a Pagan temple, and itself 
converted into a mosque. On the site of the church lie the columns dug up by Lady Hester 
Stanhope in the year 1815. She excavated by the help of 150 Arabs the supposed site of 
the old temple of Astarte, where was supposed to be buried a hidden treasure. They found, 
as later on were found at Jerusalem, quantities of fragments, in layers representing different 
periods, the pavements dividing and marking the periods of building. A white marble 
statue was also discovered, but as no treasure was dug up, the Arabs destroyed the 
statue, thinking that gold w^as contained within it. The excavations lasted a fortnight. When 
the time comes for digging in Palestine, Ascalon, Cassarea, Gaza, and Tyre, should be among 
the first places to be examined. 

6. In a garden near the preceding, a column in grey granite of smaller diameter than 
those mentioned above. 

7. In the west part of the city the foundations of a third church built east and west, with 
three naves. 

8. What appeared to be the site of a theatre. 

9. A long wall, formerly part of the enclosure of a great building, cisterns, and wells. 

The following is the account given by Colonel ^Varren of this place : 
'The city is 24 miles, as the crow flies, from the present ruin of Timnath, whence Samson 
came to plunder the thirty changes of garments for the payment of those who had expounded 
his riddle ; though this is the only incident with regard to the whole city recorded in the 
Bible; yet it is impossible to visit these ruins at the present day without realizing, perhaps 
more than in any other ancient city west of Jordan, the utter overthrow of power that has 
taken place, the desolation which reigns supreme ; the walls of indurated sandstone, though 
now of small-sized stones, were once formed of massive blocks, as is seen by the remains 
here and there that have not been cut down for other purposes or carried away to Acca or 
Saidon; great columns of granite 17 to 18 feet in length, and 2 to 2i feet in diameter, 
project from the faces of the existing walls, used as thorough-bonds, though hardly necessary, 
it seems, for the intensely hard mortar has united the stones into one solid mass, which has 
only again been broken by some great force, probably gunpowder. Examine these walls : 
great discs of masonry overlapping each other in confusion, and it is apparent that they have 
been overturned at no very remote period. Some of these walls may have been built by the 
ladies of England as an offering to their country and lion-hearted king during the Crusades. 

' One view taken shows us the sycamore fig-tree, now loaded with its burden of fruit, 
the hollow fig, which, though refreshing when picked from the tree, is considered too inferior 
a fruit to be eaten by any but the poorest of the people. See how the trunk of the tree, acted 



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■' ■ ' vN 


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WEST DOOR OF THE CHURCH OF S^ JOHN. GAZA. 



{SHEET A'/A',] ARCH.EOLOGY. 243 

upon in its early growth by the prevailing wind, the sea breeze, has bent over the narrow path- 
way for nearly 30 feet, at a distance of 8 to 10 feet from the ground, offering a secure seat to 
any who, like the lowly Zacchaeus, wish to have a view of all that pass that way. 

' In another we have a picture of the sea coast with the surf breaking on the shore. Just 
outside that surf, as we were coming up from Gaza, we observed a large shark moving about, 
and on going down to the beach at Askelon at sunrise to have a swim, I saw two sharks 
loitering about within a few yards, apparently waiting for me ; and not wishing to gratify their 
appetites, I dabbled in shallow water. These sharks are larger than any I have seen in these 
latitudes, and their appearance reminds us that this is the coast on which the prophet Jonah 
was disgorged by the great fish that had swallowed him up. A few miles further up the shore 
to the north is the Neby Yunas, the monument of Jonah's, which vies in tradition with another 
point near Saidon as his landing-place. The booths used in the gardens by the watchmen of 
the fruit trees also remind us of his history, for they are similar in construction to that gourd- 
covered booth he rested in outside of Nineveh.' 

' About Askelon there are the most delicious apples, which were just now ripe, fully equal 
in flavour to any I have tasted elsewhere, but, in keeping with so many of the Palestine 
fruits, they are sadly in want of proper treatment ; they have dwindled down to one-half the 
bulk of an ordinary English eating apple. Dr. Thomson speaks of these apples of Askelon, 
but Dr. Tristram ("The Land of Israel," p. 604) suggests that he mistook the quince for the 
apple, and doubts whether apples grow in Palestine at the present day. 

' Although so little remains of ancient Askelon in situ, coins and bronzes are constantly 
being turned up by the plough and by the crumbling of earth during the heavy rains ; at this 
time agents come down from Jerusalem and buy up all that they can lay hands on, and sell 
at immense prices to pilgrims in the Holy City. I was able to secure on the spot some 
small bronzes of the Egyptian gods, Osiris and Isis, and also a very elegant mutilated figure 
of Hercules, and the remains of a fish god ; the greater portion, however, of the bronzes are 
distinctly Egyptian, and similar to those in the British Museum ; the coins found are 
generally Roman, or of the Crusaders, or Cufic' — 'Quarterly Statement,' 187 1, p. 89. 

M. Clermont Ganneau procured a small slab of marble found at Ascalon in which was a 
sculpture representing two doves, birds symbolical of the town. 

The question of the Main mas Ascalon was raised by the late Professor Pusey 
in the following letter published in the ' Quarterly Statement ' for 1874, pp. 30 — 32 : 

'November 28///, 1873. 

' I had, perhaps, better say what my ground is for thinking that the Ascalon of the 
Crusades cannot be the Philistine Ashkelon. 

' You have yourself, I see (" Dictionary of Bible," Jabneel), drawn attention to the 
Maiumas of Gaza and Ascalon and Jamnia. There were also two places called Azotus, 
one by the sea (see " Reland," p. 215). The three, then, Gaza, Jabneel, Ashdod, were 
inland ; and were, I suppose, like Athens, purposely so built for fear of pirates. Even Gaza, 
which was nearest, was (it appears from Soz. v. 3) distinct in boundary from Maiumas. 
They had fields {aypoi) belonging to each, having altars between them. 

' The probability, on the ground of its having a port, and from the three other cases, is 
that Ascalon itself was inland. Ascalon and its Maiumas must have been distinct cities, since 
the bishop of each signed a synodical letter inserted in the Acts of the Council of Con- 



244 THE SURVEY OF IVESTERN PALESTINE. 

stantinople, a.d. 536, as also the Bishop of Gaza and Maiumas Gazje. (It is in col. 1163, 
1164 of the "Cone. T. v." ed. Colet.) But it is so well known a rule that there cannot be 
two bishops of one tovm, that when Julian had annexed the Maiumas Gazae to Gaza, the 
Bishop of Gaza on a subsequent vacancy in the episcopate of the Maiumas claimed that its 
clergy should on this ground be subject to him, though it was locally distinct. The pro- 
vincial council refused it, because the civil privileges had been taken away from Maiumas 
Gazae by a heathen prince, on account of its Christianity. But, according to all descriptions, 
Ascalon has too little depth from the sea to have ever contained two towns, and its outside 
boundary is very marked, being built along a natural ridge, in the shape of a bow, the cord, 
as William of Tyre describes it, being towards the sea. 

' 2. Benjamin of Tudela, who must have been on the spot, says that " Ashkelona is new 
Ashkelon, which Ezra the priest built on the seashore, and at first they called it Benibra, 
and it is four parasangs distant from the former Ashkelon, which is desert." His account 
was naturally the tradition of the Jews whom he found there. Benjamin of Tudela's pro- 
nunciation of the modern town is Ashkelonah (as in the time of the Crusades it is Askelona), 
whereas, in his explanation, he speaks of " new Ashkelon," " the old Ashkelon " keeping the 
Biblical termination. His account is too concise for him to give an explanation, but Benibra 
is doubtless a Greek corruption for Bethnimrah (as Bethnabris in Eusebius is for the Beth- 
nimrah, or later Bethnimrim, of Gad), and the sweetness of its waters (the aqiim potahiles 
within it) is noted by successive writers, I suppose because, so near the sea, they might be 
expected to be brackish. I think that the tradition in his time, that there was an Ashkelon 
which lay waste, is remarkable, though the Jews, his informants, might be inaccurate as to its 
distance, as they were not much concerned about the site of a desert place. 

' I myself think it most probable that the Askalon which Herod beautified was the present 
Askalon ; and that it, the Maiumas Ascalonis, being the more considerable, obtained the 
name of Ascalon, as Windsor and Sarum must, I suppose, have been originally New \\'indsor. 
New Sarum, and yet in early times have been called absolutely Windsor, Sarum ; and what is 
now called Shoreham was, in my memory, still New Shoreham. There must have been 
great accumulations of sand, which may have buried the old Ascalon, since the sands are 
only held back by the walls, with which they seem to be almost level, from burying the 
new Ascalon. 

' Looking at Porter's map, there is apparently a plain "enclosed in a sort of triangle 
between the roads from Burbareh to el Mijdel and that which turns off to Askulan. The 
places which he mentions (p. 268) are not marked in the map. " One mile from Burbareh 
is Jiyeh ; half an hour beyond it is Beitimah," which must have been, I suppose, where the 
two roads part. For Porter says, " Our path turns to the north-west, along the border of the 
sandhills. In twenty-five minutes we come to Nalieh, a poor village on the east side of a 
lo7v narrow plain, which appears to be sometimes flooded in the winter. A ride of ten 
minutes across the plain, and twenty minutes more over the broad ridge of sand, brings us to 
the gate of Ascalon." 

' I. But the Jews (" Josephus," B. J. 3, 2) were assaulting Ascalon. If, then, that Ascalon 
were the present Ascalon (which I am inclined to think), where is "//w whole plain," which 
was " broad, and the whole of it suited for the action of cavalry " (crai' /vTTa3;,«,o>), over which 
the flying Jews were scattered and 10,000 killed ? 

' 2. What is the depth of Ascalon ? Is it so built that there could be two distinct cities 
within its present walls, so that one should bo an inland city, the other its port ? In a 



[SHEET XIX.] ARCHEOLOGY. 245 

description which I have seen, there is mention of a creek running up into the present city^ 
though the harbour was purposely destroyed by Sultan Bibars, in order to preclude any 
renewed landing of Crusaders there.' 

These remarks were answered as follows by Captain Conder : 

' In the January number of the "Quarterly Statement" for 1S74, subscribers will remember 
a letter from Professor Pusey, to which my attention was specially called by the Committee, 
in which the identity of the Ascalon of Herod and of the Crusades with the Ashkelon of 
Scripture is disputed. The arguments in favour of this view are both drawn from medieval 
sources, the first being the fact that in 536 a.d. a synodical letter was signed both by the 
Bishop of Ashkelon and by the Bishop of Maiumas Ascalon, from which it is evident that 
the two wer.e distinct towns ; the second passage is to be found in Benjamin of Tudela, who 
distinctly states that there was another Ascalon four parasangs from the sea-side town, and 
traditionally the more ancient, the Ascalon of his time having been built, he informs us, by 
Ezra. This other Ascalon was at that time (i 163 a.d.) in ruins. The value of the tradi- 
tional information here given is, however, very slight, as Benjamin of Tudela gives identifica- 
tions of the most extraordinary character throughout his narrative. The passage is of value 
as corroborating the former in the statement that there were two Ascalons, but the distance 
cannot be relied on ; for whilst the distances of places through which Rabbi Benjamin passed 
are generally pretty correct, those of places he did not visit are often very much in error. 
The distances from Ashkelon to Ashdod he makes two parasangs, which would give 5 miles 
for the parasang, and 20 miles as the distance between the two Ascalons. 

' It appears, then, that as far as positive evidence goes, the argument only tends to show 
that there were two medieval Ascalons. AVhich of these was the Ashkelon of Herod or of 
Scripture is a separate question. The mediaeval Ascalons bolh exist still, as we have been the 
first, I believe, to discover. 

' We were considerably surprised to find, when working north of Beit Jibrin, that an 
Ascalon (Khiirbet 'Askaldn) existed in the hills near Tell Zakariyeh. At first I thought a 
false name had been purposely given us, but as I obtained it twice myself, and Corporal 
Brophy three times, from different witnesses, there is no doubt that it is a well-known site. 
The termination of the word differs from the name of the sea-side town, which is pronounced 
'A s k al a n. The site shows remains of an early Christian church or convent, and a great 
lintel of stone, with a deeply cut cross in the centre, resembling somewhat the Maltese cross, 
lies on the ground. Such lintels are to be found in all that class of ruins which date from 
about the fifth to the seventh centurj'. The distance from the shore is about 23 miles, which 
would agree with the four parasangs as deduced from the distance to Ashdod, but I am not 
able to find the length of the parasang given in any book we have here. 

' Thus we have a simple explanation of the two medieval quotations. 'Askaldn we should 
judge to have been an inhabited site in the sixth century, but in all probability fallen into 
ruins by the twelfth. 

' We may now turn to the questions of the ancient site of Askelon. That it should be 
placed at the Christian ruin in the hills is of course impossible ; and our information, though 
very slight, and restricted to one passage in the Bible, and one in Josephus, seems to me, 
nevertheless, to point to the Philistine Ashkelon being identical with the medieval Ascalon. 
The only passage in the Bible of topographical value as concerns Ashkelon is that in 
Jeremiah xlvii. 7, where the prophet speaks of " Ashkelon and the sea-coast," leading one to 



246 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

suppose that the medieval Ascalon, or Maiumas Ascalon (Ascalon by the sea), is intended. 
In the absence of any contradictory statement, it seems to me also safe to assume that the 
Ascalon of the later Jewish times was that beautified by Herod ; and it can be proved, I 
think, that Herod's Ascalon was both that of the Bible and that of the Crusaders, for, in the 
first place, Josephus distinctly states that the Ascalon where the Jews attacked Antonius 
(Book iii. ii. i) was " ff« ancient c//)' that is distant from Jerusalem 520 furlongs." This 
would be about 65 Roman miles. The present Ascalon is only about 50 Roman miles by 
road from Jerusalem, so that it cannot well be taken to mean any inland town. In the 
second place, the Ascalon of Herod and Richard are probably the same, for we learn that 
"for those of Ascalon he built baths and costly fountains, as also cloisters round a court^ 
that were admirable both for their workmanship and largeness" (B.J. i. 21, 11). In the 
Itinerary of Richard I., we find it mentioned that the builders erected their towers upon 
ancient foundations, and we find that all along its huge walls great columns of syenite, 
15 to 20 feet long and 3 feet diameter, have been built into the masonry as thorough-bonds. 
Such was indeed the constant practice of the Crusaders in any place where ancient pillars were 
to be found, but in such sites as 'Athlit they do not occur ; and as the syenite must have 
been brought by sea from Egypt, we cannot suppose the Crusaders to have first brought 
these pillars to Ascalon, but must regard them as the remains of Herod's cloisters utilized by 
those practical masons to whose indifference to archceology we owe the loss of many an 
interesting monument. 

' The outcome of this inquiry is, therefore, that the Ashkelon of the Bible, and of Herod, 
and of the Crusaders, are all one town on the seashore, distinguished from another early 
Christian inland Ascalon by the title Ascalon Maiumas., 

' This title may, I believe, be best rendered by our English " watering-place," and, like it, 
does not apparently apply to a port or harbour only, for the fine springs north of C^sarea, 
with remains of a temple and theatre, and of a great aqueduct to the city, still retain the 
name of Miamas, which is no doubt the representative of an ancient Maiumas, ox place of 
water. 

' Ascalon not only has not, but it may be safely said never could have had, a real port. A 
straight coast-line of cliffs, from 20 to 70 feet high, exists on its sea side, and a strong sea 
wall was built by the Crusaders against these. The port destroyed by Sultan Bibars must 
have been an artificial Crusading harbour, of which there are still remains, for a jetty of 
pillars placed side by side, as at Cffisarea, seems to have run out beneath the sea-gate on the 
south, a few of those nearest the shore still remaining in place. That it possessed no natural 
harbour in the middle ages is evident from the following passage, which I quote at length, as 
clearly showing that the Maiumas Ascalon of Christian times could not have applied to any 
properly so-called /w^.-^ 

' " The city of Ascalon lies on the coast of the Grecian Sea, and if it had a good harbour, 
could hardly find an equal for its situation and the fertility of the adjoining country. It has, 
indeed, a port, but one so difficult of access, owing to the stormy weather in which the army 
reached it (January, 1192), that for eight days no vessel could enter it. . . . At last, when the 
weather became more favourable, some ships entered the harbour with provisions ; but the 
storm returned, and the army began again to be in want." 

'At the present time a small brig is lying off the coast taking in a cargo, but it is unsafe 
for ships to ajjproach loo near, and the wreck of one vessel lies on the sand a little north of 
the ruins. It is evidciit that tlie harbour cannot have been much better in Crusading times, 



[SHEET XIX.] ARCHEOLOGY. 247 

when English sailors were unable to bring food to the starving army. It is true that the 
sand has covered a groat deal of the ruins, but the existence of a creek is rendered, I think, 
impossible by the unbroken line of cliff, at the foot of which low reefs run out into 
the sea. 

' Next to the question of the Maiumas comes that of the sacred lake of Derceto, but of 
this we could find no traces, unless the name of the modern village north of the ruins el Jura, 
" the hollow " — generally applied to an artificial reservoir or pond — be supposed to preserve 
a tradition of the site. The village itself stands pretty high, but there is a low tract full 
of beautiful gardens between the ruins and the houses.' — 'Quarterly Statement,' 1S75, 
pp. 152—155- 

Ascalon has also been visited and described by Tobler, Dr. Porter, Barclay (" City of the 
Great King "), Herr Schick, and Herr Guthe. The last writer, in a description of the place 
(published in the ' Zeitschrift ' of the German Palestine Exploration Association), thus speaks 
of the western wall and the bay : 

'The western wall, the "string of the bow," follows the line of rocks exacdy, and is 
therefore indented with little bays. It is about 1,200 feet long; at its opposite ends, i.e., at 
the south-west and nortli-wcst corners of the town, there are extensive ruins of fortifications 
that were undoubtedly intended for the protection of the coast. The " sea-gate " or "porta 
maris" mentioned by ^Villiam of Tyre, is nearly in the middle of the western wall. The 
ground reaches its lowest point near the south-western corner. At this place a little bay 
stretches into the city ; it somewhat resembles a moderate-sized basin. In spite of the 
drifting sand, the ground here is even now but little higher than the level of the sea. This 
bay in old times was most assuredly a dock or harbour within the walls ; the fortifications on 
either side of it were particularly strong. A great number of solid columns of grey granite 
were laid like beams across the thickness of the fortifications ; when the walls fell into ruins, 
many of them tumbled upon the beach, where they now lie, and are washed by the waves of 
the sea ; the rest are buried under the debris of the masonry. This use of the columns is not 
only to be seen near the harbour, but also in other parts of the fortifications of Ascalon. 
Guerin says that those built in columns seemed from a distance like loopholes with the 
muzzles of the cannon peeping out. Of course the columns originally belonged to the grand 
halls and temples of ancient Ascalon. The Saracens first, and then the Crusaders, used the 
pillars and stones of the old buildings for the defence of the city without a thought about 
their historical or artistic value, a state of affairs that Guerin remarked had also obtained at 
Ceesarea. From this we perceive that the ruins of the walls of Ascalon which now exist are 
the remains of the fortifications built by the Saracens and Crusaders.' 

Beit H anun (D v). 

Among the gardens of this village Gue'rin observed indications of ancient constructions in 
the shape of cut stones, fragments of columns, and bases. 



Deir el Belah (B x). — The mosque in the village is called 
J ami a el KhCidr, and stands, traditionally, on the site of a large 
monastery. The building was entered from a courtyard on the 
south. It proved to be a Christian chapel, 5 paces north and south 



248 



THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 




by II paces east and west, on a line 112° west. On the north, 
and on the south wall is a buttress. On the east are three apses, 
the side ones being mere niches. One of the steps from the 

door in the south wall has on it re- 
mains of a Greek inscription. On the 
floor of the chapel is a slab, now 
broken. It appears to have been a 
tombstone, 6 feet long by 2 feet 6 Inches 
high, having on it two Maltese crosses, 
each with the letters A and Q. 
In the wall of the court pillar- shafts of marble, and a bit of well- 
moulded cornice have been built in. There are also two Greek inscrip- 
tions, one on the floor of the chapel near the east 
end, one on a slab now used on a well in the court- 
yard ; this second has a hole cut through the slab, 
10 inches diameter, obliterating part of the inscrip- 
tion. There is a modern masonry cenotaph, placed 
north and south, in the middle of the chapel, said to be the tomb of 
Mar Jirjis or el Khiidr, both names for St. 
George. 

No. I, on the interior, reads as below, the slab 
being 25 inches by 18 inches. The letters are i\ 





(iTKjItiCNTttTovKv, 



inches high, the three lines 9 inches high. 
The second slab measures 31 inches by 18. The letters are the same 
size as on the first. 

In the village there are pillar-shafts of white marble 
built up into walls, or lying about. One of them has a 
twisted form, like some of the mediaeval pillars in the 
Haram at Jerusalem. 

Visited 28th April, 1875. 

Ghilizzeh (D w). — The principal archaeological points of interest 
are the J d m i a el K e b i r, Bab e d D i r u n, and M e i d a n 
e z Z e i d. Green mounds extend round the houses on the hill, and 
seem to indicate the ruins of former fortifications. These show probably 
the site of the walls of Crusading Gaza. 



[SHEET X/X.] 



ARCHEOLOGY. 



249 



The mosque is a church to which an extra aisle has been added by 
the Moslems on the south. The whole of the building in its original 
form seems attributable to the twelfth century. Only four bays are now 
to be seen, the apses having been destroyed or hidden behind a modern 
wall, on which stands the minaret. (See Palestine Exploration Fund 
Photographs Nos. 38 and 39, Lieutenant Kitchener's series.) The total 
length was 108 feet 6 inches to the modern east wall, internal measure. 
The nave is 21 feet 6 inches wide in the clear, the aisles 13 feet. The 
true bearing of the length is 109°. The south wall has been destroyed, 
and rude piers built instead ; while south of them is a modern wall, which 
is not parallel to the axis of the building. 

The style of architecture is severe, and the ornamentation very plain. 
The piers are 5 feet 6 inches by 6 feet 6 inches, with four attached 
semi-columns (i foot 6 inches diameter) to each pier. The nave has a 
clerestory, and a second order of pillars stand on the cornice, which runs 
round the piers above the capitals of the lower order of jjillars. The 




Modern BaUciuLU 
Feel fo 5y j^ ?u jJ ao so 6o 70 ao /■eet> 



details of cornice and capitals are seen in the photograph. These upper 
pillars are almost of equal diameter with the lower, and have a heavy 
appearance. All the pillars and cornices are well cut in hard dark grey 
marble, and the diagonal dressing is marked on the base blocks. The 
spaces of the various bays are irregular, the span varying about a foot. 

The roof is entire with groined vaulting. The windows and arches 
have a point, but are broad in proportion to the rise of the arch. On one 
of the upper order of pillars on the south side of the nave on the pier 
nearest the east end of the church is a curious design, representing the 
seven-branched candlestick inside a wreath, with a winged tablet beneath 
having on it a Greek inscription, not legible from the ground, but copied 
by M. Ganneau. 

VOL. III. 7,2 



250 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

The west door of this church is a beautiful specimen of the Itahan 
Gothic of the twelfth century churches in Palestine, with delicate-clustered 
shafts and pillars, with deeply undercut lily-leaves to the capital. (See 
Photograph No. 38, as above.) The Mihrab is at the east end of the 
modern additional aisle, but so skewed as to point towards Mecca. 

This church was dedicated to St. John the Baptist. Over the door 
of the court of the mosque is an inscription, including the name of 
K a 1 a w u n, and the date 707 a. 11. 

Over the small Mihrab on the interior is a later inscription, with the 
name of Musa Pasha, and the date of the month Rejeb, with the year 
1074 A.ll. 

The Greek Church in Gaza has in the interior two Byzantine 
columns, which appear to be old. The K h u r i said it was fourteen 
centuries old, and built by a Byzantine emperor. Ancient registers 
belonging to this church are said to exist in Jerusalem, and one 1,000 
years old in the church itself. 

The tomb of Samson ('Aly Merwan) was visited, but the building 
and masonry cenotaph within appear to be modern. 

At the Bab ed Darun, near the quarantine, is a Moslem grave- 
yard, with seven marble shafts of pillars. One of these has an Arabic 
inscription on it 700 years old. Others have been cut flat on one side, 
and inscriptions put on them. The ancient city is said by the natives to 
have extended even further, and to have included 'Aly el M u n t a r. 

The M e i d a n e z Z e i d is a flat plot of ground, the angles of which 
are marked by four pillar-shafts. These marked out a race-course made 
by the Saracens some 700 years ago; two of the shafts are 1,000 Baa, 
or 2,000 yards, apart east and west. One of these pillars, that at the 
south-west corner, is inscribed. The pillar is of grey granite, [8 inches 
diameter ; the inscription is as below : — 

AOMECTIKO(C) 
YHEP AOME 
CTIKOY Y 
lOY ANE GH 
KEM E 

' Domesticus over the son of Domesticus placed - - - ' 



[SHEET XIX.] ARCHEOLOGY. 251 

The height of the Inscription is 20 inches, the breadth on the circum- 
ference of the pillar is 1 7 inches. This also appears to be a mortuary 
inscription. It is deeply but rudely cut, and evidently refers to a previous 
use of the pillar, probably as a grave headstone. 

Church planned, 20th April, 1875. 

The building of the first church nt Gaza, about the year 402, is related by Marcus 
Diaconus : 

' There were in Gaza eight public temples of idols, namely, those of the Sun, Venus, 
Apollo, Proserpina, Hecate, that called the Hiereion (lii^-hv). Fortune, called Tycheon 
{T\j'/iTo\,), and Marnas, dedicated to the Cretan Jupiter, beUeved by the people to be more 
glorious than any other temple in the world.' 

By the influence of Eudoxia, wife of the Emperor Arcadius, Porphyry obtained an edict 
authorising the destruction of all the temples and the building of a church on the site of the 
god Mamas. This was dedicated on Easter Day, a.d. 406. It was in the form of a cross ; 
as the present church is in the form of a rectangle, it cannot be the first church. 

Herbieh (E v). — Foundations of the walls of a small tower of 
masonry, with a circular masonry well. 

J ebal i a (D w). 

In the mosque Gue'rin saw fragments of old constructions, and at the well some broken 
columns. 

El K i s h a n y (C w). — The gardens are surrounded by a bank, 
and there are several wells. It seems probable that ruins of a walled 
town may here be covered by the sand. INIarble slabs and other fragments 
are dug up here by the peasantry. 

Khurbet el 'Adar (C x). — Ruined rubble cisterns and traces 
of a town. There are immense piles of broken pottery forming mounds 
at the site. (Compare Khurbet el Jerrar, Sheet XXIII.) 

Khurbet Amaris. 
A ruin of this name was found by Guerin on the seashore north of Wady el Hes)'. 
It stands on a hillock. Fragments of pottery were found, but the ruins are inconsider- 
able. 

K h li r b e t el B i r (D w). — A few stones and several ruined 
rubble cisterns. 

Khiirbet el Burjaliyeh (C x). — Traces of a' former village, 
ruined rubble cisterns, and heaps of pottery. 

32—2 



252 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

K h li r b e t el H a w a d y (D w). — Resembles the last. 

K h li r b e t I n s e i r a t (C x). — Resembles the last. 

K h li r b e t el K h e s a s (E u). — A few heaps of stones with a 
well near. 

K h u r b e t K u f I e h (D w). — A few heaps of stones, and several 
ruined rubble cisterns. 

Khiirbet M ansa rah (D x). — Resembles the last. 

Khiirbet el Meshrefeh (D x). — Resembles the last. 

K h li r b e t en N a m u s (D w). — Resembles the last. 

Khiirbet er Reseim (E w). — Resembles the last. 

Khi'irbet esh Sheluf (C w). — Resembles the last. 

Khurbet esh Sheraf (D v). — The site is entirely covered 
with sand, and only marked by a few trees. 

Khurbet S i h a n (D x). — Traces of ruins and ruined rubble 
cisterns. 

Khiirbet es Sireh (C x). — Resembles the last. 

Khfirbet umm esh Shukoff. 

A ruin bearing tliis name was found by Guerin on the seashore, south of the mouth of 
the Wady el Hesy. It seems to have been a place of no importance. It is not on the map. 

Mesh-hed Sidna el Husein (E u). — A ruined tower of 
small masonry, apparently an outwork of Ascalon. Part only is standing, 
and part of the foundations are covered with sand. 

Eu Nazleh (D w). 

'At the well several ancient columns in granite or of grey marble lying horizontally 
form troughs by the help of rude masonry. Another broken column supports an enormous 
acacia mimosa, which is falling with age.' — Guerin, ' Judca,' ii. 177. 

Resm el 'Atawineh (Ex). — Traces of a former site; ruined 
rubble cisterns. 

Resm el Gharby (Ex). — Like the last. 

Resm esh Sherky (E x). — Like the last. 

Sheikh N e b h a n (C x). — There seems to have been a church 



[SHEET A'/.V.] ARCH.EOLOGY. 253 

here, afterwards converted into a mosque, and rebuilt partly with mud. 
The courtyard is 22 paces east and west, with a Mihrab on the south wall 
Hanked by two pillars 9 inches diameter, with capitals like those of the 
west door of the Church of St. John Baptist in Gaza (lily-leaved and much 
under-cut. The capitals are 15 inches high, and measure 17 inches across 
the abacus. On either side of these, along the south wall, and 8 paces 
apart, are two bases, 13 inches high, belonging to pillars 13^ inches in 
diameter. They seem to be in situ in a line 100° west, and resemble the 
bases at the Gaza church door. The courtyard is well paved with flags 
of hard marbly limestone. There is another base opposite the western 
of the two above mentioned, 7 paces north of it. This seems to suggest a 
nave 18 feet wide, with bays of 20 feet (or 10 feet). In the north-east 
and north-west corners of the courtyard are two chambers, each containing 
a Moslem cenotaph. 

Visited 28th April, 1875. 

Sheikh Rashed (C x). — A rude tomb on a sandy hillock. A 
piece of marble 18 inches long lies beside it, inscribed as below : 

For character compare the inscription at Kuryet Saideh, Sheet 
XVII. It is evidently Christian, and probably medieval. 

Tell el A h m a r (D x) appears to be a natural mound. 

Tell el 'Ajjul (C w).— A large natural mound with the slopes 
artificially scarped. There are several artificial caves or tombs round it, 
especially on the south-west. A fine marble statue of Jupiter was dis- 
covered at this site in 1880 by the peasantry, and is now in the INIuseum 
at Constantinople. It seems to represent the IMarna (' Our Lord '), or 
chief deity of Gaza. 

This place has been suggested as the site of the ancient Anthecdon. Guerin examined 
the hill and several wells near it, but could find no trace of any considerable buildings. Tell 
Ajjul is mentioned by several Arab historians. Saladin collected his troops here. Melek 
Adel, his brother, encamped here. Melek Kamel, in his march upon Damascus (a.h. 625), 
encamped here. 



254 



THE SUR VE y OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 



<r-'^'^ 



Captain Conder thus describes the statue which he saw In the 

Museum of Constantinople : 

'This great statue was discovered, in 1880, by the natives at Tell el 'Ajjul, south of Gaza, 

and we owe its preservation to the exertions of the Rev. W. Shapira, the missionary. The 

Arabs had at once commenced to break up the statue, and had succeeded in greatly 

damaging the face. Mr. Shapira persuaded the Governor to set a guard over the place, and 

the antiquarians of Palestine owe him a debt of gratitude for having prevented the entire 

destruction of this unique monument. A paper descriptive of the 

statue will be found in the " Quarterly Statement," with the 

measurement of its principal proportions. I now send a copy of 

the sketch which I have just made from the original in the porch 

of the Museum. The suggestion which I ventured to make at 

the time seems to me to be fully borne out, and there can, I 

imagine, be little doubt that the figure is intended for a Jupiter. 

The principal deity of Gaza was called Marna (i.e., wio " our 

Lord"), and was worshipped as late as the fifth century a.d. 

(Epiphanius Adv. Hoeret). He was a deity who controlled the 

rain, and his temple was destroyed by St. Porphyrins (Acta Sanct.). 

According to Lenormant, he was a god similar to the Cretan Jupiter 

and the Phoenician Eshmun — the chief among a group of seven 

or eight deities (" Lettres Assyriologiques," Vol. II., Letter V., 

p. 165, scq.\ These seven Cabiri or "great ones " appear to have 

all had temples in Gaza. That of Marna, destroyed by the 

Christians, was round, with two outer porches or circles— a kind 

of Druidical circle, perhaps. His other titles were "The Living," 

"The Eternal," "The Universal," "The Everlasting." It seems 

probable that the statue at Constantinople may be that of the 

Jupiter Marna of Gaza. The nose and face have been damaged, 

but the arrangement of the hair reminds one of the classic Jupiter. 

The right arm is broken above the elbow, the left appears to have been sawn off. The figure 

was seated on a bench, but the legs have also apparently been sawn off in front. These 

mutilations had been, I believe, effected before the statue was discovered, and it seemed to 

me possible that the pious pagans may have buried their Jupiter to save him from the 

Christians, and may have been obliged to divide it for facility of transport. Excavations 

should certainly be made at Tell el 'Ajjul, as the rest of the statue may yet remain buried, as 

well as the Venus of Tetramphodos, a place apparently in Gaza itself A curious tradition of 

buried treasure, and of a phantom calf which guards it, exists at Tell el 'Ajjul (" The Calf's 

Mound "), and it is perhaps possible that a temple stood on the hillock.' — ' Quarterly 

Statement,' 18S2, pp. 147, 148. 




Tell N u j e i d (C w) 
pottery and marble. 



. — A mound apparently natural, with scattered 



SHEET XIX.— SECTION C. 

'Aly el M Lin tar is the traditional Christian site of the hill to 
which Samson carried the srates of Gaza. An annual Moslem feast is 
held in April at this shrine. 'A 1 y INI e r w a n is the traditional ' tomb 
of Samson' shown since the Middle Ao-es at Gaza. It is now a Moslem 
sanctuary, with a cenotaph in a modern building. The name (' 'Aly the 
Imprisoned') seems to refer to the imprisonment of Samson in Gaza. 

The olives of Gaza are traditionally said to have been planted by 
Alexander the Great, and it is stated that not a single tree of them has 
been planted since the Moslem Conquest. 

At Ascalon there is a tradition of a tomb found in the cemetery near 
Sheikh Muhammed el Miisli, immediately outside the walls on 
the east. An embalmed corpse was found there some thirty years ago, 
with a sword and ring. The persons who opened the tomb died soon 
after, and the tomb is now held sacred by the peasantry. 

Tell el 'A j j u 1 is said to be named from the appearance of a phantom 
calf on the mound, indicating the existence of hidden treasure, which will 
become the property of anyone who can catch the calf. The superstition 
is probably connected with the burying of the great statue here discovered 
in iSSo, and it is possible that other statues may remain buried here. 



SHEET XX.— SECTION A. 

Orography. — The Sheet includes 3727 square miles of the plain of 
Philistia, and of the low hills which bound it on the east. It is divided 
in the middle by the great valley called Wady el Hesy, which is 
formed by the junction of two branches — Wddy Kaneiterah, rising 
near the village of e d Dawaimeh, and Wady Muleihah, which 
runs north to the junction at Tell el Hesy. 

North of this boundary-valley, the plain is tilled by the inhabitants of 
the villages ; south of it the country is uncultivated, and affords pasture 
to the Arabs. The hills .are cultivated to about the same latitude. 

The average level of the plain is about 150 to 300 feet above the sea, 
with a gradual slope down westwards. The eastern hills fall gradually 
towards the plain, being spurs from the Shephelah range. (Sheet XXI.) 

The hills are covered with scrub, with a few olives round the villages. 
Fine olive-groves exist to the west of the plain near the sand-hills. 
(Sheet XIX.) The plain is cultivated with corn ; and where there is 
water, with vegetables. 

HYDROGRAriiY. — There is but little water in the plain or in the hills. 
Beit Jibrin is supplied by wells, as are the villages near it. Those 
in the plain depend on cisterns and ponds. There is a brackish supply 
of water in Wady el Hesy for about 6 miles, the principal springs 
being 'A y u n K li s s a b a h, and ' A y u n el Hesy; but the water 
is brackish at times. The supply is, however, good and perennial. 
'A i n e s S i d d is a brackish perennial spring. 'A in el Kaneiterah 
is also perennial. 

TopOGRAniv. — There are twenty-five inhabited villages on this Sheet, 
which belong to Government districts as noticed below. 



[SHEET XX.] TOPOGRAPHY. ^57 

I. — Jebel Khulil. 

I.Beit J i b r i n (I v). — A large village of mud and stone, situate 
in a sheltered position on the east slope of the valley. It is surrounded 
by low hills on every side, with low open ground on the north and west, 
where the valley, running south-west, forms a basin with low hills beyond 
it on the west. Thus the village cannot be seen from a distance in any 
direction, and is not in a naturally strong position. 

The water-supply of the place is from ancient spring wells, of which 
there are four, Bir Umm Judeia, to the south, being the most 
plentiful. Fine olive-groves extend along the valley to the north. The 
population is stated at 900 to 1,000 souls, being all Moslem. 

The principal peculiarity of the place is the number of large caverns 
which exist round it. (See Section B.) 

Beit J i b r i n is mentioned in the Talmud under the name Beth 
Gubrin. (INIidrash Bereshith Rabba, chap, vi.) In the Peutinger 
Tables {393 A.D.), the place is called Beto Gabra, and shown as 16 Roman 
miles from Ascalon. The true distance is 20 English miles. In Crusading 
times the place is mentioned under the name Gibelin (William of Tyre), 
and was fortified by King Fulke of Anjou in 1134 a.d. It is possibly 
the Begabris of Josephus, according to the reading of Rufinus. (B. J. 
iv. 8, I.) In 132 1 A.u, Marino Sanuto speaks of Gybelyn as being the 
same as Bersabe or Beersheba. 

The distances to surrounding villages fix Beit j i b r 1 n as the site 
of the ancient Eleutheropolis. {e.o. I d h n a h, Beit N u s i b, and 
AduUam, Sheet XXL, and S o c o h. Surah, and Y e r m u k. Sheet 
XVII.) In the Talmud Eleutheropolis is mentioned (Bereshith 
Rabba, chap, xlii.) as inhabited by the Horites, or cave-dwellers ; and 
Jerome (Comm. in Obadiam, ch. v.) also speaks of it as originally 
inhabited by the Horites. This may have some connection with the 
great caverns at the place; but Jerome translates Horra;i to mean 
'liberi,' thus connecting the word with the Greek Eleutheropolis. The 
Talmudists translate Seir (Gen. xxxiii.) by Beth Gubrin, Seir being 
the habitation of the Horites. This seems to connect Beth Gubrin 
with Eleutheropolis. 

VOL. III. 33 



258 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

The majority of the houses are mere mud-huts ; but the Sheikh's 
house in the centre is of stone with two stories. For the antiquities 
see Section B. 

The church of St. Anne seems connected with the tradition 
mentioned by Geoffry de Vinsauf, that St. Anne was born near Gibelin 
(Beit J ibr in). 

2. Ed Dawaimeh (I w). — A good-sized village on a high and 
very rocky ridge, with a well to the south-west. There is a higher ridge 
to the west, on which stands the conspicuous building sacred to Sheikh 
'Aly, with a white dome. The village commands a view to the east, 
but the plain on the west is not seen. There are olives beneath it on the 
west. 

3. Deir Nakhkhas (I v). — A very small village perched on a 
high, steep hill, looking down on the valley to the north. This is possibly 
Ir-Nahash (i Chronicles iv. 12). 

4. Dhikerin (H u). — A village of stone, standing high, sur- 
rounded by gardens, and remarkable for the numerous wells below it. 
The place has an appearance of antiquity. It may probably be the 
Caphar Dikcrin of the Talmud (Tal. Bab. Gittin, 57 a. See Rel. Pal., 
p. 686), which was in Daroma. (See Sheet XVI., Section A.) 

5. El Kubeibeh (esh Sherkiyeh) (H v). — A large mud 
villao-e, with a well to the north-west. It stands on the rolling hills near 
the plain. The ground round it is barren and stony. This is not impos- 
sibly the Cabbon of Joshua (xv. 40). 

6. Kudna (I u). — A small village on a low hill, with olives round 
it, supplied by cisterns. The walls of a castle rise in the middle of the 
place. (See Section B.) 

Rana (11 u).— See Sheet XVI. 

7. Zeita (H u). — A little hamlet of mud in a valley, with low hills 
on either side. There is a well to the north. 



{SHEET .V.V.] TOPOGRAPHY. 259 

II. — Kada Ghuzzeh. 

1. Beit Jerjah (E v). — A small mud village with gardens in the 
plain. It is supplied by cisterns and a pond. 

2. B u r b e r a h (E v). — A good-sized village, surrounded by gardens 
with two ponds, and olives to the east. The sand encroaching from the 
coast has been stopped by the cactus hedges of the gardens. 

3. Nalia (D u). — Resembles the last. A very extensive olive- 
grove extends thence to Mejdel. (Sheet XVI.) On the south is a 
conspicuous white jMukam. 

III. — Nahiet el Mejdel. 

1. 'A r a k el M e n s h i y e h (G v). — A mud village on a flat plain, 
surrounded with arable land, and supplied by three wells. It is of 
moderate size, with two sacred places. The curious mound north of it is 
a remarkable feature in the landscape, 250 feet high, and consisting of 
natural rock, but the sides scarped and appearing to have been artificially 
made steeper. On the top is a sacred Mukam, with a few hedges of 
prickly pear. This site is evidently ancient and important, and seems 
possibly to represent the ancient Libnah (Joshua xv. 42). The hills near 
it are of very white chalk, and the name Libnah signified ' milk white.' 

2. 'Arak Suweidan (F u). — A moderate-sized mud village in 
the plain. 

3. Beit 'Affeh (F u). — Resembles the last, but is supplied by a 
well. 

4. Beit T i m a (F v). — A mud village of moderate size, with two 
pools and two sacred places. It stands on the slope of the flat, rolling- 
hilly ground, and has two small patches of garden near it. 

5. Bureir (F w). — A large mud village on flat ground, with a well 
with a Sakia, or water-wheel, to the east, and a pool to the north. To 
the south is a garden. 

6. Ejjeh (E u). — A moderate-sized mud \-illagc, with a pool to the 



26o THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

north. On the east is a Sebil, or drinking-fountain. Beside the road 
to the west are oHve-groves. 

7. El Falujeh (G v). — A moderate-sized mud village on flat 
ground, with a valley-bed running round three sides of it, a trench some 
5 or 8 feet deep. There are two wells to the east, and a patch of garden 
to the north. A pool also exists on the east. 

8. H a 1 1 e h (G u). — A similar village of mud, surrounded by gardens, 
in which are a few tamarisks. There are cactus-hedges round the gardens. 
The ground is flat. This village preserves the name of the Hittites. 

9. H u j (E w). — A small mud village on flat ground. It has a well 
some 200 feet deep. It is named from Neby Huj (Og). 

10. El Huleikat (F v). — A small village on a flat slope, with a 
high sandy hill to the west. It has cisterns and a pond, with a small 
garden to the west. 

11. I j s e i r (G u). — A mud village on flat ground. 

12. K auk a bah (F u). — A small mud village^ with a well to the 
west and a pool to the north. 

13. Keratiya (G u). — A good sized village in the open plain, 
built of mud, with wells. The ruined tower on a mound outside the 
village to the north is a conspicuous object in the landscape. (See 
Section C for a tradition of the Fenish or Philistines at this place.)* 

14. N ej ed (E v). — A small mud village with a well and pond. 

15. Simsim (E v). — A good sized village with well and pool, 
surrounded by gardens, and having a grove of olives to the north. 

Summeil is described on Sheet XVI., the village being on the 

Sheet line. 

The villages here described as of mud arc built of sun-dried bricks 
made froni the mud of the plain in their immediate vicinity. (See ' Tent 
Work in Palestine,' vol. ii. ch. ix. p. 238.) 

Several ruins on the Sheet may also be identified with ancient sites. 

* The name of this village is important. The Cherelhites (2 Samuel xv. 18) were 
Philistines, and it has been supposed that they were of Cretan stock ; but this idea is not 
only very doubtful philologically, but contradicts the derivation of the Philistines from Egypt 
(Genesis x. 13, 14). Probably Keratiya was the city of the Chcrethitcs.— C. R. C. 



[SHEET XX.] TOPOGRAPHY. 261 

Balah (Joshua xv. 29) was a town of Simeon (xix. 3), near Bethu 
(Beit Aula, Sheet XXI.). The word Baghlch is a natural corruption 
of the Hebrew, and the site of U m m Baghleh would seem to be in 
a suitable position. 

Beth B i r e i. — A town of Simeon (i Chron. iv. 31), is possibly the 
old ruined site of B i r e h on this Sheet. 

Eg Ion (Joshua xv. 39), in the plain of Judah, would appear to be 
the ruin of 'Ajlan. In the ' Onomasticon ' (s. v. Bethagla) this place 
is mentioned as a village (vicus) on the road to Gaza, 10 Roman miles 
from Eleutheropolis (Beit J i b r i n), but is not identified with Eglon, 
which was confused by Eusebius with Adullam. 'Ajlan is 10 English 
miles from Beit Jibrin (Eleutheropolis). 

E tam. — The town of this name in the territory of Simeon (i Chron. 
iv. 32) is distinct from Etam near Bethlehem ('A i n 'A t a n) and the 
Rock Etam (Beit 'Atab), for which see Sheet XVH., Section A. The 
present site is no doubt to be placed at the old ruin of 'Ait u n. 

Ether (Joshua xv. 42) might perhaps be placed at the ruin of e 1 
'A t r, near Beit Jibrin, the name being identical. 

Gath. — See Section B, p. 266. 

La c h i s h. — The site of this strong and important town is uncertain. 
In the ' Onomasticon ' it is placed 7 miles from Eleutheropolis towards 
Daroma ; but no important site occurs at this distance. Ten English 
miles from Beit Jibrin is the important site of Tell el H e s y, 
the name of which approaches that of Lachish, with the substitution of a 
guttural for the Hebrew Caf, as in the case of Michmash. (Sheet XVII.) 
This site was known in the Middle Ages as Alhassi (Bced. Vita Salad., 
p. 228.) The proximity of Eglon ('Aj Ian) and of the next site are in 
favour of the view. 

L a h m a m (Joshua xv. 40), in the same group with the last, may 
possibly be placed at Khiirbet el L ah m, which is close to Kubeibeh, 
possibly the Cabbon of the list immediately preceding this town. 

Libnah (Joshua xv. 42). — The site of this important town is un- 
known. It was situate in the Shephelah, or low hills, and is mentioned 
with places round Beit Jibrin. In the ' Onomasticon ' it is noticed as 



262 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

a village in the district of Eleutheropolis. 'Aral< el INIenshiyeh seems a 
suitable site (see p. 259). 

Mare shah (Joshua xv. 44), in the same group with the last, is 
mentioned in the ' Onomasticon ' as in the second Roman mile from 
Eleutheropolis. The ruin of Me rash is % of an English mile from 
Beit J i b r i n. The Valley of Zephathah (2 Chron. xiv. 10; Antiq. 
viii. 12, i) was near Mareshah. It is evidently Wady el Afranj, in which, 
not far from Merash on the north, is the ruin of Safieh. 

Shamir (Joshua xv. 48). — A town of Judah in the hills south of 
Hebron. The ruin of Somerah appears to be in a suitable position, 
being near Debir and Anab (Sheets XXIV. and XXV.), identified with 
edh Dhaheriyeh and 'Anab. 

Roads. — The roads in the plain are merely beaten tracks, showing no 
signs of antiquity. Several ancient roads run from Beit J i b r i n. 

1. To Jerusalem. — The road along the open valley is marked 
by seven fallen milestones (see K h u r b e t e s S u r a h) at about 3 
Roman miles from the neighbourhood of the Bab el Med inch, 
north of the village. 

2. To Tell es Safi and 'Am was. — The road crosses the low 
undulating hills, and descends to an open valley north of D h i k e r i n. 
This road is marked by a fallen milestone \\ English miles from Beit 
J ib r i n. 

3. T o Tell el H e s y and G a z a. — The road shows signs 
of antiquity as far as the edge of the hills, which are very low and 
rolling. 

4. T o Dawaimeh, on the straight line to Beersheba. — The road 
runs along a valley, and is marked by three fallen milestones about 
I Roman milt; from the village of Dawaimeh, and again at <: 1 
'A m d a n. 

5. T o A s c a 1 o n. — The road .shows marks of antiquity as far as the 
Sahel Burjaliyeh, a small plain into which it descends. The sid(! 
walls are slill visible along part of its course. 



{SHEET XX.\ CULTIVATION. 263 

The main-road to Egypt, along the course of which the telegraph 
runs, crosses the Sheet on the west, being only a beaten track on the 
sand. 

Cultivation. — The corn grown on the lower hills and In the plain is 
good. The olive groves near the coast are remarkably fine. The 
vegetable cultivation near the villages resembles that described on Sheet 
XVI. The country south of Wady Simsim is scarcely cultivated at all, 
being all pasture land. 



SHEET XX.— SECTION B. 

ARCH.EOLOGY. 

'A i t u n e t T a h t a (I w). — Foundations, caves, and cisterns. 

El 'Amdan (I v). — Ten or twelve pillar shafts like Roman mile- 
stones, some erect, some fallen. 

'Arak el Fenish (I v). — A cavern entered by a passage 
50 paces long and 3 to 6 paces broad, running west. The cave itself is 
14 paces diameter. On the wall is a Cufic inscription : 

'There is no God but God.' 

West of it the low hill is called B e s t a n el Fenish, ' the Philistines' 
Garden,' and has several rock-cut wine-presses, and another cavern with 
steps leading down. 

Remains of a small cemented masonry aqueduct, with seven ruined 
tombs at intervals, appear east of this for about li miles, terminating in 
the ' A r a k S h 6 b a k. 

'Arak el Kharab (H v). 

' The vast excavations known as 'Arak el Kharab are cut in a white limestone. They 
formerly consisted of a series of chambers or halls cut in the form of cupolas, and lit at the 
top by a circular opening, all disposed around a kind of great court. Some of these chambers 
are still intact, but the greater part are destroyed, either wholly or in part. Are they ancient 
quarries ? or are they subterranean dwelling-places excavated long ago by troglodytes ? . . '. 
They appear to me to have served both purposes. After having been used as quarries, they 
may have been inhabited by the Horites, who lived in caves. At the end of some of the 
galleries I found si'/os cut in the (r//a, where the Arabs store their grain.' — Guerin, ' Judea,' 
ii. 305- 

'Arak el Kheil (I v). — This is the most remarkable, though 
not the most extensive, of the caverns round B e i t J i b r i n. A passage 



[SHEET XX.] 



ARCH.EOLOGY. 



=6S 



leads into it, running south for 30 paces (75 feet), and is 10 to 12 paces 
wide. This passage has one door at the end, another on the right, and a 
third on the left. There is also a recess with an arched roof, near the 
entrance on the right, and another 4 paces (ro feet) square at the back 
on the left. 

The left-hand doorway leads to another passage, 3 paces wide, with 
an arched roof. This leads east for 25 paces (60 feet) into a large domed 
cavern some 30 feet high. It is of irregular shape, about 18 paces 
(45 feet) square. At the south end is a recess with an arched roof. 




BAS RELttr B 



BAS RELIEF A 



S paces (20 feet) wide, 15 paces {^y feet) long. This again has smaller 
recesses in the sides, one to the east measuring 6 paces by 8 paces. 

The doorway at the end of the main passage is broken, but was 
originally surmounted by a semicircular arch cut in rock, with a bold dog- 
tooth moulding for ornament, resembling the Crusading work in the 
Muristan (1130 — 1140 A.D.). The cavern beyond this door is large and 
irregular, divided into four roughly circular chambers, with domed roofs 
about 50 or 60 feet in diameter. Rough pillars of rock support the roof 
in places. The whole is cut in soft and very white chalk. 

The door to the right of the main passage leads into a passage much 
more carefully hewn than the rest of the cave. This tunnel is 50 feet 
VOL. III. 34 



266 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

long and 17 feet 10 inches wide, running in a direction 202^. The roof 
is a barrel vault neatly cut in rock. 

Beneath the arch a sculptured frieze in low relief runs along the north 
and south sides of the passage. The band of tracery is 2 feet high and 
6 feet from the floor. The pattern is different on the two walls. 
In the south wall a rude entrance is broken into the rougher part 
of the cavern ; in this side are also two niches 4^ feet wide and 
about 6 feet high. In the western niche there is a rude block of stone 
looking like an image, which has been purposely defaced. On the west 
the tunnel opens into a domed cavern some 50 feet diameter, which com- 
municates with the other domed compartments south-east of it. The 
tunnels are quite dark, but the domes have been excavated up to the 
surface of the hill, and the rock has been cut through so as to form sky- 
lights in the domes. The cave is used as a stable for goats, and the floor 
is covered with manure. 

Visited 17th March, 1875. 

'A r a k el M e n s h 1 y e h (G v). — The extraordinary mound in the 
plain north of the village, and 250 feet high, is not artificial, but a natural 
hillock of soft stone, the sides of which seem to have been artificially 
scarped. There is nothing on the top but a small modern Mukam 
and a few cactus hedges. 

Beit Emir (H w). — Foundations and heaps of stones. 

Beit Jibrin (I v). — The principal antiquities of the place are 
the great caverns surrounding the village, the fortifications, including the 
Kulah, the ancient tombs, and the mound of el Mekurkush. In 
the vicinity are the ancient Church of St. Anne, and the Tell near it. 
(See el K e n i s e h and Tell Sandahannah.) 

The Caverns. — There are about fourteen in all, including 'Arak 
Abu Mizbeleh, el Asalmeh, el Fenish, Ferhud, Hala, Heleil, el Kheil, 
el Ma, el MuktA, esh Sharah, esh Sheikh, esh Sherif, Shobak, ez Zagh. 

With the exception of those previously mentioned, a general description 
does for all these caverns. They consist of chambers rudely circular, and 
connected together (from 20 to 60 feet diameter, and 20 to 40 feet high), 
with domed roofs having openings to the surface of the rock above. 
Many of the domes have fallen in. The walls are roughly cut, but some- 



[SHEET XX.] ■ ARCHEOLOGY. 267 

times dressed coarsely with a pick used diagonally. In at least two places 
springs are found in the caverns. Many of the rounded chambers 
resemble chapels with apses to the east. Crosses and Cufic inscriptions 
occur in all the caves at a low level, and thus within reach. 
Among the inscriptions are the following : 

' O God, Ibn Suleiman testifies that there is no god but God.' 
' O God, forgive Yessid, Ibn Omar, Ibn el Kandy.' 

The most important, however, appears to be one 15 feet from the 
ground : it contains the name Sal ah ed Din, probably Saladin. 

There are also shorter inscriptions : ' Ya Allah,' ' Ya Muhammed,' and 
' There is no god but God. Muhammed is the messenger of God.' 
There is said to be also an inscription in Cufic, which speaks of the 
making of one of the caves. 

The crosses are of various kinds. The Jerusalem cross is among 
them. 

There is also a very curious rude design cut high up on the wall in 
the inner part of 'Arak el Ma, where is a spring. 

It is as below, and may perhaps be a rude representation of the 
Crucifixion : 



i 




INSCRIPTION IN GREAT CAVE. BAS-RELIEF ON WALLS OF THE CAVE. 

Niches for lamps are found in many of the caves, and in others there 
are rows of larger niches (compare es Sfik), probably columbaria. 

One of the caverns north of the village has 240 of these columbaria 
niches, arranged in six horizontal rows round the sides of the cave. 

This cave appears to have been enlarged at a late period, for to the 
east of it is a tomb with four kokim in its back wall, each 6 feet long. 
The side walls of the tomb have been partly destroyed in enlarging the 
cave. On the left wall of the tomb is one koka, on the right two, one of 

34—2 



268 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

which is a passage leading into another chamber, with three loculi under 
arcosolia, one on each wall. 

In another instance the remains of a tomb-chamber with kokiiii is 
visible, high up near the roof in the side of one of the caverns. 
Evidently the excavation is in this case late, and the tomb has been 
destroyed in enlarging the cavern. 

The various indications of date in these caverns seem all to point to a 
late origin. 

I St. The destruction of Jewish tombs in course of cutting out the 
caves. 

2nd. The Cufic inscription speaking of the caverns being made. 

3rd. The various Cufic and Christian inscriptions on the walls. 

4th. The mediaeval character of the sculpture in 'Arak el Kheil. 

5th. The diagonal dressing on the walls in parts. 

These indications do not, however, prove more than that the caves, 
as they are at present, were the work of mediaeval excavators. 

The Fortifications at Beit Jibrin are only visible on the 
north side, where the foundations of the wall and traces of the fosse 
outside it, now filled up, may be observed. 

At the east end of the line of wall are remains of a semicircular 
archway ; the arch entire, 24 feet span, with two rings of voussoirs, a 
total width of 7^ feet. The voussoirs are 18 inches deep (3 feet total 
thickness). This arch is 15 paces (40 feet) behind a wall of similar 
masonry, and was perhaps an inner gate, according to the disposition 
often found in Crusading fortresses (see Kaukab el Hawa 
Sheet IX.). 

The masonry of the walls is throughout the same — a rubble core 
faced with good ashlar (as in most Crusading fortresses). The counter- 
scarp of the fosse seems to have been revetted with similar masonry. 
The masonry has settled a good deal ; the courses are not regular, and 
small stones are built in (as at K li r y e t el 'E n a b. Sheet XVI I .). 

The total extent of the line of wall is about 2,000 feet. The ditch 
was 14 paces (35 feet) wide towards the west. In the centre the line of 
wall recedes at a very obtuse angle, and thus a ' bastion ' with very slight 
projection is formed at the north-west corner of the fortress. The ditch 
appears here to run out in a curved line, 70 paces radius, and possibly a 



[SHEET XX.] ARCHAEOLOGY. 269 

small advanced work existed here. To the east the ditch is not trace- 
able. 

Immediately east of the village is a high mound covered with tcsserce ; 
here great numbers of Byzantine coins have been found, and just beyond 
it is the place called Bab el Medineh, where, according to the 
peasants, the east ' gate of the city ' once stood. 

These details seem to agree with the account of the fortifications built 
by Fulke of Anjou in 11 34 a.d., 'impregnable walls, a mound, bastions, 
and advanced works ' (Will, of Tyre). There appear to have been vaults, 
now closed up, but mentioned by Robinson as running inside the walls. 
(Compare 'A t h 1 i t. Sheet V.) The walls are standing some 2 or 3 feet 
above the present surface throughout the greater part, and in the north- 
west angle they are 8 or 9 feet high. In the same angle are remains also 
of a small bridge across the moat. 

The modern village is about 100 paces within the line of wall, and only 
extends over about a third of the length of the line. Thus the old city 
must have been at least 9 or 10 times as large as the village. On the 
south, north, and west there are mounds which perhaps cover the old 
fortifications. 

Outside the walls are three wells : 

1. Bir el 'Ajamy, to the north-east, a good well with masonry 
like that of the walls, but with a modern pointed arched vault above. 
This was the supply for the Survey Camp. 

2. Bir el H u m m a m, west of the north-west corner of the fortress, 
also of good masonry, now disused, but once having a water-wheel. By 
it lies a marble capital, having a boss 9 inches high, on which is a bas 
relief of the golden candlestick. The style of the capital in 

low relief, with acanthus leaves and small volutes, resembles ^^ 

that sketched at Kuliinsaweh. (Sheet XI.) The . yiil 

\ / Bir el Humm^^m 

diameter is iS inches. The arrangement by which the ^"^■"^■"^"'^'f^ 
water-wheel was inserted in an opening through the vault of the well 
resembles that observable in the Crusading cisterns of the Muristan at 
Jerusalem. 

3. The Bir U m m J u d e i a, south-west of the village, is the 
principal supply. It was full of water, and apparently overflowing, in the 
spring of 1 875, after a very wet winter. The masonry seems to be modern. 



270 



THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 



The three Tells which surround the site of Eleutheropolis may 
perhaps have been originally used as out-works. They are called Tell 
Bornat, Tell el Judeiyideh and Tell Sandahannah, 
and described under those heads ; the first two are each about 2 miles 
from the village ; the third less than a m-ile. 

El K u 1 ah is a fortress 195 feet square, inside the north-west angle 
of the fortress. It is merely a shell, and does not seem to be as old as 
the walls ; but on the south side of it is a cloister which is of the Crusading 
period. Over the gateway is an inscription in Arabic, stating that the 
building was repaired in 958 a.ii. (1551 a.d.). Immediately east of it is a 
well (B i r el Kulah), with a large tree beside it. A modern tower 
in the south-east corner of the Kulah stands upon the cloister, about to 
be described, above the east bay. (See Lieutenant Kitchener's Photo- 
graph, No. 28.) 

The cloister on the south side is now transformed into houses, cross 
walls of modern masonry having been erected. Four bays of the cloister 
remain, the breadth being 15 feet inside, and the total length of the bays 
about 88 feet, with a bearing 69° west. On the north side is an entrance 



Plan, of Arcade S. Side of cl Kulah ^ 




Suih- f og Q 'nc ^ty 3CP ^^ SCO gt?o top epp 9tto lo ooofFaiz 

Plan, of Jvruficaiicns N. of ItUagc 



from the second bay (counting from the east) to a recess 4-i feet wide, 
1 7^ feet long. From this a staircase of 32 feet in length and 2 feet 
9 inches in breadth, with steps 9 inches tread, leads up westwards in the 
thickness of the north wall. It was lighted by a window looking into the 
cloister. 







< 
O 

CC 

< 



NX/ 



[SHEET XX.'\ ARCHEOLOGY. 271 

The east bay of the cloister is open on the south and east, but built up 
on the west by a rude modern wall. (See Lieutenant Kitchener's Photo- 
graph, No. 29.) Four piers of 5J feet side support arches of good ashlar 
with a slight point, and these spring from attached semi-pillars of i^ feet 
diameter. The roof is of rabble and groined. There is a cornice i foot 

3 inches high above the pillar capitals (see Photograph), which is also 
continued round the pier itself. The shafts of the pillars are of good 
reddish limestone. The capitals, with acanthus leaves and volutes in high 
relief and well cut, are of the kind generally found in the earlier Crusading 
work. They were evidently intended for the present building, and are 
all of one pattern. The north wall of the cloister is here well seen. 
It is of well-cut ashlar, the stones i^ feet high and 
2 to 3 feet long. The dressing consists of 
diagonal strokes. The following mason's marks ~~Z^ Y 
were observed. A 

The building is thus evidently Crusading work of early date, and the 
cloister, which must have extended further east (as is shown by the 
attached column on the east side of the south-east pier), may probably be 
the remains of the northern aisle of a church. A church is said by the 
natives to have existed here, and south of the cloister an open plot of 
ground is sacred to Neby Jibrin. (See Section C.) 

Though the above-mentioned ruins are of mediceval date, there is no 
doubt that Beit Jibrin is of older origin. Rock-cut winepresses occur 
in the neighbourhood, with olive-presses and tombs. There are several 
good tombs, but the finest specimen visited was near the ruins of 
Khiirbet Sandahannah. The entrance leads into a chamber, 
10 feet 10 inches to the back, and 29 feet 3 inches wide. On the side walls 
are six kokim — three each side, 8 feet 4 inches long, 2 feet 10 inches wide. 
Each side of the door on the front wall are three kokim. 

An entrance, 7 feet 5 inches wide, leads into an inner chamber, 
measuring 12 feet 2 inches across and 34 feet to the back. It is 9 feet 

4 inches from floor to roof, with a bench round the sides, i foot 6 inches 
high and broad. This chamber has three kokim on the back wall, and 
ten on each side wall, all much broken away. This makes 35 kokim 
in all. They are remarkable for their great size and for the pointed shape 
of their roofs. 



2 72 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

On the side of the valley, south of B i r U m m J u d e i a, are three 
other tombs near the 'Arak el Mukta. One has been partially 
destroyed in enlarging a cavern, and is much ruined, with four koktm at 
the back and the remains of six on each side wall. It also had kokini on 
the front wall, and the chamber was 5 paces by 7 paces, the kokhn 7 feet 
by i\ feet. 

The second tomb was smaller, 8 feet 6 inches to the back wall, 8 feet 
10 inches wide, with a koka each side of the door and two at the back, 
three to the right and two to the left. There are also two unfinished 
kokiin in the corner, one on the back wall, one on the left hand wall. 
One of the kokim on the right hand wall is of double width, as though for 
two bodies. The rest are 7 feet by 2\ feet, and 3^ feet high to the top 
of the roof, which is pointed. 

The third tomb is the largest of the group. It has an outer chamber, 
with a koka on each side wall ; the inner chamber is 1 1 feet 8 inches wide 
and 22 feet 4 inches to the back. It has a bench or Mastabah round 
the sides and at the back, i foot 3 inches high, i foot 6 inches wide. The 
total height of the chamber is 7 feet ; the roof has a flat arch, forming 
a low cradle vault. There are three kokim at the back, 2\ feet by 7^ feet, 
and on each side wall there are seven, making 19 in all. They have 
pointed roofs, irregularly cut and rounded off towards the further end of 
the koka. The floors of the kokim are on the level of the bench round 
the walls. 

Explored March, 1875. 

Beit Jibrin has been identified with Gath, but there seems to be little doubt that it is the 
ancient Eleutheropolis, a city not mentioned earlier than the second century, when it was 
called Betogabra. In the year 202 its new name, Eleutheropolis is found u]ion coins. 
A legend of one Ananias, a supposed saint of the first century, makes him born at Betogabra 
of Eleutheropolis. The district seems to have been occupied during the Babylonish captivity 
by the cave-dwellers of Iduma;a. It was the seat of a bishopric, and was destroyed by the 
Moslems. Like Paneas, Bcthshan, and so many other places, the later name was forgotten, 
while the earlier was revived. The Knights Hospitallers built and held a fortress here. It 
was taken by Saladin in the year 1187, and subsequently retaken by King Richard, and held 
for 50 years by the Christians. The following is Robinson's account of the place : 

' Here is a village with ruins, apparently of different ages, and more extensive and massive 
than any we saw in Palestine, except the substructions of the ancient Temple at Jerusalem 
and the Haram at Hebron. They consist of the remains of a fortress of immense strength, 
in the midst of an irregular rounded enclosure, encompassed by a very ancient and strong 
wall. This outer wall was built of large squared stones uncemented. It has been mostly thrown 



[SHEET XX.] ARCHEOLOGY. 273 

down ; but on the northern side it is still several feet in height, running along the southern 
bank of the water-bed of the Wady which comes down from east-north-east. In the 
ether ejuarter also it is still distinctly to be traced. Along this wall on the inside, towards the 
west and north-west, is a row of ancient massive vaults with fine round arches, apparently of 
the same age as the wall itself. These are now nearly covered by the accumulated rubbish ; 
yet some of them still serve as dwellings for the inhabitants. The northern wall of this 
exterior enclosure, representing the diameter from east to west, measured 600 feet ; and the 
other diameter cannot be much less. The character of this wall and of these vaults leaves 
no doubt that they are of Roman origin. 

' In the midst of this area stands an irregular castle, the lower parts of which seem to be 
as ancient as the exterior wall ; but it has obviously been built up again in more modern 
times. Indeed, an inscription over the gate-way shows that it was last repaired by the Turks 
in A.H. 958 (a.d. 155 i), nearly ten years after the present walls of Jerusalem were built. The 
northern and western sides alone are regular; the former measured 192 feet, and the latter 
195 feet. The gate was now shut up, and the court within planted with tobacco, so far as 
there was room among the heaps of stones and rubbish. The walls are so far broken down, 
that we could clamber over them and enter without difficulty. The interior of the castle 
was full of arches and vaults ; and the people told us of a church with pictures in the southern 
part, now shut up and indeed buried beneath the ruins. Several small marble columns were 
strewed around. The area of the enclosure, outside of the castle, is occupied partly by the 
modern hovels of the village, partly by patches of tobacco and vegetables ; while in the 
northern and eastern quarters it is confusedly covered with heaps of stones, the materials of 
ancient walls and structures. 

' The situation of this fortress was low, on a point between two Wadys, one coming from 
the east-north-east and the other from the south-south-east. Back of the village the ground 
rises into hills, which must have overlooked the fortress. The ancient town appears to have 
extended for some distance along the open valley towards the north-east. In this part are 
still remains of the former wall and dwellings. Just by the village on the west, in the other 
AVady, is a large public well, around which cattle and flocks were collected for watering.' — 
Robinson, 'Biblical Researches,' ii., 355 — 357. 

' The question of the date of all these excavations is difficult. Throughout the south of 
Palestine, in the soft limestone district, I have invariably found the great caverns con- 
nected with Christian ruins. Even in the hard rocks of the desert the fifth century 
hermits hewed caves to live in. The niches also, where we have before met them, seem 
connected with Christian sites, which renders the explanation given above, and enlarged 
upon in a former report, very probable. That the caves are subsequent to, or were at all 
events very greatly enlarged at, a period later than that of the Jews, is, I think, proved by the 
way in which the ancient sepulchres are broken into, and appear cut in half high up in the 
roof of the caverns. As shown above, the caves are full of Christian emblems, and it seems 
on the whole most probable that they are partly quarries (as is very plainly seen in places 
where half-quarried stones remain), and partly used for dwellings, chapels, or, perhaps, as 
now, for stables to flocks during the earlier Christian times. No doubt, however, more than 
one period should be found in them, and as Christian and Moslem succeeded one another, 
each may have added something to the number and size of the caves. 

' Beit Jibrin seems, at some time, to have been besieged by the Romans, if I am correct 
VOL. III. ZS 



274 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

in supposing that the three great Tells which surround it are the sites of Roman camps ; 
they may, however, have been constructed later, when the Crusaders fortified the town. 
They are known as Tell Burnat, west, Tell Sandahannah, south-east, and Tell Sedeideh, 
north-west. On each is a square enclosure, with a foundation, seemingly of a wall of small 
stones, but some 4 feet thick. The square faces towards the cardinal points, and the length 
of a side is about 50 yards. The positions chosen entirely command the town, and the 
artificial character of the top of each Tell is at once visible from a distance. An aqueduct 
leads from near Tell Sedeideh to a cistern close to camp, but this appears to be of Saracenic 
date. It is possible we may find some clue to the identification of Beit Jibrin in the history 
of the places besieged by the Romans in this part of Palestine.' — C. R. C, ' Quarterly State- 
ment,' 1875, PP- i43> 144- 

Beit L e y i (I v). — Foundations, ruined walls, and caves and cisterns. 

Beit M a d s il s (F w). — A single modern house. 

Beit e r R li s h (J w). — Traces of ruins on a mound. 
' These ruins consist of a large number of heaps of irregular materials. Each of these 
heaps surrounds a cave hollowed in the rock, into which there is a descent of steps, or by an 
incline. These subterranean dwellings formed the basement of one-storied houses which stood 
above them. These have been pulled down and put up again several times, while the cellars 
are just the same as when they were cut in the rock.' — Guerin, ' Judea,' ii. 347. 

Beit T i t n (G v). — A single hut. Tobacco is cultivated here. 

Bir el Wustiyeh (G u). — Remains of a cistern and cemented 
channel, apparently for irrigation. 

El Bireh (I n). — Walls, caves, and rough tombs; a stone with a 
cross cut on it. A Maltese cross between four balls in an octagon, 16 
inches across. The cross is sunk. 

B u r e i r (F v). 

' Round the well, which is broad and deep, ten ancient shafts in greyish white marble are 
built up in masonry, serving to make a trough.' — Guerin, 'Judea,' ii. 293. 

Burj el Beiyarah (I x). — Remains of a fort 200 feet side, with 
a fosse on the east and south, hewn in rock. Foundations only remain 
of small masonry, with the joints packed with smaller stones. Round it 
are caves in the rocks. 

El B u r j a 1 i y e h (H v). — Foundations on a mound in a small plain. 

Dcir Kharuf (H w). — Foundations, heaps of stones and caves. 
Near the ruin is a cairn on a hill- top, apparently an old beacon. 

Dcir Muheisin (I w). — Traces of a former village; a con- 
spicuous white mound, with cisterns and caves ; a large site, also known 
as U m m c s h S h I'l k f. 



[SHEET XX.] ARCHEOLOGY. 275 

Deir el Mus (H w). — Heaps of stones, cisterns, well-dressed 
stones, foundations and caves ; a large and apparently ancient site, 

Deir Nakhkhas (I v). — A ruined birkeh and a cave with 
250 niches. (Compare Beit Jibrin.) 

Deir esh Shatir (I v). — Foundations, caves, cisterns, and heaps 
of stones. 

D i k k e r i n (H u). 

' Cisterns, wells, and silos cut in the rock. Vast subterranean galleries, some broken and 
half destroyed, and others almost intact. The vestiges of numerous overthrown houses. A 
great quantity of blocks of different dimensions lying about on the ground, which is covered 
with underwood. All this, Joined to the forty cisterns of Dikkerin, and the ancient materials 
observed in the village, evidently attests that there was once here a considerable town situated 
on two hills, which seems to me to have been the ancient Gath.' 

Guerin CJudea,' ii. 109) proceeds to show reason for this identification. The principal 
argument is that the distance exactly corresponds with that given in the ' Onomasticon.' 

Robinson heard that there were excavated vaults near this place like those near Beit 
Jibrin. They were seen and visited by Porter. 

El H abs (H w), — A large cavern artificially e.xcavated, with steps 
leading down, and having several domed chambers with holes in the 
domes. (Compare Beit Jibrin.) 

H u j (E w). 
Guerin found here a very deep well, and fragments of marble columns lying about on the 
ground. 

El Keniseh (I v). — The Church of Sandahannah, or St. 
Anne, at Beit Jibrin. 

The nave is 32 feet wide, and appears to have been originally 124 
feet long ; the east wing-walls on either side of the main apse are pierced 
with two tiers of windows 5 feet broad. (See Lieutenant Kitchener's 
Photograph, No. 26). The central apse had three such windows ; its 
walls were 6 feet thick. The total width of the building north and south 
appears to have been 154 feet, including side-chambers, 9^ feet wide 
inside. At 55 feet 10 inches west of the interior of this east wall are two 
apses, parallel to the main apse. They are 18 feet diameter; and there 
thus appear to have been two side-chapels just inside the north and south 
walls of the building, and measuring 70 feet by 20 feet. The orientation 
of the main apse and of these side-apses is 107°. 

Only the apse of the southern chapel is left ; but the foundations of 



276 



THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 



the other chapel remain, with two vaults beneath, running north and 
south ; the eastern vault 22 feet 6 inches by 12 feet 6 inches, the western 
of equal size. The wall between the vaults is 2 feet 3 inches thick, and 




N.B. The, dark part shews 
the alUraZions of the (ytisading 
peruid,- 



Scale 960 





pierced by three communications, each i foot 9 inches wide. These 
vaults have a cradle-vaulting to their roofs, of good ashlar with 
semicircular arches, resembling the masonry of D e i r el K u 1 a h 
(Sheet XIV.). 

The arches of the apse-roofs and the windows are semicircular, and of 
good-sized ashlar. The windows in the main apse have two rings of 
voussoirs, but those in the wing walls only one. There are several square 
holes in the masonry, as though tiles had been attached on the interior. 
The height of the courses of the masonry is about 18 inches, the stones 
from 2 to 5 feet long. The key-stones are narrow, the haunch-stones 
broad, in all the arches. The dressing of the stones was done with a 
pointed chisel. The bases of several columns, 2\ feet diameter, remain. 
They were semi-columns, apparently attached to piers, and standing on 
pedestals beneath the bases. On one of these pedestals was a Maltese 
cross in a wreath. 

The large building thus described, occupying 124 feet by 154 feet, was 
restored at a later period by the Crusaders. The height of the top of the 
roof of the main apse is 43 feet, but the roof of the nave remains in part, 
and is some 10 feet lower. The method of carrying the lower level up 
into the higher is not clear. Possibly a dome surmounted the apse. Two 
walls run out west from the sides of the main apse, and piers project from 



{SHEET XX. 



ARCHEOLOGY. 



277 



them. Two bays of this nave remain, with part of its roof, the bay 
measuring 1 8 feet east and west, and 3 1 \ feet north and south — the width 
of the apse. 

The nave thus formed is of entirely different masonry to that of the apse 
and wing walls, and it bears every sign of being Crusading work. The 
walls are of smaller masonry, with a rubble core. The stones in the ashlar 
are 16 inches high, and i foot to 18 inches long. The piers project 
2 feet 9 inches in all, and are 4 feet 2 inches broad. They have a fillet of 





SECTION ON A E 



keratIya. 




mediceval profile at the top. The vault above is groined of ashlar, with 
rubble filled in above. On the piers the diagonal dressing of the stones is 
very plain. In the south wall is a window with a pointed arch. The 
length of the church, as restored at this period, could not be made out. 

Outside the church are two wells, one of living water, very deep ; the 
other dry. 



278 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

Some 40 paces south of the church is a small cave, 12 paces by 
10 paces, with various recesses — apparently a tomb. 
Visited and planned 15th March, 1875. 

K e r a t i y a (G u). — The tower on the mound is called K u 1 d t el 
Fenish. It is a solid block of masonry, standing some 20 or 30 feet in 
height. Near it lie shafts and bases of white marble, and an elaborate 
cornice, well and deeply cut. There is also a font, like that at Beit 
'A u wa (Sheet XXI.), formed by four intersecting circles, and measuring 
2^"] feet along the diameter, and 2 feet high. Apparently there was once 
a church at this place. 

Visited ist April, 1875. 

Khiirbet Abraka (I w). — Traces of ruins. A small site on a 
green mound. 

Khiirbet Abu 'Arram (H u). — Traces of ruins on a low 
mound. 

Khiirbet Abu Gheith (G x). — Traces of ruins and modern 
walls. It is an insignificant ruin. 

Khiirbet Abu Mulassamah (I w). — Traces of ruins. 

Khiirbet Abu er Rekheim (J v). — Foundations, heaps of 
stones, caves and cisterns. 

Khurbet Abu Sihweileh (In). — Traces of ruins. 

K h ia r b e t 'A i 1 11 n (I w). — A mound with foundations. A square 
cell is cut in the rock opposite the ruin on the south. 

Khurbet 'Ajlan (G v). — A low Tell or mound with scattered 
stones. Although probably an important ancient place (Eglon), its present 
site is only marked by the mound. 

' The ruins of this ancient city,' says Gu^rin, ' extend over a plateau at present given up to 
cuhivation. They are very indistinct, and consist of confused heaps of stones scattered about 
over fields of wheat, or forming the enclosures of tobacco plantations.' 

Khiirbet el Akrd (F w). — Scattered stones and a modern hut. 

Khurbet 'A m 11 d e h (E w). — A few heaps of stones and two 
ruined masonry cisterns. 

Khurbet el 'Arab (I v). — Heaps of stones. 



\SHEET XX:\ ARCHEOLOGY. 279 

Khiirbet 'Arak Abu el H use in (G v).— Traces of ruins, 
scattered stones, caves and cisterns. 

Khurbet el 'Atr (I v). — An ancient site; cisterns, foundations, 
quarried rock, and terraces. 

Khurbet 'Atariyeh (I u). — Heaps of stones. 

Khurbet el B a h a (E x). — Cisterns of rubble and traces of an 
old village. 

Khurbet el Bahlawan (G w). — A few modern huts of mud 
and stone, with scattered stones and fragments of glass and pottery. 

Khurbet Bakrah (I v). — Foundations. Caverns with many 
niches. (Compare Beit Jibrin.) Heaps of stones, cisterns, and a 
spring. 

Khurbet el B as sal (I v). 

Guerin found an insignificant ruin bearing this name about five minutes nortli-east of Arak 
el Fenish. It consists of heaps of stones strewn over a hill now covered with brushwood. 

Khurbet Bedd es Suaimeh. 
A small ruin observed by Gucrin a little to the north-east of Beit Jibrin. Not on the map. 

Khiirbet el Basha (I v). — Foundations, caves, cisterns, and tombs. 

Khurbet el Beheirah (H v). — Traces of ruins. 

Khurbet el Beida (I v). — Caves, cisterns, and heaps of stones. 

Khurbet Beiram (H v). — Foundations and heaps of stones. 

KhQrbet Beit Lejus (D v). — Traces of a very small ruin. 

Khurbet Beit Mamin (F u). — Scattered stones. A large 
masonry well, with two pillar-shafts of marble. 

Khiirbet Beit Mirsim (I x). — A large ruin, looks like a 
ruined fortress to protect the road. A small ruined chapel with columns 
exists to the north. 

' This place is the ruin of a little city, not a village, which stood on the plateau of a high 
rocky hill. Hundreds of circular heaps of stone, cut or roughly squared, remains of over- 
thrown houses, lie round caves or cellars cut in the rock. Some of these subterranean 
retreats are natural grottoes ; the others are cut by the hand of man. ... To the west is a 
Tell, the Tell Mirsim. It is of very regular form, and the plateau on its summit has a cir- 
cumference of 600 paces. It is now cultivated, but it appears to have been formerly sur- 
rounded by an enclosing wall rudely constructed. Materials from this wall or from other 
buildings now destroyed lie about here and there.' — Gucrin, ' Judea,' ii. 349. 



28o THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

Khiirbet el Benawy (H w). — Caves, cisterns (rock-cut), and 
modern walls. It is a large ruin. 

Khi:irbet Benayeh (I w). — Traces of ruins, and rock-cut 
cisterns. 

Khiirbet Bidghush (I x). — Foundations, traces of ruins, caves 
and rock cisterns. 

Khiirbet el Bir (I w). — Traces of ruins. Caves and a large 
pool of water. 

Khiirbet Bishir (I v). — Foundations, heaps of stones. Caves, 
cisterns, and a broken pillar-shaft. 

Khfirbet Bornateh (H u). — Heaps of stones, foundations, 
cisterns, and small caves. 

Khiirbet el B li s 1 (I v). — Foundations. Heaps of stones. Caves, 
cisterns, and a tomb of the kind known as ' rock-sunk '■ — a shaft cut down 
from the surface, with a loculus on either side. (Compare K h li r b e t 
Medych, Sheet XIV.) 

Khurbet Buteihah (F x). — Heaps of stones, rubble cisterns in 
ruins, and fragments of pottery. 

Khurbet Dahneh (J v). — Foundations, caves, and cisterns. 

Khurbet Deir Sad (I v). — Foundations and heaps of stones. 

Khurbet edh Dhubeiyeh (I u). — Heaps of stones, and 
cisterns. 

Khurbet ed Druseh (J u). — Heaps of stones, foundations. A 
ruined birkeh, and several caves. 

Khurbet D fi 1 d u b (F v). — A few scattered stones, and two 
ruined rubble cisterns. 

Khurbet 'Ejjis er Ras (F u). — A few scattered stones, and 
several ruined cisterns of masonry cemented, 

Khurbet Erzeh (E u). — Heaps of stones. A masonry well and 
a birkeh of masonry cemented. 

Khiirbet Fassisah (H v). — Foundations. 

Khurbet F a 1 1 a t a h (G v). — Traces of ruins and caves. 



[SHEET A'A'.] ARCHEOLOGY. 281 

K h u r b e t F u h c i d y (H v). — Traces of ruins. 

Khurbet Furut (H v). — A large site, with cisterns and much 
fallen masonry of good size. Apparently a town in the Byzantine period, 
with an ancient road. 

Khurbet el Fuwarah (G w). — A ruin on the watershed. 
Small stones. Scattered glass and pottery. 

Khurbet el Ghobeiyeh (H v). — Traces of ruins and caves. 

Khurbet el Habur (H v). — Foundations, caves, and cisterns. 
A modern hut. 

Khurbet el H aj 'A i s a (H v). — Heaps of stones and founda- 
tions. 

Khurbet Ha m d e h (I v). — Foundations and cisterns. 

Khurbet el Haramieh (I v). 

The ruins of a small village, not on the map, found by Guerin, about a mile N. or N.^\'. 
of Khurbet el Atr. They lie on the slopes of a hill in the midst of bushes. 

Khiirbet Hazzaneh (I w). — Traces of ruins. Caves and 
cisterns. Broken pillar shafts. The place looks like an old site. 

Khiirbet el Hazzarah (G v). — Traces of ruins. Small scat- 
tered stones and broken pottery. 

Khurbet H e b ra (I v). — Foundations and heaps of stones. 

Khiirbet Heshsheh (I v). — Traces of ruins. 

Khurbet Ho ran (I w). — Foundations, caves, and rock-cut 
cisterns. 

Khurbet H u j (E w). — Scattered stones and rubble cisterns. 

Khurbet el Hum mam (F w). — A ruined house and a few 
scattered stones. Apparently modern. 

Khurbet Hurab Diab (E x). — Several cisterns of rubble 
masonry, cemented. 

Khurbet el Huseinat (I u). — Heaps of stones. Cisterns, and 
several caves. 

Khurbet el Jebii (H v).— Heaps of stones. 
VOL. III. 36 



282 THE SUR VE V OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

Khiirbet Jeimar (I w). — Traces of ruins. Caves, cisterns, and 
modern ruined buildings, with a few hovels. 

K h ill r b e t J e 1 a m e h (E v). — Scattered stones and rubble cisterns ; 
near it are two masonry wells. 

Khurbet J em ma me h (F w). — Remains of a ruined village, 
about 20 houses. Rubble cisterns. A spring well, dry in summer. An 
olive press and a-piece of tesselated pavement. 

Are there two ruins of this name ? Guerin describes an ' inconsiderable ' ruin called 
Khurbet Jemmama, to arrive at which on leaving Khurbet Jelameh he rode east for three- 
quarters of an hour, then north-east for three-quarters of an hour, which brought him to 
Khurbet Tabaka (q. v.). He then rode east again, and in a quarter of an hour arrived at 
Khurbet Jemmameh. But the Khurbet Jemmameh of the map is 5 miles south-east of 
Khurbet Jelameh. Again, he says that Khurbet Hummam was south-east of Khurbet 
Jemmameh ; on the map it is north-east. 

Khurbet Jcnneta (I w). — Foundations, caves, cisterns and 
ruined walls. Apparently an ancient site. 

Khurbet el Jils (F v). — A few scattered stones and a rubble 
cistern. Further east are two similar cisterns. 

Khurbet el Jindy (E x). — A large ruin. Heaps of small un- 
hewn stones. Several ruined rubble cisterns. 

Khurbet el Jozeh (J v). — Foundations, caves, cisterns, and a 
large column, standing erect. 

Khurbet Juaithiny (F x). — Modern ruined huts of mud and 
stone. Rubble cisterns and heaps of stones and pottery. 

K h 11 r b e t c 1 J u b a r a t ( H w). — Traces of ruins. 

Khurbet el J u d e i y i d e h (G v) . — Scattered stones and two 
ruined rubble cisterns. The second ruin of the name (I v), consists of 
foundations, heaps of stones, and a cistern. 

K h 11 r b e t J u w e i j a h (I v). — Foundations and cisterns. 

K h u r bet J vi w e i (J x). — Traces of ruins. 

K h Ci r b e t el K a b b a r ah (I u). — Cisterns, and heaps of stones. 

Khurbet cT Kady (F x). — At this ruin is a pillar about 7 feet 
high, standing, and two capitals with acanthus leaves. Heaps of stones, 
rubble cisterns, and pottery. 



[SHEET XX.] ARCHEOLOGY. 283 

Khiirbet el Kaneiterah (G \v). — A mound or Tell, scattered 
stones, and fragments of pottery. 

K h u r b e t el K a s h k a 1 i y e h (I v). — A single building, the foun- 
dations only remaining. 

K hurbet el K att (I v). 

A small ruin, not on the map, observed by Gucrin a short distance north-west of Beit Jibrin. 

Kh fir bet Kemeis (F u). — Scattered stones. A birkeh of 
masonry, cemented, in ruins, and several rubble cisterns. 

Khfirbet Kerkerah (H v). — Heaps of stones and founda- 
tions. 

K hurbet el Kherwa (H v). — Foundations and cisterns, 

K h u r b e t K h o r e i s a h (I v). — Traces of ruins. 

K h u r b e t el K h u 1 f (H u). — Foundations, caves, and wells or 
cisterns. 

K hurbet el Khiisas (F v). — Heaps of scattered stones, and a 
well ; broken glass and pottery. 

K h li r b e t el K 6 f k h a h (F w). — A large site. Rubble cisterns, 
a marble capital, with acanthus leaves. Scattered stones and pottery. 

Khiirbet el Kuka (I v). — Foundations and ruined walls. Caves, 
cisterns, and heaps of masonry. 

K h li r b e t K 11 m h a h (I u). — Heaps of stones. 

Khiirbet el K u s r (I v). — A ruined fortress with a sloping 
revetement. The stones of the wall within are drafted with a rustic boss. 
A cistern and cave exist near. The place stands on the brow of the hill. 
It appears to be a Crusading site. 

K h Li r b e t K u s s a b a h (G w). — Traces of a small ruin. 

Khiirbet el Lahm (I v) — Foundations, heaps of stones, wells, 
cisterns, and caverns, as at Beit Jibrin. The masonry seems 
probably of Byzantine date, but the site to be older. (See Lahmam, 
Section A.) 

K h 11 r b e t L a s a n (E w). — Scattered stones and rubble cisterns. 

K hurbet el Mad owe rah (H \-). — Foundations on a small 
mound. 

36—2 



284 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

Khiirbet INIak-haz (H w). — A few well-cut stones and smaller 
scattered stones. 

Khurbet el Mansurah (H v). — Traces of an old village; 
rubble cisterns in ruins. 

Khurbet el Marashan (F w). — Traces of ruins, glass and 
pottery fragments. 

Khurbet Mejadil (H x). — Large ruin, caves and rock cisterns. 
Apparently an important ancient site. 

Khurbet el M e j d e 1 e h (I w). — Foundations and heaps of 
stones, excavated grain stores (Metamir). Cisterns. A small square 
pillar. Tombs with kokiin and niches for lamps ; foundations of a small 
tower. The masonry is of good character in these ruins, and the jslace 
was evidently an ancient site of some importance. Over the central koka 
in one of the tombs is a winged tablet with two niches for lamps below. 
The inscription on the tablet has been purposely defaced. Another tomb 
has rows of niches, probably for lamjDS in front of it. 

Khurbet Melita (F v). — A few stones. A pool is formed in 
winter by the ruin. 

Khurbet Me rash (I v). — Traces of ruins. Cisterns and caves 
as at Beit J i b r i n. 

Khurbet M e r t i n i a (I .x). — Traces of ruins. 

Khurbet M e r t e s S e i 1 (H v). — Foundations and cisterns. 

Khurbet el Mesddi (H w). — Traces of ruins, caves, and 
modern walls. 

Khurbet M u g h c i s i 1 (II w). — Modern walls standing, and 
traces of ruins. 

K h u r b c t M u k c i ni in ( H x). — Traces of a small ruin. 

Khurbet M u n t a r e t c I B a g h I (E w). — A few scattered 
stones and ruined rulible cisterns on a slope. 

Khurbet el Murmakh (G x). — Traces of ruins and a few 
well-dressed stones. 

Khurbet Murran (I .x). — Traces of ruins, caves, and cisterns, 
apparently an ancient site. Some of the masonry is wcll-dressed. 



[SHEET XX.] ARCHEOLOGY. 2S5 

K h li r b e t el M u s e i j i d (H u). — Traces of ruins and a spring. 

K h u r b e t el M u s i r r c h (H v). — Traces of ruins. 

Khiirbet Nejed (E w). — Scattered stones and ruined cisterns 
of rubble masonry. 

Khiirbet en Nusrany (I w). —Traces of ruins. 

K h u r b e t R a f a (I u). — Cisterns and heaps of stones, 

Khurbet er Raia (I \v). — Foundations, heaps of stones, caves 
and cisterns. 

Khurbet e r R e s m (E w, H v, H w). — These are merely heaps 
of stones, as the name implies — (' a trace '). 

Khurbet er Resum (H \v).— See the last. Caves and cisterns. 

Khurbet er Roz (I v). — Traces of ruins and cisterns. 

Khurbet er Rujliiyeh (H x).— Traces of ruins. 

Khurbet R u m i y e h (H w). — Traces of ruins and caves. 

Khurbet Rum m a n e h (H \v). — Foundations, cisterns and caves. 

Khurbet Safieh (I v). — Cisterns and heaps of stones. 

Khiirbet Samy (F u). — 'A ruined birkeh, and a few stones near 

the Mukam of N e b y Sam y. 

Khurbet Sandahannah (I v). — A few modern foundations, 
apparently a ruined hamlet, with two Mukams — Sheik Ibrahim 
and Sheik esh Shaib. 

Khurbet esh Shah (I u). — Heaps of stones. 

Khurbet S h a 1 k h a h (H v). — A few foundations. 

Khurbet Shareta (F v). — Traces of ruins and rubble, cisterns 
cemented inside, scattered glass and pottery. 

Khurbet esh S h e m s a n i y a t (H v). — Foundations east of a 
Mukam on a hill-side. 

Khurbet S h u a 1 i y e h (I v). — Foundations and heaps of stones. 

K h u r b c t S h u k a k i e h (H v). — Traces of ruins. 

Khurbet esh Shukkak (H w). — Foundations of a building 
apparently a Khan. Caves and cisterns. 



286 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

Khiirbet Shuteiwy el 'Oseiby (F x). — Cisterns of rubble 
and a few scattered stones. 

Khiirbet Simbis (F v). — Scattered stones, and several ruined 
rubble cisterns cemented. 

Khiirbet Somerah (J x). — Walls, caves, rude tombs and 
cisterns. Evidently an ancient site. 

Khiirbet SuAid (I v). — Caves, foundations, ruined walls, heaps 
of stones and cisterns. South-west of the ruin are some rock-cut wine- 
presses. 

Khiirbet Sukeiyifeh (H v). — Traces of ruins and caves. 

Khiirbet es Sukriyeh (G v). — A ruined village with wells. 
The houses were of stone. It was inhabited when visited by Robinson in 
1838. Three column shafts and two wells of masonry. 

Khi^irbet es Summeily (F v). — Traces of ruins, scattered 
stones, and broken pottery. 

Khiirbet es Surah (I u). — Cisterns, foundations, heaps of 
stones, several large blocks, aiDparently lintel stones, and caves. There 
are also remains of an olive-press. North-east of the ruin are seven 
Roman milestones, fallen, being round shafts on rude square bases. 

Khiirbet Sfirrar (H w). — Small stones and pottery fragments, 
scattered, with caves. 

Khiirbet Tabaka(Fv). 

On leaving Khiirbet Jelameh, Guerin proceeded north-east, and after crossing the AV'iidy 
el Hesy came upon a ruined site named Khurbct Tabaka, or, as the Bedawin called it, 
Khiirbet Takaba. The town of the Tagabeans is mentioned in the Acta Sanctorum 
(' Bollandus,' ii. 326). Rcland identifies Tagaba with Beit Jibrin, which is, however, too far. 
The distance of this place from Gaza, about 12 miles, corresponds with the requirements. 
It is not on the map. The place was covered with thistles, but the ruins, which could be 
seen, were only a confused mass of materials. 

Khurbet Tannar (G v). — Traces of ruins. 

Khiirbet Tell Dahab(Ew). 

This place was found by Guerin about an hour and a half nortlveast of Gaza. It is a 
well called Tell Dahah (the Hill of Gold), or Tell Ahmar (the Red Hill). Tlie slopes and 
summit are covered with broken pottery, and in the fields are cisterns. The place is not on 
the map, but it may be placed due west of Huj, and is probably an unnamed hill on the map 
about 2 miles from the latter place. 



[SHEET XX.] ARCHMOLOGY. 287 

K h li r b e t Tut (I w).— Heaps of stones on a small hillock. 

K h u r b e t U m m 'A m e i d a t (G x).— A large ruin, with caves, 
cisterns, a few pillar-shafts, and foundations. 

K h u r b e t U m m 'A m u d (H u).— Traces of ruins. 

K h u r b e t U m m B a g h 1 e h (I x).— An ancient site. Caves, 
cisterns, and foundations of well-dressed masonry. 

Khurbet Umm Batieh {F w).— Scattered unhewn stones, 
ruined rubble cisterns, cemented inside. 

Khurbet Umm el B i k a r (G w).— Scattered stones, a ruined 
cistern, and a modern building. 

Khurbet Umm D a b k a 1 (G x). — Traces of ruins. 

Khurbet Umm H a r e t e i n (H w).— Traces of ruins and foun- 
dations, caves and cisterns, well-dressed masonry of good size. 

Khurbet U m m K e 1 k h a h (G w). — Traces of a small ruin. 

Khurbet Umm Khii shram (H w). — Traces of ruins, caves, 
and rock-cisterns. A large and apparently ancient site. 

Khurbet Umm Malak (I v). — Foundations, caves, cisterns, 
and heaps of stones. 

Khurbet Umm el M e i s (J w). — Traces of ruins and caves. 

Khurbet Umm M u a r r i f (G w). — Large masonry and founda- 
tions, traces of ruins. A modern building, which is at times inhabited. 

Khurbet Umm 'O s h e i s h (J v). — Traces of ruins and caves. 

Khurbet U m m R u j u m (F w). — Foundations of a house and a 
few scattered stones. 

Khurbet Umm esh Shukf (I w). — See Deir Muheisin. 

Khurbet Umm e s S u w e i d e h (H v) . — Foundations and 
heaps of stones. 

Khurbet Umm T a b u n (E v). — Traces of ruins, with cisterns 
to the south. 

Khurbet Umm et Talah (H v). — Foundations and cisterns. 

Khurbet Wady Sabir (I w). — Heaps of stones and a few 
small foundations. 



288 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

Khurbet el Wahashiyeh (G v). — Traces of ruins, small 
stones, and broken pottery. 

Khurbet el Weibedeh (H w). — Foundations, heaps of well- 
cut stones of good size, caves, cisterns, and scattered glass and pottery. 

Khurbet Zara (F x). — A few scattered stones, one or two 
modern ruined huts, and rubble cisterns. 

Khurbet Zeidan (F w). — Scattered stones and a cistern of 
masonry. 

Khurbet Z em mar (I v). — Caves, foundations, heaps of stones, 
and cisterns. 

Khurbet Zuheilikah (F x). — The ruins occupy three small 
hillocks, in a triangle of about half a mile side. The highest is to the 
north. Scarcely anything remains beyond ruined cisterns of rubble 
masonry, and remains of ruined huts of mud and stone. 

Kudna (I u). — In this village are remains of a fortress measuring 
about 90 feet by 35 feet. It has the appearance of Crusading work. 
Over a window in the tower is a lintel stone about 4 feet by i foot 9 inches, 
on which are two circles with geometrical patterns within. The masonry 
is of moderate size. Caves, cisterns, and foundations surround the modern 
houses. 

Ras Abu Haltam (I v). — A single foundation, with two 
cisterns. 

R e s m el 'A d h r a (I v). — Foundations and caves. 

R e s m A k t e i s h (H w). — Ancient threshing-floor and caves. 

Resm 'Amir (H w). — Traces of ruins. 

R e s m H a z z a n e h (I w). — Heaps of stones. 

Resm el Meharji (I w). — Heaps and caves. 

Resm er Rusheidat (H w). — Heaps of stones. 

Resm esh Shukkak (H w). — Traces of ruins. A small site. 
A few cisterns. 

Resm Umm Baghleh (I x). — Traces of unimportant ruins, 
apparently modern houses. 



{SHEET XX.'] 



ARCHEOLOGY. 



289 



R u j m el 'A z a z i m e h (J v). — Foundations of a square building. 
Rujm el K and 61 (J u). — Foundations of a house of rude 
masonry, with two cisterns. 

R uj m es S'a (H v). — A mound of earth, commanding a fine view, 

S i m s i m (E v). — South of the village is a ruined rubble cistern, and 
north-east of the villao-e two others. 

Es Silk (I v). — This curious excavation, west of Tell Sanda- 
hannah, is reached by a shaft. It is 96 feet long and 7 feet wide, 
with four cross passages, which are from 12 to 26 feet long. The main 




ts Su" Section on A S 



passage is 13 feet high, and the side passages are rather higher. The 
cross section shows walls 6 feet 2 inches high, and above this a set back 
of 2 feet, and rock piers, 12 each side of the cave, projecting 1 foot, and 
6 feet 8 inches high. 

In the main passage there are five tiers of niches in the lower part of 
the wall, and five other tiers above, between the rock piers, which are 
about \\ feet broad, the bay between being about 6 feet wide. In the 
side passages there are niches in five tiers on the level of the upper part 
of the main passage. The niches are 5 inches wide in front, 10 inches 
at the back. They recede 10 inches, and are 8 inches high. The top of 
each niche is rounded. The total number of niches is 1,774 i^^ ^.11. 

The bearing of the length of the cave is 155°. It was originally 
entered from the south, where are remains of two curving passages, lead- 

VOL. III. 37 



2 90 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

ing towards the surface. By the eastern passage is a round chamber, 
14 feet diameter, with a winding stair, 3 feet wide, leading down lower 
than the cave. There is also here a door blocked up. 




There are two niches, 5 feet high, in one of the cross passages. The 
whole is cut in soft rock, and seems to be a coliimbariwii. 
Visited and planned March 21st, 1875. 
Tell Abu Dilakh (G w). — A mound, with traces of ruins. 

Tell Abu esh Shukf (G v). — A few small stones and one 
well-built masonry well. 

Tell el Akra(Hw). — A mound, pardy natural, with traces of ruins. 

Tell Beit Mirsim (I x).— See Khurbet Beit Mirsim. The 
Tell formed the fortress. 

Tell Bornat (I u). — A mound, partly natural, pardy artificial, 
with a square enclosure, about 50 yards side at the top, and terraces arti- 
ficially cut on the slopes. 

Tell ed Duweir (H v). — A natural hillock, artificially scarped, 
with a steep slope. On the top are the foundations of a large square 
building. 

Tell el Ilesy (G v). — A truncated cone, with a broad Hat top, 



{SHEET XX.^ ARCHAEOLOGY. 291 

and traces of ruins round its base. There are several springs in the 
neighbourhood, but the water is bad. It is a conspicuous site. (See 
Lachish, Section A.) 

' The hill is scarped on the east. From this side it commands the Wady el Hesy from a 
height of 160 feet. The Wady surrounds it on the north and north-west. Where it is more 
easily accessible can be observed the foundation of a surrounding wall almost entirely de- 
molished. Certain traces of old constructions may also be remarked, but not very clearly, 
on several points of the summit.' — Guerin, ' Judea,' ii. 296. 

Tell Hudeiweh (G w). — Traces of ruins on a small mound. 

Tell I d b i s (G v). — A mound, probably artificial. 

Tell el J u d e i y i d c h (I u). — A large Tell or mound, with sides 
artificially scarped, and a square foundation on the top. The sides of the 
square are directed to the cardinal points. 

Tell K h a r a k a h (H w). — An artificial mound of earth and stones. 

Tell Mejadil (H .x). — A rock-cut wine-press and traces of ruins, 
cisterns and caves. 

Tell el M u 1 e i h a h (G w). — Large round Tell, flat topped. 
Traces of ruins and pottery. Modern Arab graves on the top. 

Tell en N ej i 1 e h (G w). — Large Tell, with good sized stones on 
the north-west side. Scattered stones and pottery. A ruined bridge over 
the water. 

Tell es Sahra (D v). — A natural hillock. 

Tell Sandahannah (I v). — A large mound, partly artificial, cut 
in the white chalk, and named from the neighbouring Church of St. Anne. 
There is an extraordinary cavern close to it, and ^^^^^ -^^ 

the whole hill around it is burrowed with caves, 
which seem most probably to have been granaries 
or cisterns. They are not cemented inside. The 
most important system is called M u g h a r e t 
Sandahannah. The entrance is on the south, 
leading to a rude vestibule, 5 paces square, the 
floor reached by a descent of three steps. At the 
back of the vestibule are two passages, the right 
hand leading to a second chamber, 15 paces long, 
the roof supported by a rude rock pillar. From this chamber there is an 
entrance to a circular well-like chamber, 1 1 paces diameter. A flight of 

37—2 




292 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

Steps leads round the walls to the bottom, 50 steps in all, or about 25 feet 
in height. The flight has a rude balustrade of rock, which is also stepped. 

The floor of this well-like chamber was covered with soft mud, and the 
place had at one time contained water, the line of mud showing on the 
walls, but the chamber was not cemented. It is cut out in porous rock, 
originally very white. 

After descending 20 steps, a passage leads out on the north, and 
after 30 steps a second ; both these conduct to another similar round 
chamber, with a flight of 48 steps without any balustrade. It is 10 
paces diameter, but not regular in shape. Both chambers were quite 
dark, roofed in rock, and about 30 or 40 feet high ; their floors are some 
30 feet below the level of the entrance to the cavern. The roofs are 
rudely domed. 

Leaving the first vestibule by the left hand passage, a second small 
chamber, 5 paces diameter, is reached, and from it to the west are two 
larger rock-cut chambers (see Plan), which seem to have had also a 
communication with the surface. 

A passage leading north from these conducts to a third well-chamber, 
9 paces diameter, with steps leading down ; and from this to the left 
there is an entrance to a fourth, 7 paces diameter, with 28 steps; whilst 
from nearly the bottom of the flight in this last an entrance leads still 
further west to a fifth well-chamber, 5 paces diameter, also with a flight 
of steps having a rock balustrade. 

A passage from the first well-chamber, and one from the third, both 
lead north to a large and rudely-hewn hall some 20 paces square, with a 
roof supported by piers of rock about 3 feet square. The chamber is 
some 20 feet high, and forms the extreme end of the excavation. Its 
floor was covered with fallen blocks. 

Lamp niches occur on the walls of the cavern, and smoke marks. In 
one place is the name Douglas, with date 1870 a.d. The flights of steps 
have balustrades, except in the second well-chamber. Channels cut for 
water were visible in one or two places. 

In the chamber to the west there is a sort of koka 6 feet long. The 
entrance is well cut, but the further end is roughly enlarged. There is 
nothing in the whole cavern to indicate date. 

Visited and planned 15th March, 1875. 



[SHEET XXI.] ARCHEOLOGY. 293 

U m m Babe in (I v). — A cave, a cistern, and a few heaps of 
stones. 

Umm Lakis (F v). — A few heaps of unhewn stones and several 

rubble cisterns. The ruins lie on a low mound. This site is less 

important than most on the Sheet. It was identified by Dr. Robinson 

as Lachish, but there are objections philologically to this suggestion, and 

it has not found favour with later writers. 

' These ruins cover a space of about a kilometre and a half in circumference. They are 
situated partly on a hillock and partly in the midst of fields either cultivated or bristling with 
thistles and brambles. A multitude of excavations show that stones, the remains of ancient 
buildings, have been taken from the place. There remains, however, a good quantity of 
materials, scattered on the ground. In one of these holes I found a Corinthian capital of 
greyish white marble, waiting for some one to carry it off. Fifteen ancient silos continue to 
serve the Arabs of the neighbourhood.' — Guerin, ' Judea,' ii. 299. 

Z e i t a (I w). — Heaps of ruins and walls. 



SHEET XX.— SECTION C. 

The principal tradition connected with the Sheet is that of the Fenish. 
The peasants at Beit Jibrin say that the Fenish was a Christian 
King of that place. A cave and garden are called after him. The 
K u 1 a t el Fenish at K e r a t i y a is also apparently Crusading work ; 
and so at L a t r 6 n and S 6 b a, at ' A m w a s and Khiirbet Ikbala 
(Sheet XVI I.), the tradition of the Fenish is connected with mediaeval 
ruins. It is noticeable, however, that the tradition is not found in other 
parts of Palestine, but only on the border-land of Philistia. It is probable 
that the word Fenish is a corruption of Felish or Philistine. 

The plain south of Jaffa is remarkable for the number of Mukams 
sacred to early patriarchs. Thus we have N e b y Shit (Seth) and 
Neby Rubin (Reuben) on Sheet XVI., and Neby Ham (Ham), 
and Neby Samy (Shem) on Sheet XX. In the hills to the east we 
find two sites sacred to Noah. (Sheets XVII. and XXI., Section C) 
North of Jaffa we have Neby Hdda (Judah), and Neby Dan 
(Dan). 

The village of H uj is named from Neby H uj, whose Mukam 
is there shown. He appears to have been a giant, and traditions of his 
Cfreat size exist connectinsf him with Oq;. 

The name of Neby Jibrin (Gabriel) is interesting, as Beit Jibrin 
was called in the Middle Ages ' The House of Gabriel ' (Will, of Tyre). 
The tradition thus appears to be of Christian origin. 



SHEET XXI.— SECTION A. 

Orography. — The present Sheet contains 3727 square miles of the 
country round Hebron, including the high watershed hills, the low hills 
to the west, and the plateau to the east above the Dead Sea. It is 
naturally divided into four districts: ist. The Hebron hills; 2nd. The 
Shephelah ; 3rd. The Negeb plateau ; and 4th. The Jeshimon, or Desert. 

1st. The Hebron Hills. — The main watershed of the country 
runs south-west from Ras Sherifeh (Sheet XVTI.) to the village of 
Safa. It then continues south as a narrow and hicrh ridsje, extendinij 
2^ miles to Beit Ummar (3,210 feet above the sea). From this 
village to H u 1 h u 1, for 2^_ miles, the watershed is slightly contorted, but 
rises gradually, the last-named village having on its west the mosque of 
Neby Yunis, 3,343 feet above the sea at the trigonometrical point. 
In the neighbourhood of e r Ram eh, 2 miles further south, the shed is 
wider, and forms a sort of plateau about a mile across, the height being 
about the same as at H u 1 h u 1. This neighbourhood is the highest part 
of Palestine south of the mountains of Upper Galilee, and the culminating 
point is at er Rameh, where the survey cairn is 3,346 feet above the 
Mediterranean. 

The watershed may be said to divide in two, south of H u 1 h u 1, and 
although the highest point is at e r Rameh, the true shed running to 
the Desert is further east. Two important valleys have their heads 
at H u 1 h u 1, the first (Wady S i a i r) running north-east, the second 
running south, and passing Hebron on the east, gradually curving round 
and running south-west towards Beersheba. This great valley, the longest 
in the country, finally reaches the sea south of Gaza (Sheet XIX.), 
after a toted course of some 65 English miles, with a fall of over 
3,000 feet. 



^9(5 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

Two important ridges run out eastwards from H li I h u I. The first 
extends north-east for 6 miles, the elevation at the further end being 
3,000 feet above the sea. The slofDes are here very steep, and the 
precipices of W a d y 'A r r u b bound the ridge, which is called K a n a n 
ez Zaferan. The second ridge runs south, having the great valley 
above noticed (W a d y K h ii 1 i 1) on the west, and very steep slopes with 
rugged gorges on the east. This ridge is the true watershed of the 
country, and attains an elevation at the village of B e n i N a i m of 
3,124 feet above the sea, with a very steep slope on the east, where the 
ridge looks down on the Desert district, 1,500 feet below. 

On either side of the watershed spurs run out towards the Desert on 
the east, and the Mediterranean on the west. Thus some 6 miles east of 
S a f a, a very narrow spur expands into the small plateau called B u k a t 
et T e k u a, about a mile across, and some 2,600 feet above the sea; 
ridges run eastwards again from this, falling towards the plateau of the 
Desert. 

A broad valley has its head at the Ballutet Yerzeh, and 
becomes open and flat south of Beit Fejjar, which stands on a 
prominent spur 500 feet above it. This valley (Wady 'A r r u b) 
gradually turns south, about 3 miles east of Beit Fejjar, and 
becomes a rugged gorge flanked by precij^ices, forming a marked division 
for over 5 miles between the Hebron hills and the Desert. 

On the west side of the watershed the spurs run in a north-westerly 
direction, and are long and narrow ridges, with steep sides, and deep 
valleys between. They are terminated by the flat and open valley called 
Wady es Sunt, which has its head about a mile west of K h u r b e t 
es S ufa, and which runs northwards thence for 6 miles, almost parallel 
to the watershed and about 5 miles west of it. (See Sheet XVII. for 
further course.) The tops of the spurs east of this valley have an average 
elevation of 1,600 to 2,000 feet above the sea, and are some 400 feet 
above the valley. The fall in the 5 miles from the watershed is gradual, 
being some 1,300 feet. 

The town of Hebron is placed on the southern slopes, which descend 
gradually from the high plateau above noticed near e r R a m e h. On 
the east is the great valley, Wady K h u 1 i 1 ; on the west an important 
ridge runs out from e r R a m e h southwards. Thus the city, like 



[SHEET XXL] OROGRAPHY. 297 

Jerusalem, is surrounded with hills. On the north it is not visible until 
within about a mile of distance. On the east and west higher ridges shut 
it in, and only on the south can it be seen well, being visible from Tell 
Main, 8 miles away. 

The ridge west of Hebron runs out to Dii ra, 4 miles from the hill 
which is called D h a h r Abu R u m m a n. This spur forms a marked 
feature, having on its north the deep valley called W a d y el A f r a n j, 
which breaks down suddenly from the 'A i n el U n k u r, 2 miles south- 
west of Hebron, and runs north-west to Beit J i b r i n. (Sheet XX.) 
The ridge rises to 2,950 feet above the sea at the flat-topped hill 
(R a s el B i a t h) south of Dura, and looks down on the south side on 
the lower hills round Dhaheriyeh. Innumerable spurs run out west- 
wards towards the plain, and southwards towards Wady K h u 1 i 1. 
The Hebron hills are thus seen to be bounded on the north by Wady 
Urtas, on the east by the great gorge of Wady 'A r r u b, running 
south, on the west by Wady cs Sunt, running north, and on the 
south they split in two, the western ridge curving round westwards, the 
eastern falling suddenly ; and thus two other districts are formed with an 
average elevation 500 feet less than that of the Hebron hills, divided 
from one another by the great valley rising near H u 1 h 11 1, and a marked 
step is formed immediately south of Hebron, descending towards the 
Desert of Beersheba. 

The Hebron hills are throughout very rugged and stony. The 
formation is a hard crystalline limestone, which is capped at Dura by a 
chalky marl, but generally extends to the summit of the hills. The 
valleys between have good soil in them, and Wady 'A r r u b in par- 
ticular is fertile, as is the plateau at T e k u a, and the neighbourhood of 
H u 1 h u 1. The vineyards of Hebron extend over about 6 square miles, 
and olives are also grown there. The greater portion of the district is, 
however, occupied by wild growth, a low scrub covering the hills more 
or less thickly, and extending to the watershed. The eastern slopes, 
being quite sheltered from the damp west winds, are bare of vegetation 
except in spring. The valleys are narrow and stony throughout, with 
steep slopes and occasional cliffs. They break down very suddenly from 
the watershed, and are some 500 feet deep on the average. 

2nd. The S h e p h e 1 a h. — This term is applied in the Talmud 
VOL. III. 38 



298 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

(cf. Joshua XV. 33) to the district of the low hills west of the watershed 
(see Sheet XVII., Section A,), and the word will be found on the present 
Sheet under the form Sifli — Bir es Sifli (J w) — in these very 
hills. 

The low hills are towards the north of the Sheet separated from the 
Hebron hills by W a d y e s S u n t, but the whole block bounded by 
this valley on the north and east, and by W a d y el Afranj on the 
south, is connected with the main watershed by the ridge which runs out 
west of H u 1 h (1 1 towards K h u r b e t e s S u fa. Looking down 
from this neighbourhood, the Shephelah appears as a district of rounded 
hills of about equal height, dotted over with olives. The average elevation 
of the summits is some 1,500 feet above the sea, or 1,700 below the 
watershed. 

Wady es S u n t, the ancient valley of Elah (1 Samuel xvii. 2 and 
xxi. 9) is one of the most fertile districts in Palestine. It is an open flat 
vale about half a mile across, and covered with corn ; a narrow trench 
runs down the centre full of white pebbles, worn by the water in winter. 
Here and there large terebinths grow along its course (B u t m e t 
Wady es S u r), and solitary oak trees (Ballutet el Kiissis). 
On either side rise the stony hills covered with brushwood and wild 
growth. 

South of Wady el Afranj, the low hills are spurs from the 
D II r a ridge, and gradually merge in the Dhaheriyeh hills, becoming 
less fertile and more bare south of D u r a. 

Wady el Afranj is also, like Wady es S fi n t, very pro- 
ductive in corn in the lower part, especially in the neighbourhood of 
I d h n a h. 

The olive grows freely in these low hills round the villages, but the 
groves are small compared with those further north. (Sheet XIV.) The 
formation is a soft and porous limestone with flints. 

3rd. Negcb Platea u. — This title, meaning ' Dry,' and equivalent 
to the later term Daroma, which was given to the same district (see 
Rel. Pal., p. 185) is applied in the Bible to the neighbourhood of 
Dhaheriyeh (Judges i. 13; Sheet XXIV.) The Daroma extended 
as far east as Maon (Tell Main), according to Eusebius. (' Onomasticon,' 
s.v. ; Sheet XXV.) The district thus intended is that which lies 



[SHEET A'A7.] OROGRAPHY. 299 

between the Hebron hills on the north, the Becrsheba plains on the south, 
the Dead Sea Desert on the east, and the Sharon plain on the west. 
It is a plateau with an average elevation of 2,700 feet above the sea 
towards the east, and about 2,000 towards the west. The broad valley 
from near Hebron (Wady Khulil) runs through it in a south- 
westerly direction, dividing the district into two. The watershed of the 
country runs along the eastern side, and the backbone of the western part 
is formed by a ridge running out of the Dura ridge — that mentioned 
in the first district. 

The watershed from B e n i N a i m runs i mile south to N e b y 
Yukin (3,124 feet), and thence south for 6 miles to K u r m u 1. It 
falls quickly south of N e b y Yukin to an elevation of about 2,900 to 
2,600 feet above the sea, and forms a flat plateau of arable land, with a 
soft chalky formation intersected by open and flat valleys, which are, as a 
rule, only 100 to 200 feet deep. On the east, long spurs run out into the 
plateau of the Dead Sea, and the fall is rapid, but less so than further 
north. The district is very rich in cattle and productive in corn, but quite 
bare of trees. 

The western half of the Negeb plateau is more broken in character. 
From the flat ridge south of Dura a long spur runs out southwards to 
Ras S i rreh, 3 miles, falling 350 feet to the latter point. Thence it is 
directed south-west past D 6 m e h, falling again to the level 2,190 feet 
above the sea. Its further course is traced on Sheet XXIV., where it 
forms the western half of the Negeb plateau. The eastern slopes of this 
spur are intersected with many small valleys, and present rounded rolling 
hills draining into W a d y Khulil: on the west the slopes extend to 
the level of the Shephelah hills without any very marked break. 

4th. The J e s h i m o n. — This title is applied in the Bible to the 
de.sert plateau west of the Dead Sea. (Numbers xxi. 20 ; xxiii. 28 ; 
I Samuel xxiii. 19, etc.). The greater part of this is on Sheet XXII. ; 
but the western part is on the present Sheet. 

Large valleys run across this district, bringing down the drainage of 
the Hebron hills and of the Negeb plateau to the Dead Sea, and dividing 
the district across into well-marked sections. They are as follow : 

I. Wady T'amireh, which is more particularly described on the 
next Sheet. 

.^,8—2 



300 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTIAE. 

2. Wady c d Derajeh, the head of which is Wady el 
M a n k a, near T e k u a. This valley is flanked with white narrow 
ridges of chalk (compare Sheet XVIII.), and its sides become precipitous 
in the neighbourhood of U m m el 'A m e d. 

3. Wady Husasah is an open valley full of gravelly stones, 
with a high steep ridge to the north. On the south are open, rolling 
downs, some 1,500 feet above sea level, rising gradually southwards 
and westwards, as far as the next great valley 6 miles to the south. 
The district is separated from the Hebron hills by the deep precipitous 
gorge of Wady el J i h a r, and culminates east of this great fissure in 
the crescent-shaped hill of the Rujm J e m a h, which is some 1,700 
feet above the sea. 

4. W a d y el G h a r. — This is the largest valley of the district, 
and one of the main drains of the country. It is from a quarter to half a 
mile across. The downs of the last mentioned district rise into a ridtre, 
which has a very steep slope on the north side of the valley ; on the south 
a narrow knife-edged spur, terminating in conical isolated points, flanks 
the valley. The whole of the neighbourhood is as barren as it can well 
be ; the soft marl is excoriated by the rain and washed into innumerable 
knife-edged spurs and peaked knolls. The valley is flat and full of soft 
marl washed down, with a broad shingly bed in the centre. A few 
scattered shrubs of broom {Resciu), and alkali plants [Salsoia Kali, or in 
Arabic, Hubeidek) grow in it ; but even in early spring it is bare and 
intensely white in colour. 

South of this valley are rolling downs like those to the north, with high 
isolated hills standing up over them towards the west ; these are 1,700 to 
1,800 feet above sea level, and 300 or 400 above the general level of the 
downs. 

5. W 4 d y el War rises at K u r m u 1, and for 5 miles of its 
course is a narrow gorge with precipices which are quite impassable. 
It then becomes an open valley like the last. A long flat-topped ridge 
(Dhahret el K 6 1 a h) runs out of the watershed north of this 
valley, terminating in a high and narrow and almost isolated hill. The 
downs continue to the south. 

The whole of this district is desert except below T e k u a, where a 
little corn is grown. The ridges in spring have grass ui)on them when 



[SHEET XXL] HYDROGRAPHY. 301 

rain is plentiful ; but in February, 1S75, the country was throughout an 
expanse of white and tawny chalk and marl, with bands of brown flint 
and shingly beds to the valleys. 

Hydrography. — The Hebron hills are well supplied with springs of 
good water. There are no less than 56 springs with special names 
on the Sheet, the large majority of which are in the first district. These 
will be mentioned under the head of the villages. There is one valley, 
however, which is especially well watered, as its name implies, W a d y 
'Arrub, from which the Jerusalem aqueducts are supplied. Running 
water was found in this valley, forming a scil, or stream, in the month of 
• October, 1874 ; and there was plenty of water in the springs and spring 
wells along its course. The water from 'A i n e d D i 1 b and 'A i n 
K u e i z i b a also finds its way into this valley. The water of all these 
springs is very good. 

On the main-road near Hulhul is the famous fountain called 
'A i n edh Dhirweh. This, as mentioned later, is the traditional 
' Fountain of the Eunuch,' and the water is conducted from the upper 
spring to a trough, where it runs out of a pipe. (See K u s r I s 1 a i y i n, 
Section B.) This neighbourhood is very well supplied with water, as 
there are eight smaller springs within a radius of a mile from the one 
above noticed. 

The neighbourhood of Hebron is also remarkable for its good water 
supply. There are six good springs within a mile of the city, of which 
the most remarkable is 'A i n Sarah, the ancient Well of Sirah 
(2 Samuel iii. 26; ' Antiq.' viii. i — 5), which is a spring flowing from a 
spout into a small tank. It stands back from the road in a little alley, 
with walls of dry stone on either side. 

Dura again is a neighbourhood with several good springs. On the 
east is the 'A i n el U n k u r, at the head of Wady el Afranj, which 
falls suddenly. There was a good supply of water here in October, 1874, 
and vineyards and orchards below the spring in the valley. 

Near the village itself there are four springs also well supplied with 
water. 

The Negeb district, south of Hebron, is quite dry, the water 
sinking through the soft chalky limestone. There is, however, a valley 



302 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTJ.YE. 

at the northern edge of the district which is remarkable for its abundant 
water. Through this valley runs the Seil ed Dilbeh, which is 
supplied by 14 springs in three groups. In the very end of October, 
1874, a stream was running for 3 or 4 miles, irrigating small gardens. 

The springs occur in three groups. First : 'Ain el Majur, 'Ain el 
Fureidis, 'Ain Abu Kheit, Ain Shekhakh Abu Thor, and another, 'Ain 
Abu Saif, smaller, on the slope of the Ras el Biath, south of Dura. 
Secondly, 'Ain ed Dilbeh, 'Ain el Hejeri, and three smaller springs, 
situate in an open valley, and draining into the stream. 'Ain ed Dilbeh 
is the largest of these springs, and once supplied a small tank near it. It 
is now surrounded with marshy ground. Thirdly, 'Ain el Fuwar, and 
three smaller springs. This valley is thus one of the best watered in 
Southern Palestine, and in 1874, after the rains, it was partially flooded. 

The Jeshimon district is entirely waterless, the various wells 
marked being artificial reservoirs cut in the rock. At the edge of the 
hills there are deep wells, and here and there a small spring. The 
desert is, however, so ill supplied with water that even in early spring 
great difficulty was found in 1875 to obtain enough water for the 
expedition. 

The Shephelah district is well supplied with water from wells 
of living water. In the spring of 1875 water was found along the bed 
of Wady es Siint (or e s S u r) between the ruins of 'Aid el M a and 
K h u r b e t K i 1 a. This comes from the various spring wells along 
the valley. Some of these wells have an appearance of antiquity, as, 
for instance, the B i a r e t Wady e s S u r. (See K h u r b e t 'A i d 
el Ma, Section B.) 

TopoGRAPiiv. — There are eighteen inhabited towns and villages on this 
Sheet, all belonging to the Government division of the J e b e 1 el 
K hull 1, under the Caimacam of Hebron, who is under the Muta.serrif 
of Jerusalem. These may be enumerated in alphabetic order. 

I. Beit ACila (J v) is a small \-illage standing on a spur sur- 
rounded with olives. It has a well on the west in the valley, a mile away. 
This place is perhaps the Biblical Bethul or Bethucl. (Joshua .\i.\. 4 ; 
I Chron. iv. 9.) It is also possibly the Bethel of Joshua xii. 16; 



{SHEET XXI.'\ TOPOGRAniY. 303 

I Samuel xxx. 27. It may also be the Bethel of Judah, mentioned in 
the Talmud (Midrash Ekha ii. 3) as one of the three posts established by 
Hadrian to intercept fugitives from Bether. (Bittir, Sheet XVII.) 

2. Beit Fejjar (L v). — -A small stone village standing very high 
on a ridge. It is supplied by the fine springs and spring wells of W ad y 
el ' A r r vi b. 

3. Beit K a h e 1 (K v). — A small village on a ridge, built of stone, 
with a well to the south. Apparently an ancient place, with rock-cut 
tombs. 

4. Beit Ummar (K v). — A small but conspicuous village stand- 
ing on the watershed, and visible from some distance on the north. An 
ancient road passes through it. Half a mile north-east is a good spring, 
' A i n K u f i n. The mosque has a small tower to it. The surrounding 
neighbourhood is covered with brushwood. 

This place seems to be, without doubt, the Bethamari of the ' Ono- 
masticon (s.v. Baalthamar), near Gabaa or Gibeah of Benjamin. It is 
evident that the ' Onomasticon ' makes a considerable confusion (s.v. 
Gabaath) between Gibeah of Benjamin, Gibeah Phinehas, and Gabatha, 
12 miles from Eleutheropolis. (Jeba, Sheet XYH.) This latter town 
Eusebius and Jerome both identify with Gibeah of Benjamin ; hence 
Bethamari is to be sought near Jeba, which is 4 miles north of Beit 
U m m a r. 

The same place may perhaps be the Biblical Maarath (Joshua xv. 58), 
which is mentioned next to Gedor. The present Khurbet Jedur is only a 
mile from Beit Ummar. 

The mosque is dedicated to Neby M e 1 1 a, or St. Matthew. In 
723 A.D. Willibald, travelling by Tekoa and the Fountain of the Eunuch 
('A i n edh Dhirweh), returns to St. Matthew, and thence to St. 
Zacharias (Beit S k a r i a). The direct road leads through Beit 
Ummar, and the St. Matthew intended was no doubt a chapel near the 
mosque of Neby Metta. 

5. Beni Nairn (L w). — A good-sized village on a high Hat ridge, 
consisting of rude stone cabins, only one story high. On the south and 
west there are groves of olives. It is extremely conspicuous from every 
side, especially from the desert below. The mosque of N e b y L u t 



304 THE SURVEY OF IVESTERy FALESTE\E. 

Stands towards the east side, and is a rectangular building with an inner 
court and a minaret. It is well built ; and large stones are also used up 
in the walls of the houses in the village. These probably once belonged 
to a church, as also the lintel of the north door of the mosque, which has 
three sculptured discs on it, evidently of Byzantine date. 

This place is the traditional site of Abraham's Altar, whence he saw 
the smoke of the Cities of the Plain. It is 3 miles east of Hebron, and 
commands a good view. The Dead Sea is hidden by the western cliffs, 
though the eastern mountains could be seen. The Jordan valley is 
hidden by the ranges south of Mar Saba. On the south the view in- 
cludes Tell Main. On the west the hills round Hebron are seen, 
and on the north H u 1 h u 1 bounds the view. The village is only about 
200 feet lower than er Rame h, which is the highest point in Southern 
Palestine. The water-supply is from numerous ancient cisterns cut in 
rock. 

This place is mentioned by Jerome as Caphar Barucha (Epit. Paula;), 
and as containing the tomb of Lot, with a view like that above 
described.""' 

The tomb of Lot is also mentioned by John of Wirtzburg (i 100), 
and Sir John Maundeville in 1322, as situated two miles from Hebron. 
This place might possibly be the Biblical Janum, near Hebron. _ (Joshua 
XV. 53.) 

The neighbourhood of B e n i N a i m is cultivated. The villagers 
are rich in Hocks, which they pasture in spring in the desert to the 
east. 

6. Dura (J w). — A large and nourishing village on the llat slope of 
a hill, with open ground on the east for about a mile. This plain is culti- 
vated with corn. To the north of Diira are a few olives, and others 
on the south. The houses are of stone. South of the village are two 
Mukams with white domes ; and on the west, higher than the village, is 
the tomb of Neby N u h. Near these there are rock-cut sepulchres. 
The place is well supplied from three springs on the east and one on the 
south. 

Dura is the Biblical Adoraim, or Adora (2 Chron. xi. 9). Joscphus 

* Revisiting this village in 1881, I was spontaneously informed by the Sheikh that its 
ancient name was K e f r B a r e k a. — C. R. C. 



{SHEET XXI.\ TOPOGRAPHY. 3^5 

(Ant. viii. lo, i, etc.) calls it Adora, and a city of Idunvxa. An ancient 
main line of communication with Philistia runs through the village, which 
is in an important position at the edge of the hills. The dome of Neby 
Nuh can be seen from the neighbourhood of e d D a w a i m e h. 

7. H u 1 h Li 1 (K v).— A large stone village on a hill-top, with two 
springs and a well ; also a fine spring below ('A in e d h D h i r w e h). 
On the west is the mosque of Neby Yunis, now in a partly ruinous con- 
dition, with a minaret. There are rock-cut tombs south of the village. 
The hills on the north have vineyards on them, and there are other tombs 
here also. 

Hulhul is the Halhul of the Book of Joshua (xv. 18), and is also 
mentioned in the ' Onomasticon' (s.v. Elul) under the form Alula. The 
tomb of Gad is said by Isaac Chelo (1334) to be there found. The tomb 
of Jonah is mentioned in the fourteenth century here. 

8. I d h n a (J v). — A small village on the south slope of a hill, a 
little above the main road in Wady el Afranj. It is divided by a 
small depression into two. 

This place is the Jedna of the ' Onomasticon,' mentioned (s.v.) as 
6 miles from Eleutheropolis, on the way to Hebron. The distance is 
5^ English miles. 

The name appears to be almost identical with the Hebrew Dannah, a 
town of Judah (Joshua xv. 49) mentioned with Debir and Sochoh further 
south, and with Giloh (Jala) further north. 

9. K haras (K v). — A small village standing high on the side of 
one of the lower hills, with olives round it. On the east is a well. 

This may perhaps be the town of Hareth (LXX. ttoXei, i Samuel xxii. 
5, cf. ; Ant. vi. 12,4), where David took refuge after leaving Adullam, 
w'hich was 3 miles north-west ('Aid el Ma). A main road passes 
through the village. 

10. EL KHULIL ER RAH M A N (K w).— This is the 
modern name of the ancient Hebron, the capital of the district, extending 
over the whole present Sheet. 

Hebron, which is sometimes said to be the oldest town not now in 
ruins in the world, is without walls, but the ends of the main streets, which 
run down towards the high-road, have gates. The houses stand prin- 
VOL. III. ^9 



3o6 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

cipally on the western slope of the hill, and extend to near the bottom 
of the open valley (Wady el Kady), which runs south-east. The place 
is divided into three principal divisions: ist, including the Haret el 
Haram (or el K u 1 a h) and Haret Baber Zawieh, the main 
part, with the Haram in the centre; 2nd, Haret esh Sheikh, so 
called from the mosque of Sheikh 'Aly Bukka, which is in it ; 3rd, 
Haret el M e s h e r k y, which is towards the east, on the west side 
of the main road. The town e.xtends for f- mile parallel to the valley. 
The houses are well built of stone, with flat roofs having domes in the 
middle. The most prominent object is the Haram enclosure, standing 
over the houses. The mosque within and the upper portion of the great 
enclosing wall were newly whitewashed in 1874, and presented a very 
dazzling appearance. 

Since 1875 the town has grown, so that these various quarters are 
almost connected, and the Jews' quarter especially has been enlarged. 
To the four quarters named above must be added six others, viz., 
Haret el Kezazin, the Jews' quarter, north-west of the Haram ; Haret 
Beni Dar, just west of the Haram; Haret el 'Akkabeh and Haret el 
Kerad, on the hill behind the Haram ; Haret el Muhtcsbin, south-east of 
the Haram and of the great pool ; and Haret es Suwakineh, north of 
the Haram, east of the Jews' quarter. 

The town is well supplied with water. On the north is the spring of 
'A i n K a s h k a 1 e h among the vineyards ; near it are rock-cut tombs 
and caves ; a channel, in places rock-cut, but mainly built of modern 
masonry, leads from it towards the town. It originally fed a fountain just 
outside the north-west entrance to the Haram, but now supplies a large 
tank with a vaulted roof. A little further down the valley are two wells, 
and in the bottom of the valley among the olives and gardens is a tank 
85 feet by 55 feet; and about 28 feet deep, with 7 feet of rain water, 
which is generally turbid. South-east of this again is a larger tank, 
opposite the main street to the Haram. It is 133 feet square and 21 
feet deep, of good masonry, well cut, with a stone wall round it, and steps 
in the corners. It is called Birket es Sultan, and traditionally sup- 
posed to be the place where David hung the murderers o{ Ishbosheth. 
(2 Samuel iv. 12.) This tank is also filled by rain water. It is said to 
have been built by Sultan Kalawun. 



[SHEET XXL] TOPOGRAPHY. 307 

There is a bazaar in the town north of the Haram ; on the hill above 
the town is a single house. The other prominent objects are the two 
minarets of the Haram, and that of the mosque of Sheikh 'Aly Bukka. 
There is another mosque adjoining the Haram, on the north-cast, known 
as J a m i a I b n ' O t h m an, or el J a w a 1 i y e h. The hill above 
Hebron is terraced with stone walls and olive plantations. There is a 
ruined fortress on the north-west side of the Haram, and a Khan to the 
south, with an inscription, dating 670 a.ii. (1280 a.d.) stating that it was 
erected by order of Kalawiin Seif ed Din, Sultan of Egypt. A school 
south of the Haram has over the door an inscription of the same Sultan, 
with the date 677 a.ii. 

The first view of Hebron on the north is obtained from near 'A i n el 
K a n a, about a mile north-west ; on other sides, the town is quite hidden 
by its surrounding mountains, except to the south-east, where it can be 
seen well from K u r m Ci 1 and Tell Main. 

Opposite the houses is an open green, sloping gently towards the 
valley. Here is the Moslem cemetery and a modern building which is 
called the Quarantine. The hill behind this is called K u b b el J a n i b, 
that opposite above Hebron is called Ras J'abreh and also Habail 
e r R i h. There are no less than twenty-five springs in all in the 
vicinity of Hebron, and ten wells of large size, among which two, towards 
the north near Haret esh Sheikh, are called the wells of Abraham and Jacob. 

West of the open ground are olive-groves, and among these a fine 
spring, ' A i n el J u d e i d e h, in a vault, roofed with masonry and 
reached by steps. It is perennial, and traditionally the place where Adam 
and Eve hid after their expulsion from Paradise. This tradition is found 
as early as 1321, Marino Sanuto calling it the cave (Spelunca) where 
Adam and Eve grieved for Abel. ' A fountain springs from it,' he says. 
The open ground near it was called Ager Damascenus and Vallis Lachry- 
morum, as mentioned by this author, and also as early as iioo a.d. by 
John of Wirtzburg. The place where Cain killed Abel was a little 
further south." These traditions are also to be found in the writings of 
Sir John Maundeville (1322 a.d.), and he mentions the formation of Adam 
out of red earth in this field, as is still believed. 

* This site is now shown much further south, at Neby Yukin. 

39—2 



3o8 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

The tomb of Abner, mentioned in 1561 a.d. by R. Gerson of Scar- 
mela as in Hebron, is now shown in Hebron, in the courtyard of a 
Moslem house, with that of Ishbosheth ; but these are modern sites. 
The tomb of Jesse is a Kubbeh in the corner of the Deir el Arbain, 
with that of Ruth. (See Section B.) Near this is a rock-cut tomb called 
Kabr Hebrun. (See Section B.) The tombs of the Patriarchs and 
of Joseph are in the Haram. 

The ancient Jewish cemetery on the north side of the hill, called 
er Rumeidy, west of the town, is interesting. It contains at least 500 
tombs, each covered with a stone five or six feet long. This cemetery is 
now disused, and appears to be very ancient. The curious tradition of 
the Mugharet edh Dhukkaah is noted in Section C. 

It seems to have been supposed from an early period that ancient 
Hebron was not on the site of modern Hebron. The ' Onomasticon ' 
makes the place near Drys (e r R a m e h). The I tin. Hierosol. gives this 
distance as 2 Roman miles. Sta. Paula (385 a.d.) visits the tombs of the 
Patriarchs, the oak, and then ' ascends ' to Hebron. Theodorus (in sixth 
century) finds the oak 4 Roman miles from the Spelunca Duplex, or 
cavern of the Patriarchs, and this cavern 2 miles from Hebron. Arcul- 
phus (700 A.D.) found the place in ruins, and west of the tombs of the 
Patriarchs. Sa^wulf (1102 a.d.) gives the same account, the tombs being 
in a strong castle and the town in ruins. Benjamin of Tudela (i 163 a.d.) 
calls this castle St. Abraham, and speaks of the old city as 011 a hill and 
in ruins. Marino Sanuto (1321 a.d.) places the old Hebron north of the 
cavern of Adam ('A in el J u d e i d e h), and north-west of Ebron Nova, 
in which he places the Spelunca Duplex. He also speaks of it as ' ad 
dextram Mambre.' 

The Oak or Terebinth of Abraham has been shown in two different 
sites. It seems probable, though not certain, that the present site is that 
shown from the twelfth century down. (See further under the head 
T e r e b i n t h u s.) Hebron is surrounded with fine vineyards, especially 
on the north and to the west. There are also olive groves, pomegranates, 
figs, quinces, and apricots. The present tree shown as Abraham's Oak 
(B a 1 1 u I e t S c b t a) is a fine specimen of Sindidu {Quercus Pscudo- 
coccifera) standing among vineyards ; close to it is a Russian hospice 
recently built. 



{SHEET A'A'/] TOPOGRAPHY. 309 

Among the tombs venerated by the Moslems are those of Sheikh 
'Atijeh, Jaber, Mujahed (see Section B, under heading Deir el Arbdin), 
Khoreish, and Abdallah. Near the great pool lies Sheikh Muhammed 
Kalafiish. 

The trade of Hebron consists prInciiDally in wool, etc., brought in by 
the Arabs, and in the glass manufactured in the town, with water-skins 
also made there in great quantities. 

The population is variously stated. Robinson says that before 1S34 
there were 1,500 taxable Moslems and 241 Jews; but that in his time 
(1838) the total was only about 10,000. Professor Socin states it in 1875 
as 8, 000 to 10,000, with 500 Jews. The official return in 1851 gave 
1 1,000 Moslems and 450 Jews. The population seems now to be about 
10,000. The Caimacam of the town estimated it in 1875 at 17,000 
Moslems, with 600 Jews. In 1881 there were said to be 1,000 or 1,200 
Jews, who have now three synagogues in their quarter. 

Hebron became a bishopric in 1 167 a.d. It is not often mentioned in 
Crusading history. 

1 1. N uba (J v). — A small village perched on a low hill, with a well 
about a mile to the east. This is perhaps the Nebo of Nehemiah vii. 2)o- 

12. Safa (K u). — A small village, with a well to the north, on the 
west slope just below the watershed. 

13. S i a i r (L v). — A village of moderate size, in a valley surrounded 
with cultivated ground ; it has a spring and a sacred place (M u k a m 
Aisa), which is the traditional tomb of Esau, 'son,' as the Moslems of 
the place say, of ' Isaac the Jealous.' This tradition probably arose from 
an incorrect identification of the village with the Biblical Seir. Rock-cut 
tombs show it to be an ancient site. The name suggests its identity with 
Zior. (Joshua xv. 54.) (See Section B.) 

14. Esh Shiukh (L v). — A well-built village standing high, and 
visible from Tekua. There are a few trees round it, and caves. 
The water supply is from cisterns, and there is a spring to the north 
near S i a i r. 

15. Surif (K u). — A small village on a low hill, with olives to the 
south. This may perhaps be the early Christian Sariphsea mentioned in 
connection with Mar Saba and Beit J i b r i n. (Rel. Pal., p. 987.) 



310 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

1 6. Terkumieh {J v). — A small village on a rocky hill near the 
low lands. On the east, about a mile distant, is a spring ; on the south 
are olives. This place is the early Christian Tricomias, an episcopal see. 
(Rel. Pal., p. 1046.) 

17. Tiiffuh (K w). — A village of ancient appearance, standing 
high at the edge of a ridge ; on the north are the steep slopes of W a d y 
K e d i r, in which are olives belonging to the place. An ancient main- 
road passes through the village, and runs along flat ground to the west for 
a little way, then descends the ridge. There is a well to the west, with 
cisterns, caves, and rock-cuttings. The village has vineyards round it, 
and good springs in the valley to the west. This site is the ancient 
Beth Tappuah (Joshua xv. 53), which is also mentioned in the lists of 
Thothmes III. with Carmel (Kurmfil) and other places in the south 
of Palestine. 

18. Yutta (K x).— A large village standing high en a ridge. It is 
built of stone, but some of the inhabitants live in tents. The water- 
supply is from cisterns. On the south there are rock-cut tombs, and 
rock wine-presses are found all round the village. The neighbourhood is 
extremely stony ; south of the village are scattered olives, which are con- 
spicuous objects ; on the west, a little lower under a cliff, is a small olive- 
yard in which the camp of the Survey party was pitched in 1S74 ; to the 
south-west of camp were a few figs. The inhabitants are very rich in 
flocks ; the village owned, it was said, 17,000 sheep, beside goats, cows, 
camels, horses, and donkeys. The Sheikh alone had 250 sheep. 

Yutta is the Biblical Juttah. (Joshua xv. 55.) Reland supposes it to 
be the 'city of Judah' of the New Testament. (Luke i. 39; Rel. Pal., 
p. 870.) In the ' Onomasticon,' Jetan i^Xurav) is mentioned as 
18 Roman miles from Eleutheropolis, and in Daroma — 'ad australem.' 
Yutta is 15^ English miles from Beit J i b r i n (Eleutheropolis). 

In addition to the above places, among which it will be noticed that 
all but four seem to be sites at least fourteen centuries old, and some as 
early as Abraham, the following ruins are known to be places of antiquity : 



[SHEET XXL] BIBLICAL SITES. 3" 

I. Biblical Sites. 

A d u 1 1 a m. — The cave was, according to Josephus, near the city of 
this name. (Ant. vi. 1 2, 3.) The city was in the Shephclah (Joshua xv. 35), 
near J arm nth (el Yermuk, Sheet XVII.), and Socoh (Shuweikeh, 
Sheet XVH.). It was fortified by Rehoboam. (2 Chron. xi. 7.) In the 
' Onomasticon ' it is mentioned as a village of moderate size, ' vicus non 
parvus,' 10 miles east of Eleutheropolis. The ruined site of 'Aid el 
M a is 7 English miles east of Beit J i b r i n. (See for further account 
Khurbet 'Aid el Ma, Section B.) 

In the Middle Ages the cave of Adullam was shown near T e k u a, 
where is the modern traditional site (Mugharet Mas a). Thus 
William of Tyre speaks of the inhabitants of Tekud flying to the cave of 
Odolla in 1 138 a.d. 

Arab. — A town of Judah (Joshua xv. 52), apparently near Dumah 
(Domeh), close to which is the ruin of er Rabiyeh, which repro- 
duces the name almost exactly. 

Berachah (Valley) (2 Chron. xx. 26). — This was situate ap- 
parently in the neighbourhood of Tekoa, and the name is still traceable 
in the ruin Breikut, whence it appears that the valley was probably 
Wady el 'Arriib, an open, well-watered valley, well fitted for the 
assembly mentioned in the Bible. 

Beth Anoth. — A town of Judah, mentioned (Joshua xv. 59) with 
Halhul and Bethzur. This points to the present ruin of B e i t 'A i n u n. 
The names are nearer than would appear, as the modern name is a more 
recent plural of the word 'Ain (E n), of which Anoth is supposed also to 
be a plural. (Buxt. Lex. Tal. Gesen. Lex.) 

Beth Z u r. — A town of Judah (Joshua xv. 58) between Halhul 
(H til hill) and Gedor (Jediir), in the position of Beit S u r. The 
place is famous later, Beth Sura being a frontier town of the Jews on the 
confines of Idumsea. (i Mace. iv. 29.) 

The site has never been lost : it was known to Eusebius (' Onomas- 
ticon,' s.v. (diOaovp, Beth Sur) as 20 miles from Jerusalem, and close to the 
Fountain of the Eunuch. In the 'Travels' of Theodorus (sixth century), 



312 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

the distance is given as i6 Roman miles. The true distance is 14 
EngHsh miles. 

Marino Sanuto (1321 a.d.) calls it Bosra or Bethsur, and shows the 
place on his map between Bethlehem and Hebron. He speaks of the 
fountain of the Eunuch as near it, and says that the water ran west and 
south to the Pons Invocantis Maxillee (Sheet XX.), thence to Staol near 
Ascalon, and to the sea. On his map, however, the words Bap Eun are 
written further west, near Staol, which appear to be the modern E s h (1 a, 
being placed north of Tell es Safi. (Sheet XVH.) He thus appears 
to have confused the old fourth century site with the later site for the 
Fountain of the Eunuch. ('A in Haniyeh, Sheet XVH.) 

Bezeth (i Mace. vii. 19). — A place with a great pit or reservoir; 
perhaps the ruin of B e i t Z a t a, near the great reservoir of B i r k e t 
Kufin, represents this place. Josephus reads Beth Zetho. (Ant. xii. 
10, 2.) Bezetha at Jerusalem may, however, be intended. 

Cain. — A town of Judah (Joshua xv. 56), mentioned in a list with 
Juttah (Yutta) and Carmel (Kiirmiil). It may probably be the ruin 
of Y u k i n, a slight corruption of the Hebrew Ha Cain. 

Carmel. — A town of Judah (Joshua xv. 55), Is the modern K urmfil. 
In the ' Onomasticon ' it is mentioned as 10 Roman miles from Hebron, 
verging to the east, with a Roman garrison. William of Tyre mentions 
it as the camp of King Amalrich, in 11 72 a.d. The place is about 
7 English miles from Hebron. Fetellus (1130 a.d.) also mentions it 
as in the Hebron mountains and the home of Nabal, though he confuses 
it with Ziph. 

Choresh Ziph. — In the Authorised Version 'Wood 01 Ziph,' but 
according to Josephus It was called ' New Place ' of Ziph (Ant. vi. 13, 2), 
agreeing with the LXX. (jj/coii'i)). This reading appears to be by taking 
n for 1, linn for irin. The ' Onomasticon ' notices Ziph as near Carmel, 
and Jerome adds (s.v. Zib) that It was 8 miles from Hebron eastwards 
and in Daroma, and that 'the village where David hid is still shown.' 
Perhaps he refers to Choresh Ziph. There is a ruin called Khiirbet 
Khoreisa, i^ miles south of T e 1 1 Z i f 

Chozeba. — A place of unknown position (i Chron. iv. 22), ap- 



[SHEET XXL] BIBLICAL SITES. 313 

parently in the south, or in the territory of Judah. The name is closely 
represented by that of the ruin of K li e i z i b a. 

D u m a h. — A town of Judah, in the neighbourhood of Hebron 
(Joshua XV. 52), is probably the present ruin of ed Domeh. The 
' Onomasticon ' makes it a very large village 1 7 miles from Eleutheropolis 
in Daroma. Ed Domeh is 14 English miles from Beit Jibrin. 
Dumah is mentioned between Arab (e r Rabiyeh) and Eshean (e s 
Simla), two places which, if correctly identified, are 2^ miles east of 
Domeh. 

E shean. — A town of Judah (Joshua xv. 52) mentioned next to the 
last. Perhaps es Simla (see above). It is noticeable that the Vatican 
text reads "Lo^ia. 

Gedor. — A royal city (Joshua xv. 58), near Beth Zur and Maarath 
(Beit Sur and Beit U m mar), is the present ruin of J ed u r. This 
seems to be the place called Gadara in the ' Onomasticon,' ' in the neigh- 
bourhood of the Terebinth' ('Onomasticon' s.v. Gadara), and wrongly 
identified there with Gederah (Joshua xv. 36). But it is 5^ miles from 
the Terebinth (e r R a m e h). 

Giloh. — A city of Judah (Joshua xv. 51), named with towns in the 
lower hills, and last of its list. Perhaps the ruin of Jala may represent 
the name, though the situation is further north than the other towns of 
the list. 

Hachilah (Hill) (i Samuel xxiii. 19), facing the Jeshimon, and 
south of it ('on the right') (i Samuel xxvi. 1-3). It appears to have 
had a cliff (xxiii. 25) ; it was near Ziph and Maon. This description 
applies to the ridge called Dhahret el Kola, and the name may 
perhaps be a corruption of Hachilah. 

Haruph appears to have been a place in the south of Judah 
( I Chron. xii. 5) ; the name is perhaps preserved in K h u r b e t K h a r u t, 
south of 'Aid el M a. 

Holon. — A town of Judah (Joshua xv. 51); also called Hilen 
(i Chron. vi. 58). It seems to have been in the lower hills, and is in 
the same group with Denna (probably I d h n a). This would point to 
the large ruin of Beit 'A 1 a m as a possible site. 

VOL. III. 40 



314 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

Keilah. — A city in the Shephelah of Judah (Joshua xv. 44); is 
identified with the modern ruined site of K i 1 a. The ' Onomasticon ' 
places it 7 or 8 miles from Eleutheropolis, on the road to Hebron. K i 1 a 
is 7 English miles from Beit Jibrin. The 'Onomasticon' also identifies 
this site wrongly with Hachilah (see above). Jerome states that the 
tomb of Habakkuk was found there, and Micah is also said to have been 
buried there. (See' " Quarterly Statement,' April, 1877, p. 86, and cf. 
Nephsa Neemana further on.) 

Meronoth. — A place of unknown position. The name of Marrina 
seems closely to resemble this name. 

Nezib. — A city of the Shephelah of Judah (Joshua xv. 43) named 
with Keilah. This place is the ruin of B e i t N u s i b, near K i 1 a. In 
the 'Onomasticon' it is placed 9 miles (7 in the Latin) from Eleutheropolis, 
on the way to Hebron. The true distance is 6.V English miles from 
Beit Jibrin. 

R abb ah. — A city of Judah, mentioned with Kirjath Jearim (Joshua 
XV. 60). In the ' Onomasticon ' a place called Rebbo is mentioned as east 
of Eleutheropolis, which might be the same. A good-sized ruin named 
R u b b a is found in the low hills south of the valley of Elah, north-east 
of Beit Jibrin, which would be in a suitable position for the early 
Christian site. 

Sela ham Mahlekoth, ' Cliff of Divisions,' was in the Wilder- 
ness of Maon (i Samuel xxiii. 28). The great gorge which breaks 
down between Carmel and Maon eastwards, with vertical cliffs, is called 
Wady Malaki, and this would be a suitable position, and the name a 
probable corruption by the loss of the guttural. 

Si rah (Well) (2 Samuel iii. 26), near Hebron, is the present 'A i n 
Sareh. The modern and ancient name have the same meaning. 

Tekoa, a town of Judah (2 Chron. xi. 6), is the modern ruined 
site of Tekiii. In the 'Onomasticon' it is placed 9 miles from 
Jerusalem, or, according to Euscbius, 12. The distance in a line is about 
10 English miles, but by road the longer distance would be correct. 
Jerome mentions the tomb of Amos (I tin. Sanctae Paulte) as being there 
shown. John of Wirtzburg (uoo a.d.) and Fctellus (i 130 a.d.) say the 



{SHEET XX/.] NON-BIBLICAL SITES. 315 

same. In 1144 a.d. Queen Melisinda gave Tekoa to the Canons of the 
Holy Sepulchre in exchange for property at Bethany (Will, of Tyre). 
The place was called Laura Nova, 'New Monastery,' in contra- 
distinction to Laura (Alar Saba), a monastery having been there 
established by St. Saba. Isaac Chelo (1334 a.d.) speaks of the tomb of 
Amos as being in a cave at Tekoa. 

Z i p h, a town of Judah (Joshua xv. 55), is the present Tell e z Z i f . 
This appears to be the Z i b of the 'Onomasticon,' 8 miles from Hebron, 
towards the east. (See Choresh Ziph.) The true distance is, however, 4 
English miles south-east of Hebron. In 1334 Isaac Chelo mentions the 
tomb of Rabbi Ziphai as existing there. 



Non-Biblical Sites. 

A r i s t obu 1 i as. — A place mentioned as near Hebron and Ziph in 
the ' Life of St. Euthymius ' (Rel. Pal, p. 582). This would point to the 
ruin of I s t a b u 1, close to Tell e z Z i f on the south. 

Caphar Aziz. — A place mentioned in the Talmud (Mishna 
Kilaim vi. 4); apparently in the south of Judah. May probably be the 
important ruin of 'A z i z, near Y u 1 1 a. 

St. Chariton. — This monastery was founded by St. Chariton 
before 410 a.d. (Acta Sanct.). The place is mentioned by John of 
Wirtzburg (i 100 a.d.) as 4 miles south of Bethlehem, or nearly equi- 
distant with Tekoa. The same place seems to be intended by the 
Church of St. Karitoth, mentioned by Fetellus (1130 a.d.), 4 miles from 
Bethlehem, in the direction of Hebron. This appears to be the ruin of 
K h li r e i t u n, near the famous cave which, from the 1 2th century down, 
has been shown as that of Adullam (M i^i g h a r e t M a s a). The place 
is about 4^ miles from Bethlehem south-east. 

Gemmaruris. — Mentioned by Ptolemy as in Idumaea (Rel. Pal., 
p. 804). Possibly the present ruin of J e m r u r a h. 

Herodium, near Tekoa, and about 60 stadia from Jerusalem 
(Ant. XV. 9, 4 ; B.J. i. 21, 10, and B.J. iv. 9, 5), is identified with the 
present J e b e 1 F u r e i d i s, the description of Josephus agreeing with 

40 — 2 



3i6 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

the existing ruins. The distance is •]\ English miles from Jerusalem and 
3 from Tekoa. Here Herod was buried. (Ant. xvii. 8, 3 ; B.J. i. 33, 9.) 
The place is mentioned, in 14S3 a.d., by Felix Fabri as a garrison of the 
Franks, whence the modern Christian name — the Frank Mountain. 

Nephsa Nee m ana was the native name of the Tomb of Micah, 
discovered 10 stadia from Keilah. (See ' Quarterly Statement,' July, 1877, 
p. 42.) The name, Neby N'aman, applied to a sacred tree, may 
perhaps be connected, but this is 28 stadia from Keilah. 

Te r e b i n t h u s. — The appellation, in the fourth century, of Abraham's 
Oak, which was shown at Mamre. Jerome also calls it Drys ('Oak'), 
and says (s.v.) that the original terebinth was standing in his infancy, 
and worshipped by the natives. The Itin. Hierosol. and Sozomen place it 
2 Roman miles from Hebron towards Jerusalem. Eucherius, in the sixth 
century, makes it 4 Roman miles from the Spelunca Duplex (e 1 H a r a m), 
and 2 from Hebron. Arculphus (700 a.d.) places it north of the hill of 
Mamre, which he makes south-west of the Spelunca Duplex. Benjamin 
of Tudela (1163 a.d.) mentions Abraham's House, with a spring by it, 
which seems to be the same place. These notices point to the ruin of 
e r R a m e h, near which is Beit el K h u 1 i 1, or Abraham's house, 
with a fine spring-well. This place is still held by the Jews to be the 
Oak (' Plain,' Authorised Version) of Mamre, though the Christians point 
to another site, Ballutet Sebta. The ruin is 2 English miles from 
el H aram, and to the north, as it would appear to have been from the 
Itineraries. 

Er Ramch is mentioned by its present name by Marino Sanuto 
(132 1 A.D.) as near Tckoa and Hebron. 

Roads. — The main roads on this Sheet are five in all, as follow : 
I. Jerusalem to Bccrsheba. — This ancient line, marked on 
the Peutinger Tables (393 a.d.), runs to the east of the watershed, 
gradually ascending an open valley (W a d y el B i a r), and then gradually 
descending by Bir cl H aj Ramadan to cross another undulation. 
From thence it rises steadily about 60 feet per mile to the 'A i n 
D h i r w e h, where there is a sort of pass, commanded by Beit S u r 
and the steep hill of H li 1 h u 1. Three-quarters of a mile further south a 



[SHEET XXL] ROADS. 317 

Roman milestone lies by the road, which then crosses another valley-head, 
and reaches the plateau at er Ram eh, the highest point along its 
course. It then descends into the Hat valley of Kebron, falling 300 feet 
in 2 miles. This part is walled, between drystone vineyard walls ; and 
traces of ancient pavement are observable. The main line runs from the 
open ground west of Hebron in a south-west direction, gradually descend- 
ing to the springs in Wady ed Dilbeh, where it crosses a piece of 
flat ground, and then follows the course of W a d y c 1 K h u 1 i I along 
the slopes of the hills west of that valley. It gradually descends towards 
Dhaheriyeh. (Sheet XXV.) A parallel line runs along the plateau of 
Kadt ez Zeituneh to Beit U m m a r, and joins the main line 
near Beit S li r. 

2. Jerusalem to Kiirmul. — Another road, also apparently 
ancient, branches out at the top of Wady el B i a r, and runs almost 
parallel further east, reaching Beit Fejjar after following the ridge 
on which that village stands. It then descends into the broad Wady 
'Arriib, a sharp fall of over 500 feet, and runs up Wady Kueiziba 
and across a saddle, again descending to S i a i r, with gradients of about 
500 feet rise and fall in a mile. South of S i a i r the road reaches the 
spur on which Beni Nairn is built, and runs along its course, being 
joined by a branch from H u 1 h i\ 1. From the high plateau of Beni 
N a i m it runs nearly le\'el to N e b y Y u k i n, and, heading the gorges 
which break down eastwards, runs south-west to Tell e z Z i f , falling 
240 feet in 3^ miles. At this point there are four cross-roads. One line 
runs on, on level ground, to Yutta and thence west, falling gradually 
and crossing Wady el K h u 1 i 1, joining No. i near Domeh on the 
opposite slope. In this part it shows signs of antiquity. The other direc- 
tion is a continuation of a line which comes down from Hebron, followino- 
Wady el K a d y and gradually ascending east of that valley. From 
Tell el Zlf this line runs along the plateau to Kurmul, and thence 
south to Tell Main. (Sheet XXY.) 

Yutta is a centre for several roads which have an ancient appear- 
ance, forming cross communications to K u r m u 1 and e s S e m u d. 
(Sheet XXV.) 

3. Gaza to Hebron. — This line begins to ascend at Deir el 
'A si, following the contour of the hill, and rising 1,300 feet in about 



3i8 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

3 miles direct to Khiirbet Sirreh. It then turns north, still ascending, 
and runs along a ridge to Ras el Biath, rising 200 feet in 2 miles 
direct. It next descends slightly into the small plain near Dura, and 
thence runs due east for 2\ miles in open ground, falling nearly 150 feet, 
to 'A i n el U n k u r. Here the road ascends a low hill, and thence 
runs with a slight bend to Hebron. On the high-ground near K h u r b e t 
Kan an there is a branch from No. i which joins No. 3, and the two 
run between vineyard walls and descend slightly, passing Ballutet 
S ebta on the east, and thence, rising gradually, still between walls, join 
No. I near er Ram eh. 

4. Hebron to Beit Jibri n. — The road leaves No. i just north 
of Hebron, crosses No. 3, and runs straight to Tuffiih. It then 
gradually descends, following the ridge, and reaches Khiirbet Firah 
in Wad y el Afranj, which valley it follows to Beit Jibrin. This line 
is well engineered, and has every appearance of antiquity. Even the 
steepest gradients west of Tuffuh are throughout gentle. 

5. Beit Sur to Ashdo d. — This is the northern main line of 
communication between Hebron and the maritime plain. It leaves No. i 
at B e i t Sur, and winds north-west along the ridge descending to 
K h a r a s, and thence to the valley of Elah (W a d y e s Sunt), which 
it follows past the ruins of ' A i d el M a. Its further course is mentioned 
on Sheet XVII. (Road No. 9). In 6 miles direct from the watershed it 
falls 1,700 feet to the valley. Another branch from K h u r b e t 'Aid el 
M a runs rather further north, rising 1,800 feet in six miles, to K h li r b e t 
Jedur, along a spur of mountain, and finally joining No. i (western 
branch) at Beit U m m a r, having a final rise in the last mile of over 
200 feet. 

6. Bethlehem to Engedi. — The main line comes from east of 
Jebel Fureidis, and runs down into the open valley called W a d y 
Mucillak. Heading the precipices, this road then crosses two high 
ridges, and descends into W a d y H u s a s a h, whence it gradually rises 
to the open plateau called M u t u k h H u s a s a h, and so runs to the 
cliffs above Engedi. (Sheet XXII.) 

Cultivation. — This has already been noticed. The sudden cessation 



{SHEET XXI. ^ CULTIVATION. 319 

of brushwood on the watershed is very marked on this Sheet, the eastern 
slopes being quite bare. 

The neighbourhood of the Hebron hills is one of the principal vine- 
growing districts. The low hills have good corn fields in the open 
valleys between. The southern plateau of Daroma, or the Negeb, is also 
productive of corn, especially along W a d y el K h li 1 i 1, and the eastern 
slopes above the desert give good pasturage, especially in spring. The 
olive does not flourish well in any part within this Sheet, but the villages 
in the low hills have a few. 



SHEET XXI. —SECTION B. 



ARCHEOLOGY. 



'A in el Bahhah, near Hebron (K w). — Close to this spring is the 
ruin of a small building called Deir Bahhah. The water falls into a long 
stone trough, with remains of an arch (pointed and apparently modern) 
by it. There is a small Mihrab, and a stone with a rude Arabic inscription. 
Probably a small mosque stood over the spring. 

'A i n e d D i r w e h (K v). 

'Above the fountain is a platform. Here are the traces of an old Christian basilica built 
of cut stones. It lies east and west, measuring 31 paces in length by 13 in breadth, and was 
divided into three naves. The vault was of rubble-work, and seemed of later date.' — Guerin, 
' Judea,' iii. 2S8. 

' A i n el K a n a (K v). — This spring is small, and collects in a small 
cistern. The water is now used in irrigation, but originally supplied 
Hebron through an aqueduct, still traceable. The pipes were 5 inches 
in diameter, supported on a wall 4 to 12 feet high. Cisterns, baths, rock 
wine-presses, and old garden-towers occur beside the aqueduct, which 
extends i^ miles from the spring to the town, and is joined by another 
channel from 'Ain el 'Arab. 'Ain el Khabieh, now dry, is also on the 
line of the channel. The channel is lost near the mosque below 'Ain 
Kashkaleh. The stones in this aqueduct are rudely squared, and built 
in mortar and cement. It crosses Wady 'Ain Sarah by a pointed arch. 
The work resembles Arab masonry of the best period, and the aqueduct 
was not improbably made by Sultan Kalawun in the thirteenth century, 
as this Sultan built a great many buildings in Hebron, 

Revisited and traced 29th July, iSSi. 

'Ain Umm Rukbch (L w). — A lintel stone, 8 feet by 2 feet 



{SHEET XXI.^ 



ARCHEOLOGY. 



321 



9 inches and i foot 9 inches thick, with a tablet, having on it three 
crosses in circles. There are remains of a large building. 

Beit 'A lam (I v). — Foundations, caves, and cisterns were found 
here, with heaps of stones and remains of an ancient road. There was 
also a round stone font, half-buried, 2 feet 3 inches interior diameter, 
9 inches thick. 

Beit 'Auwa (I w). — This name applies to a group of ruins which 
have separate names. Khiirbet es Sueity, Khurbet el 
M eh ami, Khurbet el Kusdh are all sites with foundations and 
caves. El K u s r is an ancient watch-tower, with drystone walls in 
ruins; el Keniseh seems to be a ruined church; foundations, 
capitals, shafts, and lintels with the Maltese cross on them, remain, 




Section oh A B 



showing a Byzantine building. There is also a fine font (see Plan) 
fitted for immersion. In the centre a square basin, 2 feet 3 inches side, 
7 inches deep ; four steps lead down, 5 inches high, 9 inches broad ; the 
whole surrounded by four segmental recesses, the external form of the 
font being that of a rounded cross, the longest measurement either way 
being 5^ feet, and the total height outside 2 feet 4 inches. 
Visited 30th March, 1S75. 

Beit el Ban (J w). — Foundations and caves. 

Beit K a n u n (K v). — Foundations, cisterns, and heaps of stones, 
apparently an old site. 

VOL. III. ~ 41 



322 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

Beit Kheiran (K v). — Cisterns and caves, ruined walls and 
foundations. Heaps of stones. The place seems to be an old site, and 
stands high in a conspicuous position. In the valley to the south is a 
spring. 

Beit el Khulil (K v). — Two courses of large masonry remain, 
enclosing an area with a well in its south-west corner. The true bearing 
of the western wall was 274°. This wall outside is 162 feet long ; the 
other at right angles to the south is 214 feet long outside ; both are 6 feet 
thick. On the east is a third of the same thickness, but on the north a 
broken wall of small masonry. There is an entrance on the west, 45 feet 
from the north-west corner, 3 feet wide. There is also a stone 17 feet 
4 inches long on that side, which is i-^ feet less in height than the rest in 
the course ; thus either the horizontal joints were not even, or this is the 
sill of a broad door, or some opening of the kind. The wall is faced 
with ashlar for a thickness of 2 feet 2 inches ; behind this is rubble, and 
on the inside smaller ashlar, of which every third or fourth stone is built 
in as a header. The outer ashlar is very fine, the stone a hard, fossili- 
ferous limestone ; the dressing is good ; none of the stones are drafted. 
The height of the course is about 3 feet 7 inches on the average, and in 
the south wall is a stone 14 feet 8 inches long. There are, however, in 
the second course from the top narrow stones at intervals, one being only 
15 inches long. 

In the west wall are stones 1 7 feet 4 inches and 1 5 feet 6 inches in length. 

In the south wall the horizontal joint is disturbed in one place by a stone 

^ which is cut out, so that one part is 4 inches 

„ , 'J higher than the other. This peculiarity is found 

^ ' " in Byzantine buildings. (Sec D e ir Serur, 

Sheet XI.) The size of this ashlar is equal to 

that of the Haram wall at Jerusalem. The west 

wall is 6 feet 8 inches high outside, but only 

3 feet 2 inches inside, the outer ashlar forming a 

Dn.ha^KM s„.aiMa.,on,y parapet 2 fgct 7 inches thick, 3 feet 6 inches 

high. The vertical joints are never continuous ; the stones are very well 

laid, and the joints very fine. A third course is visible in one part below 

those which are at present above ground in the south wall. 

The well is 7.^ feet cast of the west wall, and is 17 feet in diameter. 












o 

a: 
03 



a: 
< 



< 

< 



<< 

cc 



[SHEET XXL] ARCHEOLOGY. 323 

It is lined with ashlar, carefully cut to the curve of the circumference, but 
of no great size. Remains of an arch which once spanned the well were 
found ; but this seems to be more modern, and a fragment of an ancient 
cornice was used up in it as a voussoir. The supply of water is from a 
spring. There are remains of a trough by the well, lined with fine hard 
red cement, such as the Crusaders used. (See Csesarea, Sheet VII.) 

This building may perhaps have been the" market mentioned by 
Sozomen (Hist. ii. 4), as the place where Hadrian sold Jewish captives 
for slaves, 135 a.d., close to Constantine's basilica at the Terebinth of 
Mamre. (Palestine Exploration Fund Photograph No. 192.) It is called 
Abraham's house by Rabbi Benjamin of Tudela as early as the twelfth 
century, and by the modern Jews of Hebron, who place the Elon Mamre 
by it. 

About 50 yards further east are remains, which may be those of the 
basilica in question. The masonry is very inferior, resembling, however, 
Byzantine work. The building had a porch or narthe.x on the west, 
38 feet long east and west. The basilica was 2)2) ^^^^ wide inside. Its 
length could not be determined, nor was the apse traceable. The bearing 
of the west wall was 11°. The walls were 3 feet thick. The door from 
the narthex was 3^ feet wide. The corner stones of the building had an 
irregular draft, and the boss of the stone was rudely dressed (compare 
Deir K til ah, Sheet XIV.), the stone being 4 feet long, i foot 
2 inches high, and the draft 7 inches wide at the sides, 4 inches above. 

Visited 7th October, 1874. 

About this extremely interesting place Guerin says that the neighbourhood is full of tradi- 
tions and names connected \si\.\\ Abraham. The well is called Bir el Khiilil (' The Well 
of the Friend,' i.e., Abraham). The enclosure itself is called the Haram Rumet el Khiilil. 
South-east of the little plain on which it stands rises a hill, which is called Jebel el Batruk 
(' Mountain of the Patriarch '). To the east of this hill is a valley called Hallel el Bothmeh, 
or Hallel Bothmeh er Ramah (' Place of the Terebinth of Ramah). He is inclined to believe 
that the enclosure was erected either by the Jews or by the Idumjeans. As to the basilica, 
which is mentioned by the Bordeaux Pilgrim, Gue'rin does not think that it was built within 
the enclosure. The Haram or enclosure, therefore, would have been built round the tree 
under which the patriarch put up his tent, including the well, which is now dry, and the altar 
which he erected. The place was, to Jew and Pagan alike, the object of superstitious worship. 
Sacrifices were offered, pilgrims flocked thither, and an annual fair was established. After 
the revolt of Bar Cocheba, the hapless Jews who had escaped the massacre of Bether were 
sold at the Market of the Terebinth. Jerome speaks of the fair. Constantine ordered the 
removal of the Pagan altar and the erection of a basilica, which was done. 

41 — 2 



324 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

Beit Lam (J v). — Cisterns, caves, foundations, and ruined walls; 
apparently an ancient site. 

Beit M a k d u m (J \v). — Cisterns, caves, foundations, and walls, 
apparently an old site. 

Beit Nil sib (J v). — Cisterns and caves, foundations and ruined 
walls, with a few pillar shafts. One foundation about 60 feet square, and 
another 1 20 feet by 30, are mentioned by Robinson, who speaks of rudely 
drafted stones. The buildings, like those of the two last sites, seem to 
date back to the Byzantine period, judging from the character of the 
masonry ; but the cisterns and caves are perhaps older. 

Beit Sulluh (J u). — Is a site resembling the last, with cisterns, 
foundations, and heaps of stones. 

Beit Sur (K v). — The greater part of the ruins lie to the north 
and north-west sides of the hill. On the east is the tower (Burj es 
S ta r), and rather lower in a small cliff are rock-cut tombs. 

The Tower is of mediaeval character, about 40 feet square (15 
paces), with an interior staircase and a rubble-roofed double vault. In 
the west wall is a loophole, wide within, narrow without, with a rudely 
pointed arch. Old masonry has been used up in the walls, the stones 
being of irregular size. Some of the stones near the foundation in the 
south-west corner are drafted, but of no great size. The walls are 10 feet 
thick, the central core being of rubble. A few large stones lie fallen at 
the foot of the tower. Only the western wall of the tower is standing, to 
a height of perhaps 30 feet, the window being on the upper story. The 
tower is perched on the edge of a steep slope, commanding the main-road 
east of it, near the fine spring 'A i n e d h D h i r w e h. 

The tombs appear to be all of one character. In the scarp, east of the 
tower, there are three in a group, resembling those at N a b 1 u s. In the 
centre is a porch 5 feet 4 inches by 10 feet 7 inches, with a door now 
choked ; on either side of this, in the same scarp, a door i foot 6 inches 
broad, with a chamber about 5 or 6 feet long inside ; on the west side of 
the hill are two other groups, and one near the road has a rough loculiis 
on one side wall, and an entrance to a second chamber now blocked on 
the other. 

The ruins do not appear to be of great antiquity. In one vault three 



[SHEET XXL] ARCHAEOLOGY. 325 

very small ovens are found. There are some large stones, one of which 
appears to be cut out of an old pillar-shaft 5 feet 10 inches long, 18 inches 
diameter. 

There is also the foundation of a small tower near the road on the 
west, and east of this a well rudely square in shape, containing stagnant 
water. Close by is one of the stones for oil-presses occasionally found in 
ruins, 2 feet 9 inches square, 6 feet 10 inches high, with 4 vertical grooves 
5 inches deep and broad, and a hole 18 inches diameter through the 
stone. 

Visited 14th October, 1874. 

It is at this place that Eusebius and the Bordeaux Pilgrim place the ' Fountain of St. 
Philip.' 

Beit Zata (K v). — Walls, foundations, cisterns, and drafted 
masonry exist here. One branch of the Jerusalem aqueduct passes 
immediately to the south. Near the road are remains of a tower about 
40 feet square, and east of this ruins of moderate ashlar, the walls about 
5 feet thick, the masonry irregular. South of the tower is a rock-cut 
domed cistern. The tower is perhaps an old station on the main road. 

Visited 15th October, 1S74. 

B e n i N a i m (L w.) 

' Here I saw in many places ancient materials employed in Arab buildings. Several 
fragments of wall still upright in good cut stones attracted my attention. I visited a mosque 
which covers, according to the tradition of the people, the tomb of Lot The coffin shown to 
me consists of a great wooden coffer, covered with a carpet, and probably contains the body 
of some modern Santon revered under the name of Abraham's nephew. Around this 
sanctuary extends a court surrounded by a square gallery, which is itself enclosed by a 
wall built of stones belonging to different periods. On one of them I distinguished the trace 
of a mutilated cross, and one of the people told me that the mosque is supposed to have 
succeeded a Christian church. It is at once a sacred edifice and a fortress, for the terraces 
which cover the gallery are provided with a parapet pierced with loopholes ... I was told by 
the Sheikh that the place used to be called Kefr Bereik, which confirms Robinson's identifi- 
cation of the place with Jerome's Caphar Barnebo.' — Guerin, 'Judea,' iii. 155. 

Bir el Haj Ramadan (L u). — Ruins of a modern building over 
the well, apparently a Mukam, the Mihrab of which remains ; the well is 
a cistern, properly speaking, for rain-water. 

Bir ez Zaferan (L v). — Foundations of a large building north of 
the well. 

B i r k e t el 'A r r u b (L v). — This is one of the main reservoirs 



326 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

supplying the aqueduct to Jerusalem. There are two channels, one from 
Birket Kufin, one from ' A i n Kueiziba, which join at the 
birkeh. The distances are as follow : 

DIRECT. 

'Ain Kueiziba to Jerusalem - - - I2f English miles 

Birket Kufin ,, - - - i2f „ 

Birket el 'Arrub ,, - - - nf ,. 

Solomon's Pools (el Burak) to Jerusalem - 7 „ 

ALONG THE AQUEDUCT. 

4if English miles 



'Ain Kueiziba to Jerusalem - 


- 4if 


Birket Kufin ,, 


-4ii 


Birket el 'Arriib 


- -'oi 


Solomon's Pools ,, 


- Hi 



FALL OF AQUEDUCT. 

'Ain Kueiziba (East branch) - - 2785 above sea 

Birket Kufin (West branch) - - 3025 „ 

Birket el 'Arrub . - . - 2645 .- 

Solomon's Pools - - - - 2513 

Jerusalem (el Kas) - - - - 2410 

Josephus gives the length of the aqueduct constructed by Pontius Pilate as 
200 furlongs, or 25 Roman miles, which is between the direct and the 
long measurement. (Ant. xviii. 3, i.) 

Close to the birkeh a large spring was found flowing in October, which 
probably used to be directed to the reservoir. The birkeh is smaller than 
those near U rtas, 240 feet by 160 feet, but resembles them in masonry, 
as does the channel of the aqueduct, which crosses W a d y M a r a h el 
'Ajel on a stone retaining-wall some 12 feet high. Two springs feed 
the 'Ain Kueiziba branch, and three spring-wells are connected with 
that from Birket Kufin. 

Burj Beit Nasif (J v). — A ruined tower, cisterns, and founda- 
tions, with heaps of stones. 



{SHEET XXI.'\ 



ARCHEOLOGY. 



1^1 



Burj Haskah (K v). — A short square tower, with vaults below ; 
seems not to be very ancient. 

Ed D e i r (M w). — Traces of ruins, fragments of tesselated pave- 
ment, two wells lined with masonry, and a rock-cut cistern. It is evidently 
an old monastery built on the edge of the precipice ; one well is below 
the cliff, with hard cement inside and old stone troughs round it. 

Deir el Arbain (L w). — Ruined walls of fair masonry, inside 
which is shown the traditional tomb of Jesse. The building seems to be 
a modern Arabic work on older foundations. The tomb of Jesse (Kabr 
Yessa) is shown with that of Ruth in a small mosque, with a Mihrab in 
one corner, in this building. Several pillar shafts lie in the ruins. The 
vaults which remain have both groined and tunnel roofs, with pointed 
arches. 

Lower down the hill, on the north-east, are three parallel vaults, 
bearing 109' along this length, ruined on the east ends. They have a 
sloping outer scarp, and the building measures about 60 feet square out- 




Scale Feet U) 1 Inch. 
S ff tp 20 3^ ^ 



_^? 



side. The walls are 9 feet thick ; the vaults have timnel roofs. The 
masonry resembles that of the Deir — stones rudely squared, 2^ feet by 
if feet by 1^ feet high, or 10 inches by 13 inches high. Some stones lie 
near having rude drafts. These vaults are called es Sakawati. About 



328 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

30 paces in continuation eastwards of the south wall is a well-built tomb, 
8 feet long, 4 feet broad, 3J feet high. An Arabic inscription at the west 
end of the tomb states it to be the grave of Seiyid el 'Alam el 'Araf el 
Mehakkik Muhammed Ibn 'Abdallah el Hasany, with a date, 27 Rejeb, 
652 KM. A fine mulberry grows beside the tomb. A pottery lamp 
burnt over it. The natives call this tomb Sheikh el Mujahed or Abu es 
Sakawati. 

Revisited 20th July, 1882. 

Deir el 'A si (I w). — Foundations, and heaps of stones, caves, 
cisterns, and a ruined chapel, apparently Byzantine. 

Deir e d D 6 m e h (J x). — Resembles the last, with ruined cisterns 
and caves, and rough tombs. 

Deir el M u s (I u). — Heaps of stones, caves, and cisterns. 

D 6 m e h (J x). — A large ruin with foundations, rock-cut tombs, 
cisterns, and caves. There are remains of a ruined chapel with columns, 
and the ruins seem to belong to the Byzantine period. There is a tower 
with a lintel stone to its door, on which a cross is cut. The tombs are 
very rough. 

Dura (J w). 

' Fragments of ancient columns, and a good number of cut stones taken from old con- 
structions and built up in the Arab houses, show the antiquity of the place. Two barracks 
especially have been built in this way. Above the door of one, a block forming the lintel was 
once ornamented with mouldings, now very much mutilated. Close to the town is a celebrated 
wely in which lies a colossal sarcophagus, containing, it is said, the body of Noah.' — Gucrin, 
' Judea,' iii. 354- 

Fukeikis (J w). — Many caves. A rude enclosure with a stone 
wall. Near this ruin are remains of an old Roman road and 16 fallen 
milestones, one of which, near a little shrine called Bint (Sheikh 
A h m e d) el 'A b d, is inscribed as shown : 

N OH 

NOPU - - - 

I M P - - L R O - - 

N P I A O P 

ON AVG 

The name Selemeh is given to some other caves and walls on the ridge. 



[Sn-EET XXL] ARCILEOLOGY. 329 

El Habs (K v). — Foundations of a large building, apparently- 
modern, being of inferior masonry, like that now employed. 

El Hadab (J \v). — Walls, a deep cistern, and a large tomb, sub- 
sequently used as a stable. 

H e b r o n. — See Section A. and el H a r a m, p. 2)o2>- 

H li 1 h u 1 (K v). — -There seems to have been a church in the village, 
the tesselated lloor of which is still visible inside the court of one of the 
houses, with four pillar shafts. The mosque (N e b y Y u n i s) is a 
modern building on a platform of rock, which appears to have been 
artificially levelled. There are rock-cut tombs north and south, one used 
as a sheep stable. On the north-east is a building, the corner of which 
looks old, with drafted masonry of moderate size, apparently of Byzantine 
times. This is called 'A k e d el K i n. 

Near 'A i n el 'A s i, on the south, are many well-cut tombs, mostly 
filled up. The first entered had a stone bench round the chamber, and a 
ko/ca on the level of the bench at the back. The second was about 

7 feet side, also with a stone bench, and on the right a door, 18 inches 
wide, with a recess beyond 2 feet 6 inches to the back, and with an 
arched roof. The recess is semicircular on plan. (Compare K h li r b e t 
el Farriyeh, Sheet VIII.) Both these tombs were full of bones. A 
third tomb was like the second, but the recess (rudely speaking, a hollow 
quarter-sphere in shape) was sunk 18 inches below the floor in the right 
corner, at the back of the chamber, and was 4 feet high, and 4 feet to the 
back. The fourth tomb had three loculi under rude arches on three 
walls ; they were merely shelves, 18 inches from the floor of the central 
chamber. 

Nearer the spring is a larger tomb with three loadi, that at the back 

8 feet long. A rude door and three steps lead to this cave. The door 
has plain mouldings round it. 

Another tomb had a bench all round, but no kokhii visible ; in one 
corner of the bench was a hollow containing water. A second tomb, like 
this one, occurred near, the bench 2 feet 4 inches in height, and level 
with the door sill. 

On the south side of the valley in which is 'A in E y u b are 1 2 or 
15 closed tombs. On the north side is a large cave. In the K h a 1 1 e t 
VOL. III. 42 



33° 



THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 



edh Dhibeh, near to these, is a cave with rude loculi scooped at the 
sides, and a second rude chamber within, also with three recesses Hke 
loctili. 

Visited 19th October, 1874. 

Idhnah (J v). — Near this village are several large caves with 
niches for lamps or skulls in them. (See Beit J i b r i n, Sheet XX.) 
There is also a tomb of peculiar form ; a passage 5 feet long and about 
2 feet wide leads into a round chamber, measuring 7 feet to the back and 
12 feet across. This has eight radiating kokim (see Sheets VII. and X.), 
2 feet high and about 6 feet long. 

Jebel Fureidis (M v). — The mountain is a truncated cone 
400 feet high, 290 feet diameter at the top, with sides artificially scarped 
at an angle of about 35°. At the bottom, on the north, is a platform with 
buildings, and a large reservoir, once fed by an aqueduct from U r t a s. 
(See Sheet XVII.) The greater part of the cone is artificially 
constructed. 

The top of the hill is surrounded by a circular wall, 5 feet thick. 
Inside this is a second of similar thickness, 18 feet from the first. The 
inner wall has towers pointing (roughly speaking) to the four cardinal 



Scale- 0600 




'"•■Hi>m^'/^ ^ 




Scale 1310 



points. Those on the north, south, and west were semicircular and 
38 feet interior diameter. That on the east is larger and higher, being 
circular, 60 feet exterior diameter, with a wall 6 feet thick. The founda- 



[SHEET XX/.} 



ARCHEOLOGY. 



331 



tions of these walls and towers are traceable throughout with little 
difficulty. 

The interior of the fortress is considerably lower than the walls, and 
as far as could be ascertained without excavation, there was an interior 
esplanade 36 feet broad, supported on vaults. This 
agrees with the account given by Josephus that Herod 
increased the height of the hill artificially. (Cf 
Herodium. Section A.)"" 

A wall runs down the side of the hill on the east 
(40° bearing) to the bottom of the steep slope 250 feet 
below the top. A path also now ascends almost direct 
from the west. The former is probably the path 
mentioned by Josephus as having 200 steps. Remains 
of the steps are still traceable; one was 15 inches 
tread, 13 inches rise ; another 13 inches tread, 8 inches 
rise. The breadth of the flight was about 22 feet. 
On the slope west of the steps are remains of a tower 
about 24 feet broad. 

Inside the great tower is a vault 11^ feet by 
14 feet, with a semicircular arch of small stones and a 
tesselated floor. The vaults are nearly all covered up, 
but one chamber was entered on the north. It was 
round, with a domed roof 13 feet diameter. There was a central keystone 
to the dome, and a ring with four stones round it ; the second course had 
8 stones, the third 1 1 stones, and so on, eight rings of masonry forming 
the dome. The work throughout is very well finished ; the stones not 
of any great size. A door on the west leads into an inner rectangular 
chamber, 15 feet long, cemented inside. It may be noted that this dome 
resembles in construction that of the Double Gateway at Jerusalem. The 
masonry of the fortress walls is well dressed. One stone had a very 
shallow draft, 2\ inches broad, but the majority of the stones are dressed 
with smooth faces ; one stone measured 3 feet 8 inches by 2 feet. The 
arches are semicircular, of smaller masonry than the walls, and the cement 

* A restoration of this monument has been recently published by Herr K. Schick ; but 
on examination of his plan on the spot in 18S1 it was found to show more than really exists, 
and to be somewhat speculative. — C. R. C. 

42 — 2 




332 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTEXE. 

used is very hard. No groined vaults were found, the tunnel vault only 
being observed. Tesserae large and small were picked up. (See Plan.) 

The building at the foot of the hill is called by the natives I stabl 
(' Stables ') and seems to answer to the lower palace mentioned by 
Josephus. It stands on a platform artificially levelled, and presents a 
series of very long narrow vaults, parallel to one another, with a cross 
vault at the east end. The west end is partly destroyed ; the longest 
vault is about 500 feet long, east and west, the breadth being only 8 feet. 
The total breadth of the building, north and south, is 86 feet. In 1882 
the principal vault was found to be closed by a new wooden door. 

There are remains of a small circular tower towards the east end, close 
to the cross vault, 18 feet exterior diameter. There are six windows in 
the cross vault looking out eastwards, 2 feet 9 inches by 5 feet inside, 
and I foot by 2 feet (in height) outside. These form loopholes. 

The vaults had barrel roofs, some of which still remain, with an even 
number of voussoirs. There was also an arch with a central keystone. 
The masonry is throughout of moderate size. North of the building is a 
kind of terrace 80 feet wide, and beyond this on the north-west is a fine 
cemented cistern, and ruined houses near it. There are also two other 
ruined cisterns. 

North-west of these buildings arc remains of a reservoir called 
B i r k e t el H u m m a m, or according to others, B i r k e t Bint e s 
Sultan, standing on a broad platform, at a level 2,082 feet above the 
sea. It measured 160 feet by 220 feet, and in the middle is a round 
structure, perhaps originally a fountain, 30 feet diameter. A broad Hat 
platform extends eastwards from the birkeh for 150 yards, and is sup- 
ported by a wall running north and south. East of this platform, and 
north of the supposed lower palace, is a great sunk rectangular area, 
apparently a garden, measuring about 400 feet by 200 feet. There are 
traces of other ruins on the north side of this plateau, and a vault now 
closed with a wooden door. 

Visited 3rd November, 1873; nth July, 1881 ; 7th April, 18S2. 

Kabr Hebrun (K w). — There are four ancient tombs near the 
Deir el Arbdin, to the largest of which this name is given. It is 
entered through a porch 13 feet wide by 10 feet deep, and is a chamber 
10 feet by 1 1 feet, with a stone bench 3 feet 3 inches wide round 



[SHEET XXL] ARCHEOLOGY. 333 

three walls, and a step clown inside from the door. It has nine kokini 
on the level of the bench, three on each wall ; one in the left-hand corner 
at the back runs in a diagonal direction. The kokiin are 6 feet long, 
and I foot 2 inches wide. The tomb is only 3} feet high from the 
bench level. The bench is 2\ feet high. The outer court is 6 feet high. 

Over this tomb stands a modern house in two stories; it is 35 feet 
from north to south by 23 feet east and west outside. The entrance is on 
the north, where is a chamber with a masonry vault in front of the tomb 
porch. The porch has a door 5 feet 9 inches wide leading into the tomb- 
chamber. 

The second tomb on the east has the same kind of stone bench, and 
three kokan, one on each wall. The two other tombs in the same rock- 
scarp to the west have also doors on the north face of the scarp, but were 
full of water.* 

Visited loth March, 1875, and 28th July, i88r. 

EL HARAM (HEBRON). 

The following is the latest and most complete account of the great mosque of Hebron. 
It is the report drawn up by Captain Conder of the Princes' visit in 18S1 for H. R.H. the 
Prince of Wales, who gave it to the Committee of the Exploration Society : 

' The Royal party was accompanied by H. E. Raouf Pacha, Governor of Jerusalem. 
They visited every part of the enclosure, and remained in the Haram until 10 a.m. In the 
afternoon their Royal Highnesses revisited the so-called tomb of Joseph, adjoining the 
enclosure, which they entered by an entrance not opened on the occasion of the morning 
visit. The results of these two visits add materially to the information previously obtained 
as to the Haram enclosure, and the accompanying plan, made on the return of the party to 
camp, presents considerable additions to those made on former occasions by Mr. James 
Fergusson and other explorers. It may be considered worthy of reliance as regards the 
general arrangements ; and the walls of the church were accurately measured with a two-foot 
rule, while the interior of Joseph's tomb was measured with a steel tape by the Princes them- 
selves. The exterior walls of the enclosure are calculated from careful measurements of the 
buttresses, and the result agrees within a foot with that obtained by Mr. Fergusson in 1S64. 
The remaining dimensions were obtained by pacing, and are only supposed to be approxi- 
mately correct. 

' The Outer Walls. — These enclose a quadrangle measuring 197 feet in length by iii feet 

* The position of the name Kabr Hebrun on the i-inch map is not quite correct. The 
four tombs are north-west of Deir el Arb'ain. On the east of the latter, dose to the modern 
cemetery, is a cave with a modern Moslem tomb and a rude Arab inscription. This cave 
(about 15 feet by 23 feet) seems also to be an old tomb having a rude koka on the left. This 
is sometimes wrongly shown as the Kabr Hebrun. — C. R. C. 



334 



THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 



in width externally. At the four angles are buttresses, 9 feet wide on each face, and pro- 
jecting 10 inches. Between these there are eight buttresses on the end walls, and sixteen 




Arab work 



Clii istian 7i'iv,; 



luri'nl -.i'orJ; 



^c ccLe, f -^ f ^f ^^ -3° ^o s/j ea u ej su 



!i:cf Feei^ 



buttresses on the longer side walls, each measuring 3 feet 9 inches in width, with intervals of 
7 feet, and a projection of 10 inches. All these buttresses are 25 feet high, and they stand 



{SHEET A'A'/] 



ARCHAEOLOGY. 



335 



on a base wall which is flush with their faces. The top course of the base wall is bevelled 
between the buttresses, as shown in the attached section (No. i). 

' The masonry of which these walls are composed is the same throughout, including the 
base wall beneath the buttresses. The face of each stone (as in the older masonry of the 
Jerusalem Haram) is drafted on each of its four edges with a shallow and very carefully 
finished draft, generally about 4 inches wide, and i-inch projection of the face of the stone. 
The tooling of the draft is executed in exactly the same manner as in the case of the Jerusalem 
Haram masonry, an adze or fine-toothed instrument having been employed. A second hand 
of similar tooling, about 4 inches wide, runs round the face of the stone, immediately within 
the draft, and the rest of the face is carefully finished with a pointed instrument struck with a 





INNER CORNICE. 
No. 2. 



SECTION OF BUTTRESS. 
No. I. 



mallet, exactly as in the Jerusalem drafted masonry. The average height of the courses is 
3 feet 7 inches (as also at Jerusalem) ; the longest stone seen measured 24 feet 8 inches by 
3 feet 8^ inches in height. The whole character of the masonry at Hebron thus reproduces 
so closely that found at the base of the Haram walls at Jerusalem, that it seems certain that 
both structures must be referred to the same building epoch. The existence of projecting 
buttresses on the walls of the Jerusalem Haram has been proved by the discovery of two 
still remaining in situ, in the north-west angle of that enclosure. They were first visited in 
1873, ^"^d found to stand on a base wall, the top course bevelled between the buttresses just 



33(5 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

as above described. In the Jerusalem example the buttresses were 4J- feet wide, 8 feet apart, 
and projecting 6 inches. 

' The thickness of the walls thus described at Hebron is 81 feet between the buttresses 
(the same as that of the Jerusalem Haram walls). The stones on the inner face of the wall 
are dressed plainly, without any draft. A bold cornice crowns the wall inside on the west, 
as shown on the accompanying section (No. 2). 

' The buttresses have a simple projecting cap on the outside of the wall. The level of the 
cornice is 25 feet above that of the interior court, which therefore coincides with the level of 
the top of the base wall beneath the buttresses. The same arrangement has been shown to 
have existed in the Jerusalem Haram, the level of the top of the bevelled course of the base 
wall between the buttresses coinciding with the rocky floor of the inner court of that enclosure 
in the north-west corner. 

'The inner court at Hebron is about 15 feet above the level of the street, west of the 
Haram, and the total height of the ancient wall, from base to cornice, is thus on an average 
about 40 feet. 

'A modern wall with battlements, plastered and wliitewashed, is built on the top of the 
ancient ramparts. On the north, south, and east, the old enclosure is surrounded by a 
second of more modern masonry, forming passages with two flights of steps, as shown on the 
plan. 

' The only entrance to the enclosure is tlirough a doorway in the longer or eastern wall, 
at a distance of 95 feet 7 inches from the south-cast angle, as measured outside the ancient 
wall. To this doorway the passages from the two outer gates both lead. 

' The bearing of the quadrangle is 50° true bearing, as carefully observed with a prismatic 
compass. The Mihrabs, or Moslem prayer recesses, inside the mosque, thus point almost 
south-east. 

' The Church. — This building occupies the southern part of the enclosure, and three of its 
outer walls are formed by the ancient ramparts. The interior length, measured with a rule, 
is 70 feet ; the breadth is 93 feet, divided into a nave and two aisles of approximately equal 
width. The length is divided into three bays of unequal span, the southern — furthest from 
the entrance — being the narrowest. They measure respectively about 25 feet, 30 feet, and 
15 feet. 

' The nave is lighted by a clerestory with three windows on each side. There is a low- 
pitched gable at the west (or rather north-west) end, having a large window with a slightly 
pointed arch, above which is a round window. 

' The roof of the nave has a ridge lower than the top of the gable, so that the round 
window is now outside the roof 

' The interior of the roof is groined, with flat ribs and a slightly pointed section. The 
aisle roofs are nearly flat outside, having only a slight inclination inwards towards the walls of 
the clerestory. All the roofs are covered with lead. The nave vaulting is supported on the 
clustered columns of the four great piers, and the vaults of the aisles spring from brackets on 
the side walls. The engaged columns on the inner sides of the piers flanking the nave are 
carried up to the spring of the clerestory vaulting. The shafts of the columns are of rather 
heavy appearance ; the capitals are chiefly adorned with thick leaves and small volutes of 
mediaeval character, as shown in the accompanying sketcli (No. i). Another character of 
capital, of semi-Byzantine appearance, also occurs, as sketched. The six clerestory windows, 
the large west window, and the smaller end window in the southern (or south-eastern) wall. 



M. 




Stmforcb ea>g^£stati' 
SOUTH EAST ANGLE AND ENTRANCE TO HARAM , HEBRON . 



[SHEET XXI.] ARCHAEOLOGY. 337 

are all pointed with a low point. Heavy external buttresses occur between the side windows. 
The roof of the transept, or south-eastern bay of the church, is carried across at right angles 
to the ridge of the gable, with a ridge at the same level, forming a T-shaped ridge, and 
extending to the outer walls of the aisles. 

' The Cave. — The most important feature of the Haram is the great cave which exists 
beneath the floor of the enclosure. This was not entered by the Royal party, because it was 
found that the only known entrances are three (A, B, C) existing in the floor of the church 
itself, and these are never now opened, and could only be reached by breaking up the flags of 
the flooring, a proceeding which would have been regarded as a desecration of the sanctuary 
by the Moslem custodians. The cave is described, by the Sheikh of the Mosque, as being 
double, and this agrees with the signification of the original name Machpelah (nSs30 
" Division in Half"), applied to the cave in which the patriarchs were buried (Gen. xxiii.). 
In later writings, as will be shown at the end of this report, the cave is always described 
as being double, and in the middle ages it was known as Spelunca Duplex (" The Double 
Cave "). 

' The situation of two entrances was shown, as marked at the points A and B on the plan. 
The entrance at A was closed with stone slabs clamped with iron. These vrere covered with 
matting, and a small cupola, supported on four slender pillars, has been constructed over the 
spot. This entrance is said to lead to the western cave, where, or in the inner cave, the 
actual tombs of the patriarchs are reputed to exist. At the point B is the entrance to the 
eastern cave. It is closed with flagging forming the floor of the church, and also covered 
over with matting and carpets, but there is no shrine or cupola above it. 

' At the point C, close to the west wall of the church, is a shaft, covered by a stone, like 
those at the mouths of wells in Palestine, rising above the level of the church floor. The 
hole in this stone is rather over a foot in diameter, and a lamp was lowered through it, by aid 
of which a chamber was seen below, under the floor of the church. The floor of the chamber 
appeared to be about 1 5 feet below that of the church, and the chamber was square, and 
seemed to be about 1 2 feet either way, with vertical walls apparently covered with plaster. 
All four walls were well seen, and in that towards the south-east a doorway could be distinctly 
perceived, which has never previously been described. It is said to lead to the western cave, 
and it closely resembled the square doorways which gives access to ancient rock-cut tombs in 
Palestine. The floor of the chamber was thickly strewn with sheets of paper, which have 
been inscribed by the Moslems with supplications to the patriarchs, and thrown down the 
shaft through the well mouth in the church floor. 

' There were no means of ascertaining whether the walls of the chamber were of rock or 
of masonry, but the roof appeared to be in part at least of rock, sloping down on the north 
from the mouth of the shaft, like that of a cave or cistern, while in the south-east corner, a 
piece of rock appeared to project across the angle of the chamber. It should be noted that 
there did not appear to be any access to this chamber other than that through the square- 
headed doorway from the cave, already described. The other walls were seemingly solid 
throughout. 

' If, therefore, there ever existed any entrance to the cave from outside the Haram, or 
from the courtyard of the church, distinct from the two entrances A and B in the floor of the 
church, as above described, it would seem probable that the communication has been closed 
by building up the walls of the small chamber just described visible through the shaft at C. 
It also seems probable, from the situation and size of this antechamber, that the double cave 

VOL. III. 43 



338 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

lies entirely within the limits of the church, to the south of the door seen in the antechamber 
wall, and that there is no cavity extending under the floor of the inner court north-west of the 
church. It appears, therefore, very doubtful whether any entrances other than those at A and 
B exist, or have ever existed, in the northern part of the Haram. The cave probably re- 
sembles many of the rock-cut sepulchres of Palestine, with a square antechamber carefully 
quarried, and two Interior sepulchral chambers, to which access has been made at a later 
period through the roofs. It is, however, possible that the antechamber may be a later 
addition, and partly built of masonry. 

' In connection with the question of the cave, it should be noted that at the point D, 
outside the Haram wall, close to the steps of the southern entrance gateway, there is a hole 
through the lowest course of the masonry, on the level of the street. It extends some 
distance, and is said to admit of the whole length of a lance being passed through the wall, 
in which case it probably communicates with the inside of the western cave, which would thus 
extend up to the wall at the south-west angle of the Haram. 

' The Cenotaphs. — The enclosure contains six large cenotaphs, standing on the floor of the 
church and of the adjoining buildings. They are supposed by the Moslems to stand vertically 
above the actual graves of the three patriarchs, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, and of their 
wives, Sarah, Rebecca, and Leah. The monuments of Isaac and Rebecca are within the 
church ; those of Abraham and Sarah occupy octagonal chapels in the double porch, or 
narthex, before the church doors ; and those of Jacob and Leah are placed in chambers near 
the north end of the Haram. 

'The six monuments are thus equi-distantly disposed along the length of the enclosure, 
but it appears to be very doubtful whether they have any connection with the loculi or sano- 
J>hagi which are described by early writers as existing in the cave itself. 

' Isaac and Rebecca have their cenotaphs, at the points (I and J) shown on the plan, within 
the church. They lie in the direction of the length of the nave, Isaac on the side of the 
right aisle. They are thus not buried in accordance with Moslem custom, as they would in 
such case lie at right angles to their actual position, on their right sides, with their faces 
turned to the Mihrab, or prayer recess. The same remark applies to the four other cenotaphs, 
and to the two cenotaphs of Joseph without the Haram. 

' The cenotaphs of Isaac and Rebecca are enclosed in masonry shrines of oblong form, 
with gable roofs, the ridges of which are about 12 feet above the church floor. The walls 
and roofs of the shrines are of well-dressed ashlar, in alternate bands of yellowish and reddish 
limestone, of the kind now known as Santa Croce marble, found in the vicinity. At the gable 
ends are brass crescents. In the sides and roofs are windows, through which the cenotaphs 
are visible. A door gives access to each shrine, and is of wood, adorned with various patterns 
in brass work. The windows have heavy iron bars. The cenotaphs are covered with richly 
embroidered silk hangings, and have cloths hung as canopies above them. Manuscript copies 
of the Koran, in book form, are placed all round the cenotaphs, lying open on low wooden rests. 
The coverings of Isaac's cenotaph are green, and those of Rebecca's crimson, the embroidered 
inscription being in silver and gold. The same colours are used in the other cenotaphs, all 
the males having the deep green, which is the sacred Moslem colour, and all the females 
having crimson coverings. Arabic inscriptions on silver plates are fastened to the windows 
and doors of the shrines thus described. 

' Other Details of the Church.— 'V\\q. Mihrab, or prayer recess of the Moslems, lias been 
cut out of the end wall of the ancient enclosure. It is flanked by slender pillars, with richly 



[SHEET XXL] ARCHEOLOGY. 339 

carved capitals of Gothic design, and by two wax torches. Above the Mihrab is a window of 
stained glass, resembling those in the Dome of the Rock at Jerusalem, which date about 
1528 A.D. The glass in this instance has, however, a peculiarity in the large opaque discs 
which are arranged, in the form of an hour-glass, as a border to the riclily coloured pattern of 
the main design. 

' It appears probable that the Mihrab was cut out by the Moslems at a comparatively late 
period ; the marble veneer is in late style, and the recess is too small to have been intended 
for an apse. The original church had probably no apses, for, although this is very unusual 
in Crusading buildings, it was in the present instance impossible to form apses at the ends of 
the nave and aisles without destroying the great rampart wall which constitutes the eastern 
(or south-eastern) end of the church. 

' In one corner of the left aisle, at the point H, a Greek inscription is built into the wall. 
It has been painted red, and was copied some time since, and published in the " Journal of 
the Royal Geographical Society" (vol. xvi., p. 337). It contains an invocation to Abraham 
to bless and protect certain individuals at whose expense it was erected, and probably dates 
about the time of Justinian. 

' The Millibar, or pulpit (K on the plan), stands on the right of the Mihrab. It is 
beautifully constructed of cabinet work, resembling that in the Aksah Mosque at Jerusalem. 
This appears to be the pulpit mentioned by Mejr ed Din as bearing the date 484 a.h. 
(logi A.D.), which was given to the mosque by Saladin in 1187 a.d., after the capture of 
Ascalon. The similar pulpit at Jerusalem was also brought from Aleppo, where it was 
made for Saladin. 

' The Merhala, or reading platform, at the point L on the plan, is similar to those in other 
mosques intended for the public reading of the Koran. 

' The walls of the church are veneered with marble inside to a height of 6 feet. Above 
this casing runs a band of Arabic inscriptions. The form of the characters seems to show 
that these texts are not of great antiquity, and they are probably not earlier than the end of 
the twelfth century. Above this, again, the walls are whitewashed, and the name of God, 
with those of Mohammed, Aly, and other early heroes of Islam, are painted in black, on 
medallions attached to the walls. The piers and pillars are whitewashed, and the capitals are 
painted yellow. Above the marble veneer, in places, the remains of a mosaic of small 
designs, with mother-of-pearl inlet, are seen, and a good deal of this also remains on the wall 
immediately outside the central entrance to the church. 

' On the west side of the right aisle a channel is formed in the floor, close to the wall, 
leading to a grating in the corner. This is said to be used in washing the hands by the 
Moslem worshippers. 

' The Porch or Narthex. — This is double, as shown, and vaulted with groining, the roof 
resting on heavy piers. It includes the two octagonal chapels in which are the cenotaphs of 
Abraham and Sarah. From the irregular manner in which these are built in, it would appear 
probable that the chapels are older than the roofmg and piers of the porch. The whole of 
these structures are evidently later than the church itself A flat lead covers the porch, and 
three small lead domes rise from it over the two cenotaphs and over the vaulted chamber 
towards the west, hereafter to be described. The entrance doors of the church are concealed, 
and the whole effect of the fagade is spoiled by these additions. 

' The Shrine of Abraham was entered. The cenotaph is about 8 feet long, and 8 feet 
high, and 4 feet broad. It is covered with a green and white silk covering, embroidered 





340 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

with Arabic texts in gold thread. Two green banners, with gold lettering, are placed leaning 
against the cenotaph. The entrance to the shrine is closed by open-barred gates, stated to 
be iron plated with silver, and bearing an inscription in silver letters, which gives the date 
1259 A.D., with an invocation to Abraham. The pattern of these gates, with heavy globular 
sockets for the cross-bars, is exactly that found at Damascus and elsewhere, in the best Arab 
ironwork. The walls of the shrine or chapel are cased with marble, and have gilt inscriptions 
in Arabic letters running at the top of the wall near the springing of the dome. Silver lamps 
and ostrich-shells are hung before the cenotaph, and copies of the Koran, on low wooden 
rests, surround it. 

' A fine window of stained glass, similar to that already described in the church, lights the 
shrine from the side of the porch ; round the coloured design are discs of opaque glass, as in 
the former window, the border in this case consisting of nine discs, arranged up the sides and 
round the head of the window, which is semicircular. 

'The Shrine of Sarah was not entered. It resembles that of Abraham, with open-barred 
gates and a domed roof The coverings of the cenotaph are of crimson silk, with gold 
inscriptions on a black ground, on squares let into the crimson. 

' The piers and arches of the porch are faced with well-dressed ashlar, in alternate bands 
of buff and red stone. On the pier, at G, is an inscription in Arabic, stating that the porch 
was restored in 1172 a.h., by the then Governor of Damascus (1755 a. d.). At the west end 
of the porch is a small sebil, or water cistern, for ablutions. 

' The Courtyard.— T\\\% is the only part of the interior of the Haram which is open to the 
air. On the south-east, the arches of the porch (which are pointed) open upon it. At the 
opposite side are the buildings enclosing the shrines of Jacob and Leah. On the other two 
sides the court is bounded by the ancient ramparts, and by the vaulted chamber or mosque 
in front of Joseph's tomb. 

' On this side the wall is formed by archways filled in with masonry. The arches are 
pointed, and the ashlar is in alternate reddish and yellowish bands, as before noticed in the 
arches of the porch. The north (or north-west) wall is of small masonry, well dressed, and 
with a tooling finished with a fine adze, but without any mason's marks, and having all the 
appearance of good Arab work. On the inside of the ancient rampart, at the point F, about 
5 feet from the ground, is a short Greek inscription, or graffita, evidently cut after the stone 
was in situ. The form of the letters is of Byzantine period. 

NEN°V 
ABPAMIOV 
MANOVC 

' The constructions, coloured brown, in the corner of the courtyard, appear to be more 
modern than any other part of the building. A straight joint divides this part of the wall of 
the court from the rest. Ste])s lead up to a small chamber at a higher level. The character 
of the masonry is poorer, and looks more modern. 

' The chambers at the north (or north-west) end of the court were, for the first time, 
thoroughly examined during the Royal visit, and the new plan here differs considerably from 
those formerly attempted. 

' The Shrines of Jacob and Leah are visible through open-barred gates from the passage 
between them, which has a groined roof in two bays. The cenotaphs, with green and red 



[SHEET XXL] ARCHAEOLOGY. 341 

hangings respectively, resemble those already described. There is a small chamber behind 
Jacob's shrine which was entered, but proved to be only a lumber-room. The corresponding 
chamber behind the shrine of Leah contains two circular cells or copper-like hollows, which 
are said to be now used for storing oil. The shafts in their roofs were seen in the floor of a 
chamber reached by steps from the vaulted apartment in the north-east angle of the Haram, 
as shown on the plan. The floor of this upper chamber is 8 feet above the level of the 
courtyard. 

' The long chamber, reached from the door in the north-west angle of the court, is empty. 
From it steps ascend, as shown, to the minaret, which stands on the corner of the ancient 
rampart (at U). A second minaret stands at the opposite or south-east angle (at V). 

' In the north-west angle of the long chamber a wooden door was broken open (at R). 
It was found to lead, through the thickness of the ancient rampart wall, into a vaulted chamber 
with groined, pointed arches, having a very broad, flat rib. The chamber measured about 
50 feet by 20 feet, one side being formed by the outer face of the ancient rampart. It stands 
upon substructions, forming a passage to the lower tomb of Joseph, subsequently explored. 
Near the north end wall was a structure which at first sight looked like the head of a stairway 
with the steps covered over. It is said to be a place now used for melting lead. No remains 
ot any staircase were found in afterwards exploring the passage beneath. Large windows 
looked down from the chamber thus described into the enclosure of the Kal'ah, or fortress, 
which has been built against the Haram on this side. The chamber, with other vaulted sub- 
structures built against the Haram wall, dates probably from the later Moslem period after 
the Crusades. 

The Shrine of Joseph adjoins the exterior chamber just described. It is reached through a 
vaulted gallery, in the corner of which is the shrine of Adam's footprint. The cenotaph of 
Joseph is covered with pale green silk, having white lettering. The chamber has a lantern 
of octagonal shape, surmounted by a dome covered with lead. There is a second square 
chamber beneath, with a domed roof, containing also a cenotaph covered with green silk. 
This is entered by a passage just within the north gate of the Haram, explored in the second 
or afternoon visit by the two Princes themselves. The lower tomb is on the level of the base 
of the ancient rampart wall, or 15 feet below the upper cenotaph, entered from the interior 
of the Haram. 

' The whole of the workmanship of the shrine of Joseph, and of the other exterior chambers 
adjoining the Haram, appears to be of Arab origin. The chamber adjoining the upper 
shrine of Joseph has a flat lead roof, on the same level with that from which the small dome 
above the shrine now springs. 

' The back wall of the lower chamber, containing the second cenotaph of Joseph, was 
ascertained by careful measurement to have a thickness of 2 feet 2 inches. It covers the 
ancient rampart wall, and has been conjectured to conceal an entrance through the old wall 
at the level of its base, leading to the cave under the church. The wall is plastered and 
whitewashed, and if such an entrance ever really existed, no signs of it are now visible. 

' The Prophet's Footprint. — This sacred footprint, variously called that of Adam, or of the 
Prophet (^5^ I f*'^' Kadam en Neby), is preserved in one corner of the vaulted gallery leading 
to the upper tomb of Joseph, in the end wall of which a Mihrab, or prayer recess, has been 
constructed close to the footprint. 

' The relic, which is said to have been brought from Mecca some 600 years ago, consists 
of a slab of stone with a sunk portion resembhng the impression of a human foot of ordinary 



342 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

size. It is enclosed in a recess at the back of the shrine of Abraham, and placed on a sort 
of shelf about 3 feet from the floor. Such relics occur in many other Syrian mosques, as, for 
instance, in the Dome of the Rock, and in the Aksah Mosque at Jerusalem, where the foot- 
prints of Mohammed and of Christ respectively are shown. There is a small lead dome 
above the end of the vaulted gallery close to this last shrine. 

^Discoveries. — The principal new discoveries due to the Royal visit, as detailed in the 
preceding pages, are : 

' ist. The discovery of the position of the entrance B, said to lead to the eastern cave. 
The entrance A has been mentioned by former explorers. 

' 2nd. The description of the appearance of the antechamber, and the discovery of the 
door visible leading thence to the cave within. 

' 3rd. The exploration of the passage leading to the lower cenotaph of Joseph, and the 
discovery of this cenotaph, which has not been previously described. 

'4th. The exploration of the various chambers adjoining the courtyard, which have never 
been correctly represented on former plans. 

'All that now remains to be done on the occasion of any future visit is to obtain access into 
the cave itself. This cave is, however, never visited by Moslems, and it has probably not 
been entered for 700 years at least. Access might be obtained either by opening one of the 
two entrances A or B, now identified, or possibly by removing the stone over the shaft at C, 
and lowering a ladder into the antechamber. The latter would probably be the most expe- 
ditious method, but either would be regarded by the Moslems with extreme repugnance. 

'Historical Notices of the Haram. 

' It is remarkable that no historical notice is known to exist of the building of the great 
quadrangle surrounding the sacred cave. The cave of Machpelah is not noticed in the Bible, 
save in connection with the burial of the patriarchs, and there is no reason to believe that any 
building was erected on the spot before the Captivity. 

' In the Talmud (Tal. Bab. Erubin 53 a) Hebron is said to have been called Kirjath Arba 
{i.e., " City of the Four," cf. Gen. xxiii. 2, and Neh. xi. 25), because four patriarchs with their 
wives were there buried, including Adam and Eve. This tradition is continually repeated by 
later writers, including Jerome. Arculphus, in 700 a.d., speaks of the tomb of Adam as 
north of the others, and many medireval writers mention the cave near Hebron, in which 
Adam and Eve are supposed to have lived. 

' In the twelfth century, however, the tradition appears to have undergone a change (pro- 
bably because the tomb of Adam was then shown under Calvary). 

'Srewulf, in 1102 A.D., mentions the tomb of Joseph as existing at the extremity of the 
castle, possibly where now shown. 

'It maybe inferred from the wording of a passage in Josephus (Ant. ii. 8, 2) that 
some of the later Jews believed Joseph to have been buried with his ancestors at Hebron, an 
idea originating perhaps in jealousy of the Samaritans, who possessed the real tomb of Joseph 
at Shechem (Joshua xxiv. 32). 

' A curious tradition concerning the death of Esau is also noticed in the Talmud (Sotah 
i. 13). A quarrel occurred at the burial of Jacob between his sons and Esau, concerning 
their right to sepulture in the cave. Hushin, son of Dan, cut off Esau's head and left 
it in the cave, his body being buried elsewhere. The Arab historian, Jclal ed Din, in the 



{SHEET -V.V/] ARCHEOLOGY. 343 

fifteenth century, repeats this story, and the grave of Esau is still shown at Sia'ir, north of 
Hebron. 

'Josephus (Wars, iv. 9, 7) speaks of the monuments (fji.vr}ij,iia) of the patriarchs at 
Hebron as existing in his own times, " the fabrics of which monuments are of the most 
excellent marble, and wrought after the most elegant manner." 

'The Bordeaux Pilgrim (353 a.d.) is the next to describe the site. He speaks of a square 
memoria of marvellously beautiful masonry, in which were placed the three patriarchs and 
their three wives. It appears probable that he alludes to the quadrangle of the ancient 
ramparts, which are therefore generally referred (by Mr. James Fergusson and other authori- 
ties) to a period earlier than the Christian era. 

' In 3S3 .\.D., Santa Paula visited the " cells of Sarah," and the resting-place of Isaac, but 
no mention is made by St. Jerome in this narration of the other patriarchs. In connection with 
this account it should be noted that the Moslems attach far more importance to the shrines 
of Isaac and Rebecca, at the present day, than to those of the other patriarchs at Hebron. 
Isaac receives among them the title of " jealous," and is thought to strike with blindness or 
death any who approach his shrine. The shrines of Isaac and Rebecca are the only two 
which seem probably to stand over the actual caves, and Jelal ed Din says that Jacob was 
buried " before the entrance to the sepulchral cave," which agrees with the present position 
of his cenotaph, and with what has been already said as to the probable extent of the cave. 

' In 600 A.D., Antonius Martyr describes a basilica of quadrangular form, with an inner 
atrium open to the sky. Jews and Christians then entered by different gates to burn incense 
at the shrine. 

' In 700 .\.D., Bishop Arculphus gives a very detailed account of the site. He mentions 
that, " contrary to the usual custom, the patriarchs lie with their feet to the south and heads 
to the north, and they are enclosed by a square low wall." This would apply to the present 
jjosition of the cenotaphs, and possibly to the quadrangle of the ancient ramparts, before the 
modern battlemented wall was built above. "Each of the tombs is covered " (Arculphus 
continues) " with a single stone worked somewhat in the form of a church, and of a light 
colour for those of the three patriarchs, which are together." This seems to indicate sarco- 
phagi such as are found throughout Palestine belonging to the Roman period, or possibly 
cenotaphs like those at present existing. " Arculphus also saw poorer and smaller monuments 
of the three women, Sarah, Rebecca, and Leah, who were here buried in the earth." 

'In 1 102 A.D., SKwulf further describes the Haram : " On the eastern side of Hebron are 
the monuments of the holy patriarchs, of ancient workmanship, surrounded by a very strong 
castle, each of the three monuments being like a great church, with two sarcophagi placed in 
a very honourable fashion within, that is, one for the man and one for the woman. But the 
bones of Joseph, which the children of Israel, as he charged them, brought with them out of 
Egypt, are buried more humbly than the rest, as it were, at the extremity of the castle." 

'Among Crusading writers, John of Wirtzburg (iioo a.d.), Theodoricus (1172 a.d.), and 
Jacques of Vitry (1220 a.d.), still speak of the fourth tomb as being that of Adam. 

'In IIOO .\.D. Hebron was bestowed by Godfrey of Bouillon on Gerhard of Avennes, as a 
fief. In 1 167 the town was made the see of a Bishop, having been previously only a priory 
(see William of Tyre, xx. 3). In 1187 a.d. the place was taken by Saladin. Hebron is 
rarely mentioned by Crusading historians, but there is no reason to doubt that it remained 
for eighty-eight years in the hands of the Christians ; and the erection of a church would pro- 
bably have taken place during this period. 



344 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

'j\Iejr ed Din, the Arab historian, writing in 1495 a.d., speaks of the mosque at Hebron 
as the work of the Greeks (Rum), by which term the Greek Christians are intended. Jekil 
ed Din about the same time says that the Moslems destroyed the church when Saladin took 
Hebron, but it appears probable that the destruction, as in other cases, only extended to the 
desecration of the altars, and of the images and pictures of the Christians, and rearrangement 
of the shrines. 

'The most circumstantial account of the cave existing is that given by Rabbi Benjamin 
of Tudela, in 1 163 a.d. He visited the Haram during the period of the Christian occupation, 
and speaks of it as " a large place of worship called St. Abraham," a title which is commonly 
appUed to the Haram by the Christian writers of the twelfth century. " The Gentiles " (or 
Christians), he writes, "have erected six sepulchres in this place" (probably the existing 
cenotaphs) " which they pretend to be those of Abraham and Sarah,' of Isaac and Rebecca, 
and of Jacob and Leah ; the pilgrims are told that they are the sepulchres of the fathers, and 
money is extorted from them. But if any Jew comes, who gives an additional fee to the 
keeper of the cave, an iron door is opened, which dates from the times of our forefathers who 
rest in peace, and with a burning candle in his hands the visitor descends into a first cave, 
which is empty, traverses a second in the same state, and at last reaches a third which contains 
six sepulchres — those of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, and of Sarah, Rebecca, Leah, one 
opposite the other. 

' " All these sepulchres bear inscriptions, the letters being engraved ; thus upon that of 
our father Abraham we read, 

13'3S D.TI3N 130 Ht 

' This is the tomb of Abraham our father; upon him be peace,' and so on that of Isaac and 
all the other sepulchres. A lamp burns in the cave and upon the sepulchres continually, 
both night and day, and you there see tubs filled with the bones of Israelites ; for unto this 
day it is a custom of the house of Israel to bring thither the bones of their forefathers and to 
leave them there." 

' Tubs or arks like those mentioned by Rabbi Benjamin are described in the Talmud, and 
many of them have been found, bearing rude Hebrew inscriptions, in tombs near Jerusalem. 
They are generally now called osteophagi; and the mention of such a detail in connection 
with the Hebron cave seems to render it probable that the account is genuine, and that 
Rabbi Benjamin actually obtained admission to the interior. He appears to have entered 
through the existing antechamber, but no steps are now found in this chamber, so far as can 
be ascertained by looking down from above. The inscriptions on the tombs, if they really 
existed, were probably not of great antiquity. 

' After the Moslem conquest it appears to have become very difficult for even Jews to enter 
the cave. In 12 10 a.d.. Rabbi Samuel bar Simson claims, however, to have visited the 
interior. " We descended," he writes in his itinerary, " by twenty-four steps, very narrow, and 
without means of turning to the right hand or the left. We saw there the place of the Holy 
House, and we noticed these monuments. This place has been erected 600 years since (/.c, 
circa 600 K.T).). It is near the cavern." This account is too confused to be of much value. 
By the Holy House he appears to mean the church. 

' In the " Jichus ha Aboth," a tract, dating from 1537 a.d., the Haram is also described : 



[SHEET XXL] ARCHAEOLOGY. 345 

" An admirable and magnificent edifice, attril3utcd to King David, on whom be peace. Near 
the door is a little window in the wall ; they pretend that it extends to the cavern ; it is here 
that the Jews pray, as they are not allowed to go into the interior." 

'From the Arab historians Makrizi and Mejr ed Vim, we learn that the buildings round 
the courtyard were erected in 732 a.h. (1331 a.d.), by the Mameluke Sultdn Muhanimed Ibn 
Kelawun, and that the tomb of Joseph was built by the Emir Jaghmuri in 1393 a.d. The 
Arab accounts of the cave are imtrustworthy and unimportant. In 1322 Sir John Maundeville 
says that no Christian might enter the Haram. (It had then been made an adjunct of the 
mosque by the erection of Joseph's tomb in front of the original entrances.) 

'Conclusion's as to the Dates of the Buildings. 

' I. The rampart walls are evidently all of one period up to the height of the cornice. 
The style is (as has been shown) exactly similar to that of the ancient masonry of the Jerusalem 
Haram, and there can be no reasonable doubt that the two enclosures are to be referred to 
the same period. A careful consideration of the history and architecture of the Jerusalem 
Haram appears to lead to the conclusion that its ramparts, as now standing, were first erected 
by Herod the Great, and that the drafted masonry cannot be considered to date earlier than 
about the time of the Christian era. This view has been carefully elaborated by the Due du 
Voglie and other authorities, and it agrees with the conclusions reached by Mr. James 
Fergusson as to the date of the Hebron Haram walls, Iiis argument being based on historical 
rather than on architectural grounds. The Haram existed in the fourth century a.d., but there 
is no notice of any such structure in the Hasmonean or any earlier period. The only period 
between these limits to which it can be referred with any probability is the great building epoch 
of the reign of Herod the Great. 

' 2. The character of the architecture of the church is closely similar to that of the 
Crusading churches of Palestine. The clustered columns, with the shafts carried up the 
clerestory walls, and supporting ribbed groins, resemble those of the church of St. John at 
Samaria, dating between 1150 and 1180 a.d. The capitals resemble those of the Samarian 
church, and also those of the church at Bireh, north of Jerusalem, which was completed by 
the Templars in 1146 a.d. The general style, and the roofing, closely resemble the details of 
the church of St. John at Gaza, dating about 1 152 a.d. The pointed arches of the windows 
indicate that the church does not belong to the earliest Crusading period, as the round arch 
was used for half a century after the Crusaders took Jerusalem. It appears, however, quite 
safe to attribute the building of the Hebron church to the latter half of the twelfth century, 
probably about the year 1167 a.d., when the town became a bishopric. The low pitch of 
the roof may, perhaps, indicate that it has been rebuilt at a later period ; but, on the other 
hand, the vaulting of the clerestory and aisles is much more like Crusading than Arab work. 

'3. The earliest Arab work appears historically to belong to the year 1331 a.d., the 
tomb of Joseph to 1393 a.d., and the outer gates, with the passages and flights of steps, which 
have the character of the best Arab work, to the same period — the fourteenth century, during 
which fine buildings were erected by Moslems in Jerusalem, Damascus, and other parts of 
Syria. The stained glass windows are probably not earlier than the sixteenth century. 
Restorations in the courtyard date from the end of the eighteenth century, and additional 
adornments of the shrine have been given by Moslem rulers at a yet later period. The 
chambers in the north-east angle belong to a later period than the rest of the Arab buildings 

VOL. III. 44 



346 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PA LESTE\E. 

in and around the courtyard. The pavement is also comparatively modern, and probably 
later than the Crusading work. 

' The accompanying plan gives in colours the various building periods thus enumerated, 
the original Herodian masonry being shown in black, the medieval Christian work in red, and 
the later Arab work in yellow (fourteenth century) and in brown. The attached note by Sir 
C. Wilson was written on reading the original rough draft, of which the present report is an 
amplification. 

' Claude Reignier Conder, 

' Captain Royal Engineers.' 

'Note dy Lieut.-Colonel Sir C. Wilson, C.B., K.C.M.G., R.E. 

'Jerusalem, April Sth, 1S82. 

' I have read through Captain Conder's report on the Hebron Haram, and have much 
pleasure in bearing testimony to the accuracy of his remarks. 

' A close inspection of the masonry of the Haram showed that it was identical in character 
with that of the Wailing Place in the wall of the Jerusalem Haram, and therefore almost 
certainly Herodian. This may throw some light on the character of the exterior wall of the 
Temple of Herod. Both at Jerusalem and Hebron, a level platform is obtained by massive 
walls of large stones, with marginal drafts. At Hebron a surrounding wall, ornamented with 
pilasters, rises to a height of 25 feet above the platform, and it is probable that Herod's 
Temple enclosure was surrounded by a similar wall, which has long since disappeared, with 
the exception of a solitary fragment which was discovered by Captain Conder a few years ago> 
It would indeed almost seem as if the Hebron Haram were a copy in miniature of the Temple 
enclosure at Jerusalem. 

'As regards the question of an entrance to the caves, it may be remarked that the white- 
wash on the walls of the chamber (at C on the plan) was white, clean, and apparently of no 
great age ; and that the papers on the ground did not seem to be old. From this it may be 
■ inferred that the chamber, whence there is an entrance to the cave, is periodically visited and 
cleaned by the guardians of the mosque. 

' It appeared to me that access to the chamber might be obtained by removing the per- 
forated stone at the point C on the plan. This stone rises above the floor of the mosque, 
and is pierced by a circular hole a little more than 12 inches in diameter ; I noticed, however, 
that beneath the floor the hole became larger, and, if the stone were removed, I believe a 
man could be lowered by means of a rope. 

' It is possible that the original entrance was similar in design to that at " Barclay's Gate- 
way," in the Jerusalem Haram, and that the portal in the massive masonry is concealed by 
the buildings known as Joseph's Tomb. It seemed quite clear that some entrance to the 
caves beneath the level of the platform was closed by the wall of the chamber at C, opposite 
the small S(iuare doorwa)-. The pavement at A, which is secured by iron clamps, and which 
is said to cover a flight of steps, did not seem to have been disturbed for many years. The 
arrangement for reaching the cave by a flight of steps in one corner of the church is similar 
to that adopted by the Crusaders when building the church at " David's Tomb " at Jerusalem. 

' C. W. AViLsox, 

' Lieut.-ColoncL' 



[SHEET XXL] ARCHEOLOGY. 347 

Khurbet 'Abdeh (J w). — Ruined walls, cisterns, and caves. 

Khurbet Abu ed Duba (K v). — Traces of ruins. 

Khurbet Abu el Ha mam (L w). — An extensive ruin. Walls, 
foundations, piles of stones, and a cistern. Caves as at Khurbet 
'Aziz, and a building vaulted with pointed arches. This is the site of 
Ziph. (See Section A..) 

' The debris of a great many houses, nearly all of small dimensions, lies strewn over the 
soil. Each of these contained within it a cave cut in the rock. Cisterns are scattered about 
here and there. A tower, i6 feet long and lo broad, is still partly standing. It is vaulted in 
the interior, and is covered with a flat terrace. The construction is probably not more ancient 
than the Byzantine period, and is perhaps much later. Its materials are of various kinds ; the 
blocks at the angles are cw Iwssagc, and perhaps comprise more ancient buildings. 

' Tell Jif, which is i oo yards to the south, is covered with vestiges of houses both on the 
summit and on the slopes.' — Gu^rin, ' Judea,' iii. 159. 

Khurbet Abu Risheh (L v). — Walls, foundations, and a 
ruined drystone tower. On the north-east lower down is a ruined dry- 
stone watch-tower, apparently ancient. 

Khurbet Abu er Ruazin (I v). — Cisterns, caves, walls, heaps 
of stones, and foundations. 

Khurbet Abu esh Shok (J u). — Foundations and cisterns, a 
wine-press, and remains of an old paved road. 

Khiiirbet Abu es Silasil (J v). — Cisterns, foundations, and 
heaps of stones. 

Khi^irbet el 'Addeiseh (L v). — Foundations, pillar-shafts, and 
a large vaulted cistern. 

Khurbet 'Aid el Ma (J u). — The name is at present applied to 
sonie foundations and heaps of stones in the valley near the two great 
wells. North of them there are ruined caves on the hillside, and two 
or three cisterns. The name preserves that of Adullam (see Section A), 
but the ancient site is described under the head Khurbet esh 
Sheikh M a d h k u r. 

Khrirbet 'A i n Dab (J v). 

An inconsiderable ruin found by Guerin, 10 minutes to the cast of Khurbet Jimmi. Its 
name, he says, may perhaps be Andah. 

44—2 



348 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

K h u r b e t A k u d el M i n i e h (J w). 
This place does not appear upon the map. It is said by Guerin to He 1 7 minutes nearly 
south of Khurbet Sirreh. ' Here are buildings of some importance, dating probably from 
Roman, or at least from Byzantine times. Among others may be noticed a rectangular 
edifice 19 paces long. It is vaulted within, and contains five circularly vaulted arcades in 
cut stone. It is built, without, of considerable but irregular blocks, among which are smaller 
stones ; a very hard cement joins them. Above this building runs a flat terrace, once 
ornamented by a mosaic, some fragments of which can still be made out. Near this building 
I found a chamber, with an arbour vault, built of good cut stones.' 

K h i:! r b e t 'A I i n (J u). — Walls, caves, and an orchard of fig trees ; 
appears to be an old site. 

Khurbet 'Arabiyeh (L w). — Foundations, heaps of stones, and 
cisterns. 

Khurbet 'Atos (J v). — Heaps of stones, foundations, cisterns, 
caves, and ruined walls. 

Khurbet Atisat (I w). — Heaps of stones only. 

Khiirbet Aiisatein {I w). — Heaps of stones. 

Khurbet 'Aziz (see Caphar Aziz, Section A) (K x). — A large 
ruin covering the sides of a hill, apparently a large place in Byzantine 
times. The masonry is much worn, as the stone is soft. The inhabitants 
of Yutta remove the stones for building purposes. 

Under the ruins there are a great many rock-cut caves, which appear to 
have been connected with buildings above. They are reached generally 
by a passage 5 feet wide and some 16 feet long, descending by a few steps, 
and some 10 feet deep. A door is cut in the face of the rock at the end 
of this open passage, and there is a cave within. Sometimes there is also 
a cave at the side of the passage. 

On the north, near the principal building, is one of these caves, which 
was carefully planned. The passage is 16 feet by 5 feet 2 inches, and has 
seven steps. The cave within measures 24 feet 6 inches to the back wall, 
and 20 feet across. It is 8 feet high, and the floor 10 feet below the sur- 
face of the ground. At the back of the cave is a small raised recess, 
perhaps a manger ; and to the left of this (on entering) a second recess 
6 feet 9 inches wide. In the left side-wall is a recess 4 feet by 3 feet, on 
the level of the floor. On the right of the cave, near the door, is a low 
doorway leading to a rectangular chamber 1 5 feet 3 inches to the back, 



[SHEET XXL] ARCHAEOLOGY. 349 

9 feet wide. A door in the left side of the shaft leads to another chamber 
15 feet by 16 feet, and thence a door leads to a third, of irregular shape, 
21 feet 10 inches by 34 feet 4 inches. 

These caves, of which there are more than a dozen, appear to have 
been habitations. They cannot have been originally intended, one would 
suppose, for cattle, because of the steps ; but some of the recesses look 
like mangers, and (as at Silwan) the villagers in Palestine often live in 
stables. The caves are very numerous in all the hill-country south of 
Hebron. One cave at Khurbet 'Aziz has a semicircular masonry 
arch over the door, consisting of five voussoirs, and 5 feet 2 inches 
diameter. 

The masonry in the ruins of 'Aziz is very well cut. The stones 
average 18 inches height of course, and differ in length ; one was 8 feet 
long; some are rudely drafted. In a small outer tower was a stone 
4 feet 9 inches long, 2 feet 10 inches high ; in the town wall a stone 
3 feet 4 inches by 2 feet 6 inches, and a drafted stone 7 feet 2 inches 
long. 

The town stretches north and south, and appears to have been walled 
on the west, but the line is not traceable on other sides. On the west 
there are remains of three towers on the wall. A street ran east and west 
in the middle of the town, and on the south side of this was the principal 
building, which ran approximately east and west, and appears to have 
been 177 feet long by 57 feet wide, having on the east a hall 72 feet long, 
with a double row of pillars dividing it into a nave and aisles. The columns 
were i foot 10 inches diameter, and the shafts 10 feet 6 inches long. The 
capitals measure i foot i inch high, and 2 feet 5 inches square at the top ; 
they are rudely cut, and have a Byzantine appearance. The building 
does not appear to have been a church, as it has no apses. There is a 
tower on the north, projecting 16 feet 4 inches, and 2>7 feet 8 inches 
wide. Several stones in this tower are drafted rudely. South of this 
building lies a millstone 5 feet 10 inches in diameter. Near the tower 
lies a stone with a semicircular cutting below, i foot 9 inches diameter, 
perhaps the head of a window. There is a flat open space towards the 
south of the ruin, perhaps the market-place or threshing-lloor of the 
town. 

A road leads south, and west of this, lower down the hill than the 



35° THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

main part of the ruins, is a line of five columns, all touching one another. 
(See el B u r j, Sheet VII.) 

On the east a street leads down between foundations of well-dressed 
masonry to a colonnade running in the direction 132°. There are 
two rows of pillars 14 feet 4 Inches apart. The inter-columnar space 
appears to have been 6 feet 10 inches ; the diameter of the columns is 
I foot 7 inches. The capitals are 2 feet square at the top and 9 Inches 
high, with Ionic volutes and a boss with a cross. They are evidently 
Byzantine, and resemble the fifth century work in the Hauran. A large 
cistern with a circular mouth exists south of these columns, of which 
four remain. 

Still further south are remains, apparently of a church : two columns 
with a bearing 90'', and a lintel-stone 6 feet 2 inches by i foot 4 Inches, 
having a Maltese cross in relief upon It. The Inter-columniation of the 
jDlllars Is 6 feet, the pillars i foot 7 Inches in diameter. Traces of an puter 
wall are also visible. 

In the ruins to the we.st is a well-cut stone i foot 8 inches by 2 feet 
6 inches, with a very shallow draft 3 Inches broad, and the boss dressed 
smooth. Further west are remains of another small chapel, bearing 95°, 
with si.x columns, three on each wall, 7 feet 9 inches from centre to centre 
north and south, 6 feet 6 inches east and west. The building is thus 
about 20 feet by 10 feet outside. 

A stone for an oil-press, like that at Beit Sur, was observed. There 
are rock-cut tombs, which are now choked, and a fine cistern In the 
southern tower on the town wall, having a broad reservoir 12 feet square 
for collecting the rain, and a small trap 3 feet square leading to a lower 
and deeper reservoir. There are wine-presses to the north, between the 
ruin and Y u 1 1 a. The ruin Is one of the largest in the district, and must 
once have been a flourishing town. 

Visited 27th October, 1S74. 

Khurbet Bakkar (K v). — Foundations, cisterns, caves, and 
rLiined walls ; a Mukam and two springs near. Apparently a ruined 
village. 

Khurbet B'arneh (K v). — Cisterns and foundations among 
trees. A broken tomb to the south. 



[SHEET XXJ.] ARCH.EOLOGY. 35' 

Khiirbet Beit 'A i n u n (L v). — Walls, foundations, and a 
reservoir. There is a spring to the west, and on the south a small 
ruined chapel ; the walls and pillar-shafts remaining ; this is called e 1 
K e n i s e h. Remains of a tower with large drafted masonry also exist ; 
it measures 82 feet north and south by 72 feet east and west. The stones 
are in some cases 6 feet long and 3 feet high. 

Khurbet Beit 'Amra (K x). — A ruined site on a hill, resem- 
bling Khurbet 'Aziz in character. Cisterns, ruined walls, shafts of 
pillars, and lintel stones were observ^ed. 

' These ruins extend over a large hill, whose lower parts are provided with sustaining 
walls. A good many cisterns are cut in the sides of the hill. Several of these are provided 
with the stones intended to stop the orifice. On all sides are to be seen old subterranean 
magazines, once belonging to houses now destroyed, the ruins of which are covered with 
brushwood. The vestiges of two churches, almost completely destroyed, are still visible. 
They are both built east and west ; one occupied the higher part of the town, the other the 
lower. On the site of the first, among other things, are the fragments of a baptismal font.' — 
Gutirin, 'Judea,' iii. 208. 

Khurbet Beit Baar (I w). — Foundations, caves, and cisterns. 
Khurbet Beit Nasif (J v). — Ruined houses, foundations, and 

cisterns. 

'I examined a fort of rectangular construction, measuring 23 paces in length by 14 in 
breadth. Built of good blocks, some of which are cut eri bossage, it possesses a vault slightly 
oval. The lowest floor is alone standing. It was formerly surmounted by a first floor, now 
three-fourths demolished. This fort may perhaps be of Crusading date, but not earlier. Not 
far off' is a great hall 40 feet long by 8 broad, the upper part of which is demolished. The 
rest of the plateau is strewn with rubbish of all kinds.'— Gue'rin, ' Judea,' iii. 364. 

Khurbet Beit Sawir (L u). — Foundations and cisterns. 
About half a mile to the south is an ancient tower visible from the 
Hebron road; it is 22 paces square, and consists of large roughly 
squared slabs of stone, 8 or 9 feet long, 5 feet wide, and i foot 4 inches 
thick. The stone is much worn, and there is no trace of mortar. The 
tower has fallen over to the south, and on that side is a large cistern, 
the mouth partly closed by a slab like those in the tower. This tower 
has an appearance of great antiquity. Some three or four courses remain 
in the walls. 

Visited October 15th, 1874. 

Khurbet Beit S h 'a r (K u). — Walls, foundations, caves, and 
heaps of stones. Remains of an ancient road. 



352 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

K h u r b e t B e i y u s (J u). — Foundations only. 

Khurbet Beni Dar (L w). 
Not on Ihe map, unless it be the Khurbet Yukin. Guerin found here the ruins of a 
tower with numerous cisterns, caverns, and quarries, all pointing to the great antiquity of the 
site. 

Khiirbet Birein (L w). — Traces of ruins, caves used as sheep- 
folds, and a spring well. 

Khurbet B i s m (J w). — Walls, cisterns, ca\es, and broken 

tombs. 

Guerin also found the remains of an ancient church, some of the columns still remaining 
in the ground. 

Khurbet el B i s s (I v). — Cisterns, caves, heaps of stones, foun- 
dations. 

Khi'irbet Breikut (L u). — A ruined village on high ground. 
On the south is a ruined building of moderate-sized masonry, and the 
foundations of a tower projecting south-east. The stones are 2 or 3 feet 
long, with the broad irregular draft and roughly-dressed boss (not rustic) 
which are found in Byzantine buildings. 

There are cisterns and a rock-cut birkeh, foundations, and heaps of 
stones. 

Visited October 15th, 1874. 

Khurbet el B u e i b (L w). — Walls and a cistern ; the masonry 
is small and appears to be modern. 

Khurbet el B fi s 1 (J u). — Foundations, heaps of stones, cisterns, 
and ruined walls. 

Khurbet ed Deir (J x). — Foundations only. 

Khurbet e d D e i r a t (L x). — Ruined walls. A vault was here 
found with three arches, semicircular, and 1 5 feet span. They were 2 feet 
6 inches thick and 4 feet 2 inches apart, making the vault some 15 feet 
square. On these arches flat slabs were laid to form the roof, some of 
which remain. There was also a stone with a circle, in which was a 
Maltese cross rudely cut. 

Here Guerin saw also a great many subterranean magazines cut in the rock, descent into 
which is effected by means of stairs. 




3 '2 



[SHEET XXL] ARCHEOLOGY. 353 

Khiirbet Deir Razi (J w). — Walls, cisterns, and caves. 
Rock-cut tombs to the east. 

Khiirbet Deir Samat (J vv). — Traces of ruins, caves, and 
cisterns. 

Khiirbet ed Dilb (L v). — Walls and foundations, apparently- 
modern. 

K h li r b e t e d D i 1 b e h (K w). — Ruined walls, apparently modern, 
a square birkeh, and a broken rock-cut tomb. 

Khfirbet Emra (I w). — Foundations. 

Khurbet Ernebah (K v). — Foundations, caves, and cisterns. 
In the valley to the north are three wells in line. The place stands on 
the slope of the ridge, and has the appearance of an ancient site. A 
magnificent oak-tree (one of the largest in the country) called B a 1 1 il t e t 
esh Sheikh, stands to the north-east. 

Visited October 21st, 1874. 

Khurbet Es-ha (K v). — Foundations and rock-cut tombs, much 
broken. There are springs all round the place, and caves. It has the 
appearance of an ancient site. 

Khurbet Fattum (I u). — Caves and foundations, heaps of 
stones and cisterns, one of which has steps leading down to its entrance. 

Khurbet Firah (J v). — Traces of ruins near the spring. 

K h ia r b e t F i r j a s (I w). — Foundations, caves, and cisterns. 

Khurbet el Fureidis (L u). — Walls, foundations, and cisterns. 

Khurbet Ghanaim (L x). — A good-sized ruin, with caves, 
vaults, cisterns, a rock-cut wine-press, pillar shafts, and foundations. 
It resembles Khurbet Aziz. 

Khiirbet Ghiirabeh (J u). — Foundations only. 

Khurbet H a 1 1 a (J v). 

A ruin not on the map, visited by Guerin, who places it at 45 minutes (2 or 3 miles) north- 
west of Beit Aula. He observed there broken cisterns, caves, a winepress, three wells, one 
provided with a stone stopper, and the ruins of a great number of houses. 

Khiirbet Haktarah (K w). — Foundations and a cemented 
cistern. Apparently not ancient. 

VOL. III. 45 



354 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

Khiirbet el Hamam (J v). 
This place, not on the map, was visited by Gu^rin on his way from Beit el Ban to Idna. 
It is situated on a wall, and among the ruins is an enclosure, measuring 44 paces on each 
side. ' The wall is very thick, and built of great blocks regularly cut and placed upon each 
other without cement. In the interior are two underground magazines cut in the rock. On 
the slopes of the hills are the debris of other buildings entirely overthrown. I found also 
several of the cupola-shaped excavations.' — ' Judea,' ii. 364. 

Khiirbet Horan (I u). — Foundations, heaps of stones, caves, 
and cisterns. 

Khurbet el Hiimmam (I v). — Resembles the last. There is 

here a rock-cut birkeh with steps leading down to it. 

Khurbet H u r a i b el B e i d (M u). — Traces of ruins, apparently 
modern. 

Khurbet I n s i 1 (L w). — Foundations and a large cistern. 

Khurbet Istabul (L w). — Foundations and heaps of stones. A 
rock-cut tomb to the north. 

' These ruins are scattered over the slopes and the summit of a hill. Among the traces of 
small houses completely destroyed may be distinguished some important buildings, the lower 
courses of which are still in situ, some in magnificent cut stones, others in large blocks 
rudely squared. Artificial caverns and cisterns have been hollowed on all sides. These 
caverns are for the most part closed at their opening by a great round block perforated at the 
centre, in the interior of which is a large stone like a stopper, which is taken out for the draw- 
ing of water.' — Guerin, ' Judea,' iii. 162. 

Khiirbet Jala (K v). — Apparently an ancient site. Walls, 
foundations, caves, cisterns, and heaps of stones. There are two very 
large locust-trees {Ceratonia Siliqna) in the ruins, which are conspicuous 
objects from the lower ground. 

Khurbet Jediir (K u). — Foundations, walls, caves, and cisterns. 
Remains of an ancient road. A spring to the north and a large tree in 
the ruins. The ruins stand on a kind of Tell or mound. 

Khurbet Jemrfirah (J v).— Foundations, caves, cisterns, and 
heaps of stones. 

Khurbet Jeradat (L v). — Cisterns and heaps of stones. 

Khurbet J i m r i n (K v). — Seems probably an ancient site. Cis- 
terns, caves, foundations, and heaps of stones. 

Khurbet el J of (K w). — Walls, cisterns, and broken tombs. 



[SHEET XXL] ARCHEOLOGY. 355 

The ruin is of considerable size, and stands on the side of a hill. 
Immediately north is a hill looking down on the open Wady ed 
D i 1 b e h, and in the south-east face of this hill are several tombs, the 
two largest being fine specimens with sculptured fa9ades. 

The upper tomb has a porch 9 feet by 16 feet outside on the south. 
Over this is a cornice cut in rock, now partly destroyed, consisting of 
triglyphs with rosettes between ; the total height 
of the cornice is 2 feet 3 inches. The designs 



are well cut, resembling the work at Deir ed IjT V-~|^^ 11 

Derb. (Sheet XIV.) The tomb chamber 

within measures 15 feet 9 inches to the back, 

and is 16 feet 3 inches wide. A door, 2 feet wide, leads to an inner 

chamber, 6 feet 9 inches square, with a bench 2 feet 3 inches wide round 

the sides and at the back. No loaili or kokini were seen. 

The lower tomb was blocked up. It had a porch 8 feet 3 inches by 
12 feet 3 inches, having two square rock piers, 18 inches thick, in front. 
There is no sculpture, and the whole is rather rudely cut, perhaps un- 
finished. 

Visited 30th October, 1874. 

Guerin speaks also of a ruined Byzantine church built of good stones. ' It was preceded 
by an atrium and a narthex, and was ornamented within by monolithic columns now displaced. 
On a magnificent block lying on the ground I found three Greek crosses nearly effaced, each 
cross enclosed in a kind of disk.' 

Khurbet Jiibr (I v). — Caves, cisterns, foundations, and heaps of 
stones. 

Khurbet Kafir (J u). — Foundations and heaps of stones. It 
has the appearance of an old site, and an ancient road passes it. 

K h ia r b e t Kan'an (K w). — Foundations and rude cave tombs. 
On the south-west a ruined watchtower ; a fine spring to the west. 

Khurbet Kanya (I u). — Caves, cisterns, foundations, ruined 
walls and heaps of stones. 

Khurbet el K a 1 1 (K v and L u). — Heaps of stones, founda- 
tions, and several cisterns. 

Khurbet KeizCln (K v). — INIodern ruined walls. 

45—2 



3S6 



THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 



Khiirbet Kefr Jor (I x). — Foundations and caves. 

Khiirbet Kerma (J u). — Foundations, walls, heaps of stones, 
caves, cisterns, and pillar shafts much worn ; a cross is just visible 
cut on one stone. There are rock-cut tombs at the foot of the hill 
to the north, but they were blocked up. The place seems to be 
an ancient site ; to the west is a well, and an ancient road passes 
near. 

Khiirbet Khallet ed Dar {K w). — Traces of ruins, cisterns, 
and broken rock-cut tombs. 

K h u r b e t Khallet el H u m r a (M v).— A ruined wall, ap- 
parently belonging to an old cattle-fold. 

Khurbet el Khanazir (K .x). — Walls and caves, apparently 
modern. 

Khurbet K h a r u f (J v). — Cisterns, caves, foundations, ruined 
walls, heaps of stones. A ' rock-sunk ' tomb. Apparently a Byzantine 
site. 

Khurbet Khoreisa, or Umm Tiran (L x). — A large 
ruin, resembling in character that of 'A z i z. There are many domed 
rock-cut cisterns and caves, and a small basilica measuring 68g feet in 
length outside, with an apse i6 feet diameter, and six columns in two 
rows of three, dividing the nave and aisles ; they are i foot 9 inches 
diameter and 8 feet centre to centre. On the west is a small porch 




*vyth mT-J 
\HTOy RVi 

KlVtirgf All 
KiC'rteYC 

>.Te <: l^^ ft r I 



''AX 



^nn 



-,r,T,r,r,T(r.w 






l;^ 



IfLSntlirdj Lintel uli JxftnrOiU /OitjriLicL 



or narthex, 39 feet 6 inches north and south, by 15 feet 6 inches east 
and west. The walls are about three feet thick. A small piece of cornice 
was measured. A small lintel stone, about 4 feet long, was carved with 
a winged tablet having a cross with four globes included in a circle. 
A larger lintel, with a cross in a wreath, measured 8 feet 9 inches by 



{SHEET XXI.'\ ARCHAEOLOGY. 357 

2 feet 6 inches, and bore on the left of the cross the following inscrip- 
tion : 



AYTHHn - - 


Avr)} 7) TTU 


AHTOYKY - 


A»J TUV KVp 


lOYAlKAI - - 


lov SiKino 


lEICEAEYC - - 


I H<yl\iV(TO 


NT - - - ENAYTH 


IT (a() £1' avTij 



'This is the gate of the Lord : the righteous shall enter in thereat.' (Psalm cxviii. 20.) 

The text was read by E. B. Finlay, Esq., from the copy sent home. 
(See 'Quarterly Statement,' April, 1875, p. 103.) 
Visited 28th October, 1874. 

K h i:^[ r b e t K h o r s a (J w). — Walls, cisterns, and caves. 

Khurbet Khureitun (M u). — Remains of a tower, vaults and 
cisterns of moderate masonry, the stones rudely squared, the vaults of 
rag work tunnel vaulting ; the cement is white and soft with pottery ; the 
exterior joints are very wide, and packed with stones 2 inches to 3 inches 
cube. A stone found in situ in a vault, with a cross cut on it, flanked by 
four crosslets — the arms of Jerusalem. The general character of the ruin 
is of the twelfth century. 

Lower down on the south-east is a fine reservoir, 64 feet by 47 feet. 
The masonry is good, of hard limestone, well dressed, without any draft, 
the blocks 2 feet 10 inches to 3 feet 5 inches in length ; the mortar is 
hard and good. The wall of this reservoir is built in a series of steps ; 
the birkeh is called Bir el 'Ainaziyeh; it may be older than the 
ruins round the tower which belonged to the Crusading monastery of 
St. Chariton (see Section A), and are perched like most such monasteries 
on the edge of a great precipice. 

Visited November 4th, 1873. 

Khurbet K i b r e h (K v). — Foundations and a cistern. 

K h li r b e t K i 1 a (J v). — Foundations, ruined walls, heaps of 
stones, and cisterns. The ruins stand on a terraced hill, on which corn is 
grown, and overlook W a d y e s S u r. At the foot of the hill is the 
well called B i r e 1 K 6 s, having a ruined conduit of masonry, apparently 



358 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

not very ancient, leading to a cistern. There are rock-cut tombs to the 
south of the site. 

Visited March, 1875. 

Khurbet K I Ik Is (K w).— Walls and cisterns, and rock-cut 
tombs. 

Khurbet el Kom (I w). — Traces of ruins and caves on a white 
hill-top. It is rather a large ruin. 

Khurbet el Kotn (I v). — Foundations, cisterns, and heaps of 
stones. 

Khurbet Kueiziba (L v). — Ruins of a small town with a 
good spring. The buildings stand on terraces on the side of the valley, 
and some of the walls remain to a height of 10 feet. In the upper part 
of the ruin is a tower of good sized masonry, some of the stones 4 feet 
long. The masonry is good, and has an appearance of antiquity ; the 
ruin Is unusually well preserved. 

Visited October 20th, 1874. 

Khurbet Kufin (K v). — A large double ruin with foundations, 
heaps of stones, cisterns, a spring, a wine-press, and tombs, also a large 
birkeh. On the south side of the hill are about a dozen rock-cut tombs, 
all closed up. A cave was found, measuring 19 paces east and west, and 
10 paces north and south. On its walls were niches like those in the 
caves at Beit J I b r i n, perhaps for urns ; there were some 1 50 
niches in all. On the east is a small chamber — perhaps a tomb. 
Several olives exist among the ruins towards the west. 

The ruins to the west include a small building sacred to Sheikh 
el A r bain. The large reservoir (Birket Kufin) is on the 
south-east. The place Is described by Robinson as a village, but was in 
ruins when visited. The birkeh is about 20 paces long, and was full 
of mud ; north of It Is a sarcophagus, and near It a large wine-press with 
a large shallow chamber, and two others smaller and deeper. There is 
by it a column shaft, and several large stones lie near. 

Visited October 15th, 1874. 

Khurbet el Kufeir (K w). — Ruined walls and caves, cisterns, 
and olive-trees. Probably a ruined hamlet. 



[SHEET XXL] ARCILEOLOGY. 359 

K h li r b e t K u r m e h (J w). — Traces of ruins. 

Khurbet Kilrza (J x).— Walls, caves, a well, and a vault, 
probably a cistern. There are several cisterns and a sacred place to the 
west. Some of the ruins appear to be modern, some ancient. 

Khurbet Kusbur (K v). — Foundations and cisterns with a 
spring ; the place has the appearance of an ancient site. 

Khurbet el K li s r (L w). — A large ruin with foundations and 
cisterns. It appears to be a Christian site ; pillars were said by the 
Arabs to exist, but were not seen. 

. Khurbet Kussah (I v). — Caves, foundations, cisterns, and 
heaps of stones. An ancient road leads through the ruin. 

Khurbet Luka (K v). 

This place is not on the map. Guerin found it lo minutes south-south-east of Jinirin. 
Nothing remains of the former village except a small number of cisterns and caves cut in the rock. 

Khtirbet el Makhbiyeh (I u). — Foundations, caves, cisterns, 
and heaps of stones. 

Khurbet Mamas (K v). — Resembles the last. 

Khii'irbet Marrina (K u). — A small ruin with a well to the 
north. It lies low, and consists of ruined foundations and caves. 

Khurbet Marsii (L u). — Heaps of stones and cisterns. 

Khurbet c 1 M e h a m i (I w). — See Beit A u w a. 

Khurbet Mejdel Bad (K x). — Walls, a reservoir, caves, and 
rough cave-tombs. An ancient road leads to it. 

' The summit of the hill is crowned with the debris of a stone building in great blocks, for 
the most part rudely squared and roughly embossed, which appears to have been designed 
for military purposes. Besides this, two edifices, which were once adorned with columns of 
stone, some monoliths, and others formed of superimposed cylinders, now completely over- 
thrown. Not only those monuments, but also the greater part of the private houses, were 
built of large blocks. Several of the houses are still standing. The vault is circular, and 
slightly oval. Everywhere the sides of the hill are pierced with cisterns and caves cut out 
of the rock, sometimes in vast caverns, of which it is difiicult to say whether they are natural 
or artificial.' — Guerin, ' Judea,' iii. 204. 

Khiirbet el Minyeh (M v). — Foundations and ruined walls, 
with one or two caves, which are inhabited. 

Khurbet el M i y e h (L x). — A modern ruined village. 



36o THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

K h li r b e t el M u r a k (J w). — Caves and two large foundations. 

Khurbet en Nakieh (I v). — Caves and three heaps of ruins. 

K h li r b e t en N i m r e h (K w). — Ruined walls. 

Khurbet en Nusara (K v). — Ruined walls among trees, with 
a spring to the south. Appears to have been once a small village. 

The name of the place suggested to De Saulcy as the probable site of the church built 
on the site of Mambre by Constantine and Eusebius. There is, however, no trace of any 
church upon the spot. The name of the place was given to Rosen as Rejum Sebzin. 

Khurbet e r R a b i y e h (K w). — Walls, cisterns, and caves. 

Khurbet R a b li d (J x). — Walls, cisterns, and rude cave tombs. 

North and south east of this place are two walls pierced, with many caves. Their name 
was given to Guerin as Heurkan Beni Hasan. 

Khi^irbet Rakah (K w). — Walls, foundations, cisterns, and caves, 
with a well. 

Khurbet er Resm (J u). — Cisterns, caves, foundations, ruined 
walls, and heaps of stones. 

Khurbet er Robiah(L v). — Walls of a large building of large 
rudely squared stones; an ancient road passes by it. It appears most 
probably to have been a monastery. 

Khurbet Rubba (J u). — Caves, cisterns, and heaps of stones, 
ruined walls, bases of pillars and shafts much worn, two lintel stones with 
crosses, both measuring about 7 feet by 2\ feet. 

Khurbet S a 1 m a (L x). — Walls, apparently remains of a modern 
ruined village. 

Khurbet Sam Ah (I x). — A small ruin, walls, caves, and rock-cut 
tombs. 

Khurbet S a n il t (L w). — Traces of ruins, rock cisterns, and frag- 
ments of pottery. 

Khurbet SebA (J u). — Cisterns, foundations, and heaps of 
stones. 

Khurbet Sebta (K w). — This name is given to ruins round 
Balliitet Sebta (Abraham's Oak). Rock-cut tombs with loculi here occur, 
and to the south is a small spring called 'Ain Sebta. 







> 

< 

o 



o 

X 



o 

< 



[SHEET XXL] .ARCHAEOLOGY. 361 

Khurbet Senabreh (I v). — Cisterns, walls, foundations, and 
heaps of stones. 

Khiirbct Sera sir (K w). — Foundations and cemented cisterns, 
apparently not very ancient. There are, however, rock-cut tombs with 
kokini and a small spring ('Ain Shems) with rock cuttings. The site 
is extensive south of the spring. 

Khurbet Shebrakah (I v). — Foundations, caves, and cisterns. 
There is a rock-cut tomb at this ruin, measuring 22 feet by 12 feet. On 
the back wall are three kokiin, about 6 feet long and 2 feet high, and on 
each side wall, at the back of the chamber, is a similar koka. 

Khurbet ed Sheikh Madhkur (Adullam) (J u).— A steep 
and almost isolated hill, with terraced sides, is surrounded on the north 
and west by a narrow valley, which runs into the broad open corn valley 
on the east. The place rises 300 to 400 feet above the valley, and is a 
position of great natural strength, being only joined to the general range 
of hills on the south by a narrow neck. On the summit stands the little 
Mukam, and round it are heaps of stones and ruins extending over some 
distance. On the north side of the hill near the top is a cave of moderate 
size. The rock is quarried on the west, and on this side is a rock-cut tomb 
now blocked up with a cross cut in front. In the branch valley on the 
north are two wells, one apparently of great antiquity, with some 30 stone 
troughs round it and full of water. To the east of this is a magnificent 
terebinth (B u t m e t \Va d y e s S u r). On the west, opposite the ruin, is 
a row of caves on the sides of the narrow valley. These are used by the 
peasantry in spring for stables. The cave on the hill itself was also 
inhabited when visited. (See Lieutenant Kitchener's Photographs, Nos. 

30. 3I-) 

Visited March, 1875. 

' In working upon data so uncertain, it is dearly ditBcult to determine the exact position 
of Adullam. Nevertheless, a tradition — we may boldly call it a legend — sprang up in after 
years which placed the cave of Adullam at the immense grotto known as Mugharet Khureitun, 
not far from Bethlehem and quite close to Tekoa. The description of this cave has been 
given a hundred times. The legend was only concerned with the cave, and did not trouble 
itself to establish the proximity of a city. (See Tobler ii. 509 et seq.) 

' It has long been proved that the name of Khureitun applied to the cave, to the adjacent 
ruins, to a spring, and to the valley below, is nothing else than that of the ascetic Chariton, 
who founded in this place one of his two Lauras, called Suka, 14 stadia from Tekoa. The 
VOL. III. 46 



362 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

origin of the word Suka has been a good deal discussed. It is from the Syriac. Tobler and 
Sepp explain it by the Hebrew " Succah," a tent or house. I think that they are wrong. We 
should have in that case a x ^"^ not a x in the Greek transcription ; the kappa impHes a koph 
in the original, and i/pstlon an / rather than an o or an ou. 

' Now why did tradition get hold of this cavern called ■/.fiij.aerui and make Adullam out 
of it ? Probably on account of its remarkable dimensions and its proximity to Bethlehem. 
Perhaps the name of Suka went for something. It is probable that this belief took its origin 
at the time of the Crusades ; it is certainly as old as that date ; and the confusion of Suka 
with Sik and Socho would have been impossible for a Semitic race, but the Crusaders would 
be helped in their identification by an apparent resemblance, the city of Socho being asso- 
ciated with Adullam in the Bible narrative. This mistake would be (juite in accordance with 
their habits. 

' We cannot, as critics, accept such a fable. But we ourselves have not been more for- 
tunate. Our own topography has proposed for Adullam in succession Deir Dubban, Beit 
Alam, Beit Doula, etc. 

' Not one of these hypotheses answers to the conditions of the problem. 

' First of all, the name of Adullam must be considered separately. Whatever its etymology, 
it is certain that, however preserved by the Arabs, it would have undergone considerable 
modifications. For example, it might have been Adlun, under which name we should at once 
recognise it. This name exists, but unfortunately it is attached to a place very far from the 
territory of Judah, on the coast of Phcenicia, between Tyre and Sidon. These caprices of 
Onomastic echoes are not rare in Syria. 

' We should expect a deviation of the final syllable into oun, hi, or an ; a disappearance 
of the d by assimilation with the double /; and a transformation of the ain mio g/ia in, and 
perhaps into //. 

' Starting with this principle, I was struck by the resemblance of the Hebrew word 
Adullam with that of a ruin called Ed el Miyc, situated on the road from Jerusalem to Beit 
Jibrin, not far from Shuweikeh or Socho. 

'In 187 1 I resolved to visit the place in order to verify conjectures resting upon nothing 
more than appearances which might be vain, and I included this place in the programme of a 
little excursion — the same in which I discovered Gezer. The following are some of the notes 
which I made on the journey : 

' " Starting from Jerusalem on the 30th January, in a pelting rain, we pass (my companion 
being Frere Lievin) by Bettir, Houbin, and Ella el Foka. Facing this latter place, on the 
other side of the valley, towards the south, exists a place called el Azhek, whose name 
singularly resembles that of the city, hitherto unknown, of Azeka. It is a rocky plateau, sur- 
rounded by hills of greater elevation, with no other trace of ruins than a great circle of shape- 
less stones called Dar el Kibliy^. 

' " Then Khurbet Hanna, Khurbet Harik csh Shekhaleb, with the tomb of Noah's 
daughter, Khurbet Jairieh, the Spring of Tannur (legend of the Deluge), Ellar es Sifla, or 
Bawaij (medicxval ruin). From thence we directed our course due south-east, and arrived a 
little before sunset at the broad valley on one of the sides of which are the ruins which I 
wished to see. They were called Ed el Miye, or Id el Miye. Like most of the ancient sites 
in Palestine, they have no determined character, but appear to cover a fairly large extent of 
ground, as well as could be made out among the late grass with which they were covered ; 
there is also a large well, surrounded with several troughs, where they bring the cattle to drink. 



[SHEET XXI.\ ARCHEOLOGY. 363 

' " The place is absolutely uninhabited, except in the rainy season, when the shepherds 
take refuge there for the night. These peasants are here at present in large numbers. 

' " We climb the hill at the foot of which these ruins extend. Other ruins lie on the top 
of it, and a small monument dedicated to the Sheikh Madkur. 

' " The hill is perforated with natural grottoes, where the shepherds are already housed 
for the night. It is easy to imagine David and his companions lodged in these large caves ; 
from them one commands the plains and valleys to a great distance round, and a gha-.-Aa once 
effected, this natural fortress would offer a sure and commodious shelter. 

' " As we journey without tent, with our horses alone, and with what our khordjcs hold, we 
seek a shelter in tlie rocks, and leave our beasts in a neighbouring cave. But the fellahin, 
who make no difficulty about number, protest against the profanation by our animals of a 
grotto sacred to Madkur. 

' " \Ve install ourselves as well as we can in this rustic sanctuary, taking certain precau- 
tions, for the country is at the moment a prey to famine. We divide our provisions with the 
little circle of curious visitors who surround us, near a great fire lit in tlie Ii-d<an. The bread 
is a welcome gift to these poor wretches, who have been living for weeks on leaves of khoub- 
beije (a kind of mallow). So that I get from them without any trouble valuable information 
on the place. Local tradition says that the city of Ed el Miyfe once — but a long while ago — 
suffered total destruction and a general massacre. Men, women, children, nothing was 
spared. They massacred, among others, eighty couples of brothers, reminding one of the 
eighty couples of (Gozot) brothers, priests, spoken of in the Talmud. 

'"Sheikh Madkur— some call him Mankur — was the son of the Sultan Beder. His 
descendants are settled at Beit Natif— they have built and keep up the wely. 

' " We pass the night with a little distrust of the vagabonds round us — hunger is a bad 
adviser. But Sheikh Madkur, or the ancient divinity whom he represents, watches over us, 
and the morning arrives without accident. We set off immediately, casting one rapid glance 
at the hill, which is full of caves, tombs, and cisterns, and covered over with great blocks of 
cut stone. We have to get as quickly as possible to Beit Jibrin, for the sake of our horses, 
who have had nothing to eat but grass." 

' Since that moment the idea that I had seen the ruins and the cave of AduUam dwelt 
continually in my mind, without, however, becoming a serious conviction. During my last 
visit to Palestine I proposed, by an excursion in the region of Beit Jibrin, to make another 
journey to Ed el Miye. We found the place completely deserted, the whole country being 
ravaged by typhoid fever. I ascertained afresh that the plateau was covered with ruins, and 
had once been the site of a city. Among the tombs cut in the rock was one with a cross. 
We explored the large cavern near the wely. We were at a loss because we had nothing to 
give us light, when, to our surprise and joy, we discovered in the wely a packet of candles 
still in their blue paper cover, and deposited by some pious hand for the purpose of lighting 
the sanctuary. Decidedly the good genius of Sheikh Madkur visibly protected us. I made 
no scruple about appropriating one of these providential candles, and I substituted a small 
piece of money for the benefit of the pious donor whose offering I had been obliged to use. 
We were thus able to visit the cavern in all its extent without risk of breaking our necks, as 
had nearly happened to me already at Shiha. 

' In a halt at Ellar I picked up a new legend on Ed el Miye which enables us to fix the 
orthography of the name. 

' The day of the great feast of Mussulmans (id) a terrible fight took place, a long time 

46 2 



364 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

ago, between the hostile lianunoiilcs who lived in the city. A hundred (miye) of the inhabitants 
were slain. Since that time the place has been called the Feast of the Hundred. 

' It is curious to remark that the explanations in vogue among the rabbis of the fourth and 
fifth centuries on the etymology of AduUam tended also to separate it into two parts. 

' St. Jerome, in fact, who was the pupil of the Jewish doctors, translates in his " De 
Nominibus Hebraicis " Adullamitem hy testificatem, sive testimonium aqiim ; Adiillamim by 
coagregatio coriim ; and Odollam by testimonium eorum. He merely separates the first 
syllable to assimilate it to the Hebrew ed, witness. As to the second part, to which he once 
gives the name of water, he has in his mind the Hebrew maim. Some of these contradictory 
interpretations would be very well explained by a form analogous to the Arabic Ed el Miye. 

' In spite of the striking resemblance, I have a certain scruple about connecting Ed el 
Miye with Adullam. Generally the Arabic names give us contractions rather than the reverse. 
We should have to admit that Ed el Miyb is connected with Adullam by means of the ethnic 
form in the feminine Edelmy, Ed el Miy&. 

' Ed el Miyfe is about 8 Roman miles from Beit Jibrin, as nearly as can be fixed from 
existing maps, and north-east of this city. It is exactly the distance of the position assigned 
by the " Onomasticon " to Mellkedah ; but we have seen that this passage had in view 
Adullam, placed elsewhere at 10 miles. 

' It is certain that in placing Adullam at Ed el Miyt; we not only approach the statements 
of the " Onomasticon," but also satisfy very nearly all the conditions demanded by the texts 
quoted above, including the expedition of the three Giborims who went to fetch water from 
Bethlehem. The journey from Ed el Miye to Bethlehem and back, about 1 2 leagues, would 
be nothing for the light-footed mountaineers who surrounded David. Those who consider 
the distance too much have only to remember that it is related as an exjiloit, and that the 
fatigue has to be added to the risk. Let us not forget, besides, that when David as a boy 
killed Goliath, he carried provisions to his three elder brethren from Bethlehem to the camp 
of the Israelites — that is to say towards Sodom, in the valley of the Terebinth — nearly as far 
and in the same parts as Ed el Miye. 

' All these coincidences, then, give a high degree of vraisemhlance to the identification, 
but from that to a certainty, such as we have in Gezer, is a long step. I ought to add, in 
conclusion, without attaching any other importance to it, that two localities might also pretend 
to the honour of representing Adullam, if we confine ourselves to the phonetic point of view 
— Ellar, already named, and Beit EUia, a little to the east of Ed el Miyt; ; but the phonetic 
point of view is not anything in topography, and besides, even from these considerations, Ed 
el Miye has the advantage.' — M. Clermont-Ganneau, 'Quarterly Statement,' 1875, PP- 
173— 177. 

'The site of, perhaps, primary interest in our work from this camp is that of the royal 
city of Adullam, with the cave or hold so famous in the history of David, in the identification 
of which I am happy to say our work entirely confirms the i)revious discovery due to M. 
Ganncau. The traditional site of Adullam is east of Bethlehem in Wady Khureitun — an 
extraordinary cavern with long winding passages. The general identification of later times 
has, however, been with Deir Dubban, " The Convent of Flies," apparently because no name 
which approached more closely in the district in which Adullam was known to lie could be 
found, and because a cavern similar to those just described is here to be found on the west 
side of the village. In a report from Beit 'Atiib (" Quarterly Statement," January, 1875, 



{SHEET XXI.\ ARCIl.EOLOGY. 3^5 

p. 19) I described the cavern of Umm el Tuweimin under the impression that this was 
the spot M. Ganneau had supposed identical with Adullam, but this mistake he afterwards 
pointed out to me, and gave me indications of the whereabouts of the true site. 

' There is no reason to suppose that the cave of Adullam was a site separate from the 
royal city of that name. Josephus says that David, escaping from Gath, " came to the tribe 
of Judah, and abode in a cave by the city of Adullam " (Ant. vi. 12, 3). Thence he sent to 
his family in Bethlehem, and here he first collected to him " every one that was in distress, 
and every one that was in debt, and every one that was discontented" (i Samuel xxii. 2). 

' The site of the city itself appears to be very ancient. The patriarch Judah is mentioned 
as going down (from the hill country it would seem to be Shephelah) to visit his friend Hirah 
the Adullamite. It appears in the list of royal cities taken by Joshua (Joshua xii. 15), between 
Libnah and Makkedah. It is again mentioned (Joshua xv. 35) in the list of fourteen cities 
of the Shephelah, and its name here appears between those of Jarmuth (Yarmuk) and the 
northern Socoh (Shuweikeh). That it was a site of natural strength we infer from the 
expression " the hold," which is used in reference to David's retreat, in or close to it 
(i Samuel xxii. 5), and also from its being fortified by Rehoboam (2 Chron. xi. 7), as men- 
tioned in the list of his fortresses, the name occurring between Socoh and Gath. In this 
list, however, the order of occurrence throughout seems of little value. A further indication 
of position occurs in the notice in Micah i. 15, where it is named with Achzib and Mareshah. 
The requisites for the site of Adullam are therefore as follows : 

' I St. That it be in the Shephelah or low hills. 

' 2nd. In the neighbourhood of Jarmuth and Socoh. 

' 3rd. At no great distance from the district of Mareshah and the northern towns of the 
Libnah district. 

' 4th. Probably between Gath and Bethlehem. 

' 5th. That it be a strong natural site. 

' 6th. That it be an ancient site of importance with rock-cut tombs, good water supply, 
ancient and main roads, and communications from different sides. 

' 7th. That it contain one or more habitable caves. 

'8th. That the modern name contain the important letters of the Hebrew, especially the 
'Ain. 

' The fact that this town whilst in one district is yet mentioned in connection with the 
northern towns of the district immediately south of it, is in itself a very important indication, 
and would fix Adullam as towards the south part of the district to which it belongs. 

' The requirements are, it will be seen, fully met in every particular by the site I am about 
to describe. Upon Murray's new map it will be seen that a great valley separates the She- 
phelah from the high hills, and runs first north-west, then north, from the watershed near 
Hebron to the neighbourhood of Socoh or Shuweikeh ; it then turns west and runs near Tell 
el Safieh, and so into the sea, north of Ashdod. The first part to Socoh is called Wady Sur ; 
afterwards it becomes AVady Sumt, the probable Valley of Elah. 

' On its eastern brink, about 5 miles south of Socoh, is the hill of Keilah, above which, 
in the high hills, stands Kharas, which I have proposed to identify with Hareth. West of 
Socoh are the scenes of other battles with the Philistines, and a visit to the spot explains their 
choice of this part of the country for raids. The broad valley is, in the greater part of its 
course, over a mile across, and the rich arable ground, watered by a small brook from springs 
farther up, presented, when we visited it, a long vista of green cornfields and brown furrows, 



366 THE SUR VE Y OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

now ploughed by fellahin, who come down from Surif, from S'air, and from other villages in 
the hills. Thus from their stronghold of Gath (if Tell es Safieh be Gath), on the side of the 
valley, at the edge of the plain, the Philistines had a broad highway leading through the 
richest corn-land of Judah on the one hand, east even to Jerusalem, and on the south to the 
neighbourhood of Keilah. Thus we see how important it was to hold the entrance to this 
rich but ill-protected country, and the occurrence of contests between Socoh and Gath is 
explained, whilst, on the other hand, we understand how the invaders came to penetrate to the 
apparently remote village of Keilah, where they robbed the threshing-floors (i Samuel xxiii. i), 
although it is on the west, separated from Philistia by the entire breadth of the rocky hills of 
the Shephelah. 

' Upon the western slope of this valley, north-east of the village of Umm Burj, and about 
half-way from Keilah to Socoh, there will be found on Murray's map (1874) a Kubbeh, or 
Saint house, called Wely Madhkiir. It is here that we place Adullam. The Kubbeh stands 
on the north edge of a range which rises some 500 feet above the broad valley. The sides of 
the hill are steep, and cut into terraces. The Kubbeh is surrounded by heaps of stones and 
ruins of indeterminate date, but there is no doubt of the antiquity of the site. \\'hcrever the 
rock appears it is cut and quarried, and on the west I observed the entrance of a tomb, now 
closed up. 

'A tributary valley runs into ^Vddy Siir on the north, and on the south a narrow neck of 
land, somewhat lower than the raised citadel near the Kubbeh, connects the site of the city 
with the remainder of the ridge. Thus it will be seen that the site is one of considerable 
natural strength. 

' In the valley beneath are two wells, one of great antiquity, circular, about 8 to 10 feet 
diameter, and provided with twenty-four stone troughs similar to those at Beersheba, but 
roughly shaped and oval, or quadrangular, instead of round. At the junction of the branch 
with the main valley stands a great tree known as Butmeh Wady Sur (the Terebinth of Wady 
Sur). In this, and in the name Deir el Butm (Convent of the Terebinth), applied to a ruin 
near Tell el Safieh, we have the last traces of Emek-Elah, " Tlie Valley of the Terebinth." 
The tree is conspicuous for a long distance, and is one of the largest in Palestine. There are 
also several smaller Terebinths along the course of Wady Sur. 

' Next in importance comes the question of roads. A main line of communication from 
Hebron to the plain passes along Wady Sur by this site. An ancient road, with stone side 
walls, is traceable towards Umm Burj, but is not, as shown on the map, the Roman road 
from Eleutheropolis to Jerusalem. Lastly, an important road leads up to Surif and Bethlehem, 
and thus on the east, west, north, and south, with Bethlehem, Beit Jibrin, Tell el Safieh, and 
Hebron, there are ancient and main lines of communication. 

' Conditions numbers one, four, five, and six, are therefore satisfied, but the others are 
more important. 

'As regards the district, this site is about 3 miles south-east of Socoh, and rather farther 
south of Jarmuth, which, in the order of the list, is its natural position. As relates to the 
cities of the Libnah district, it is about 3 miles from Keilah, and 8 from Mareshah, being, 
indeed, just on the border between the two districts. 

' We turn, then, with interest to the two last questions — the cave and the name. 
' There is no great cavern at the ruin in question ; no such lofty chambers as at Beit Jibrin ; 
no halls with stalactitic columns, as at Umm el Tuweimin ; no winding galleries, as at 
Khureitun. This is precisely why the site seems most probable. Such caverns are at the 



[SHEET XX/.] ARCH.EOLOGY. 367 

present day carefully avoided by the troglodytic peasantry. The dampness and the feverish 
character of the atmosphere, the size, requiring many lights, the presence in the darkness of 
scorpions and bats, seem to prevent the large caves from being ever used as habitations. 
The caves which are so used are much smaller, being about the area of an ordinary cottage, 
some 20 to 30 paces across, lighted by the sun without, and more or less dry within. Wher- 
ever they occur the roofs will be found black with smoke, and large families are lodged in 
some, while troops of goats, cattle, and sheep are stabled in others, the smaller being reserved 
to store grain and straw. 

' It is in caves of this kind that our site abounds. Round one upon the western slope 
hundreds of goats were collected. Two moderate caverns exist on the northern brow of the 
hill, and another farther south. On the opposite slopes of the branch valley a regular line of 
excavations, all smoke-blackened, and mostly inhabited, extends for some distance. There 
is therefore plenty of accommodation for the band of outlaws who surrounded David at 
Adullam. 

'Finall)-, as to the name. The ancient site is called, according to the correct orthography, 
Khurbet el Sheikh Madhkur, " The ruin of \}iit. famous Sheikh." As such we fixed its position 
with the theodolite in the autumn of 1S73. There are, however, low down in the branch 
valley, some heaps of stones and ruined walls to which the traces of the ancient name seem 
to cling. We heard it from eight or ten people, and even from Beit Jibrin the situation with 
regard to Sheikh Madhkur was described to me correctly. It is pronounced 'Aid el Mieh, 
which means in Arabic " Feast of the Hundred," and a confused tradition of some feast held 
on the spot seems attached to it. The name contains all the letters of the word Adullam 
(Hebrew, A, D, L, M), and contains none other of vital importance. The change, therefore, 
to a title having a distinct meaning, may be regarded as only another instance of a well-known 
law of identification. 

' If this identification, proposed by M. Ganneau, and, as shown above, so accordant with 
the requisites of the case, be admitted, new light will be found to have been thrown on the 
life of David. The whole topography assumes a consistency which traditional sites have 
destroyed. From Gibeah (Jeb'a, near Mukhmds) David flies southward to Nob, thence down 
the great valley to Gath (Tell el Safieh) ; from Gath he returns into the land of Judah, then 
bounded by the Shephelah, most of which seems to have been in the hands of the Philistines ; 
and on the edge of the country between A.chish and Saul, Philistia and Judah, he collects his 
band into the strongest site to be found in the neighbourhood of the rich corn-lands of Judah. 
At the advice of the seer, he retires to the hills, and if my identification of Hareth be correct, 
it is but a march of 4 miles' distance. Here, as at Adullam, he was also within easy reach of 
his family at Bethlehem. At Kharas he hears that the Philistines, whose advance he probably 
barred when holding Adullam, had invaded Keilah, immediately beneath him, and, as in a 
former paper I fully explained, it is this propinquity alone which accounts for his attack upon 
the marauders.' — Lieutenant Conder, 'Quarterly Statement,' 1875, pp. 145 — 149. 

Khurbet Shenneh (L v). — Heaps of stones and traces of ruins. 

Khurbet esh Sherwi (J v). — Caves, ruined walls, cisterns, 

and heaps of stones. 

Khurbet e s S i m i e h (J \v). — Foundations and cisterns. 

Khurbet Sirreh (J vv). — Ruined walls, caves, and cisterns. 



368 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

By the road on the north is a rock-cut wine-press. In this is a pillar, 
which may perhaps have been originally a Roman milestone. (Compare 
Khtirbet Kufin.) 

K h u r b e t S u b a (J v). — Traces of ruins. A group of aged olives. 
Appears to have been possibly an ancient site. 

Khurbet Subih (I u).— A few heaps of stones. 

Khi^irbet es Sufa (K v).— Foundations, caves, cisterns, and 
heaps of stones. 

Khurbet Talat el Munhuteh (L w). — Foundations of ruins 
and a cistern. 

Khii^irbet Tauwas (Iw and J v). — Caves, cisterns, foundations, 
heaps of stones, two rock-cut wine-presses. Also at Khurbet Tauwas 
remains of a chapel with an apse 12 feet diameter, walls 4^ feet thick, and 
two rows of four columns each. The shafts are 19 inches diameter, and the 
pillars are 6^ feet apart. The bearing of the chapel is 169°. There is a 
fallen stone 10 inches square with a Maltese cross cut on it. 

Khurbet Tekua (M u). — This place seems to have been large 
and important in Christian times. It is still inhabited by a few persons 




^ 
^ 




@ 



Dcsiqns on the Side. 
Scale of Feci 

n ^ o 1 .2 .1 t J 
I ... I I 1 I I I 



living in the caves. Pillars and bases of good hard limestone occur 
among the ruins, which occupy the top of the hill. There is also a very 
fine octagonal font about 4 feet high and 4 feet 3 inches diameter of 




{SHEET A'.Y/] ARCHAEOLOGY. 369 

inscribed circle ; on every other side is a design. Two of these designs 
represent crosses, a third is a wreath, the fourth is formed by two squares 
interlaced diagonally to one another. The 
font is of good reddish stone. 

By the font stand two pillar shafts, 
18 inches diameter, but the plan of the 
church could not be made out. In the 
middle of the ruins there are rock-cut 
tombs, and there are many cisterns lined ^"* •■"' ■""*'' "^ ^"^^ 

with good hard cement. Near the top of the site there is a spring, and 
below are wells ; the main supply of water is, however, sulphurous. On 
the west is a flat scarped space, with an approach leading up — perhaps 
the market-place. The caves are numerous, resembling those at 
K h li r b e t 'Aziz. 

The view is extensive, embracing the Judean desert and Moablte 
hills, while on the north Bethlehem, Herodium, Jericho, Bethel, and Mar 
Ellas are seen. 

Visited October, 1873 ; December, 1874 ; and February, 1875. 

Khurbet Tell el Belda (I u).— Caves, cisterns, heaps of 
stones, foundations. One of the caves has 120 niches (apparently for 
urns) in it. 

Khurbet T e n n I b r I n n (L v). — Walls and cisterns. Good 
masonry. The place seems to have been a country house. 

Khurbet T e r r a m a (J w). 

This ruin, not on the map, was found by Guerin about half an hour north of Khurbet 
Deir Razi. It was on the top of a terraced hill, and contains the remains of an old fort, with 
caves cut in the rock, one of which is pierced with columbaria. 

Khiirbet et Tubikah (K v). — Heaps of stones. 

Khurbet T li f f u h (K x). — Walls, foundations, caves and cisterns. 
A good sized ruin. 

Khurbet Umm el A mad (L x). 
This name is not on the map, but it seems to be another name for Khurbet Ghanaim. 
The description given by Guerin seems to agree with that given by Captain Conder for the 
latter place, except that Guerin notes the remains of an ancient church. 

Khurbet Umm el 'Amdan (J u). — Cisterns, caves, founda- 

VOL. III. 47 



37° 



THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 



tions, and heaps of stones. It appears to be a Byzantine ruin, but 
pillars were not observed. 

K h ii r b e t U m m el 'A m e d (J x). — The ruin of a Byzantine 
church and monastery, surrounded by a considerable village. 

The convent occupied an area of about loo feet either way; the chapel 
was to the north-east. Three of the pillars of the south aisle are standing, 

with the architrave in position above them. 
There were four columns to each aisle, i foot 
5 inches diameter, with 6 feet 4 inches inter- 
columniation. The apse measures 13-I feet 
diameter, the exterior measure of the chapel is 
46^^ feet east and west (without the apse pro- 
jection), and 43^ feet north and south. Steps 
led up to the west door. In the south wall 
was a side door ; the bearing is 94° west. The 
remaining buildings will be seen on the plan. The capitals are much 
worn and rudely sculptured. They are all different and of Byzantine 
character. 

The walls are of good masonry, not drafted. Some of the stones are 
5 to 7 feet in length. 

The architrave blocks are quite plain, and 8 feet to 8 feet 8 inches long 
and \\ feet high. There were brackets on the walls to support the arches 
instead of pilasters. 

The pillars are 12 feet 5 inches in total height, and the details as 
below : 

/Base . . .1 foot i inch. 

1 2 feet 5 inches < Shaft . . .9 feet 7 inches. 

(Capital . . .1 foot 9 inches. 

Architrave . . i foot 6 inches. 




The doors appear to have had flat lintels above. The court or 
atrium, west of the basilica, 40 feet east and west by 43^ feet north and 
south, is on two levels. It had five doors. The floor seems to have been 
covered with a kind of cobble pavement. (Compare Khurbet el 
Murussiis, Sheet XVII.) There are two large cisterns in the 
southern part of the building. 



{SHEET XXIA, ARCHEOLOGY. 371 

The surrounding ruins are merely heaps of stones ; but there are a 
great many caves Hke those at K h li r b e t 'Aziz. One of these, 
entered by a door from the north, measured 7 feet 9 inches to the back, 
6 feet across ; in the back wall was a raised recess, 2 feet 6 inches wide, 
I foot 2 inches to the back. This may, perhaps, have been a manger. 
Most of the caves have passages in front, about 5 feet broad and 8 feet to 
10 feet deep, with steps. 

On the north-west are ruins which may be older. Caves exist there, 
and the rock is quarried. A rock-cut wine-press and a small drystone 
tower were found here, and a large cistern, cut in soft rock, the mouth 
square instead of being round, as usual. 

There are many rock-cut cisterns round the site. An ancient main 
road passes by the place, and east of this is a small modern building, 
sacred to Saint George. The ruin is one of the largest and best preserved 
in the district. 

Visited October 26th, 1S74. 

Khiirbet Umm el Asfeh (L x). — Traces of ruins. 

Khiirbet Umm Halaseh (L w). — Traces of ruins, two wells, 
a large old tree. It seems probably an ancient site. 

K h li r b e t Umm el K h a n a z i r (J v). — Cisterns, caves, ruined 
walls, foundations and heaps of stones. 

Khiirbet Umm el Luz (I u). — Resembles the last. 
Khiirbet Umm Salamoni (L u). — Heaps of stones. 

K h ii r b e t el W a b e d e h ( L w). — Walls and foundations of small 
masonry, with a spring. It appears to be a modern ruined village. 

Khiirbet Wady el Kuta (K w). — Ruined walls. A Roman 
milestone is built into one building. The ruins appear to be modern. 
K h i:i r b e t el W e z i a (M u). — Traces of ruins. 

Khiirbet Yiikin (Lw). — Foundations, caves, and cisterns. On 
the east a well, and beyond this the Mukam of N e b y Y ii k i n, a modern 
building, which is very conspicuous from the desert. It has an Arabic 
inscription over the door. The courtyard measures 60 feet north and 
south by 90 feet east and west ; in the south-west corner is a small mosque 
or chamber, 22 feet by 17 feet inside, with a door on the east and a 

47—2 



372 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

Rlihrab on the south. Inside this is a sunk place Hke a grave, about 
6 feet long and 6 inches deep, with old stones. This is supposed to be 
the site of Cain's grave. Its length is directed north and south, unlike a 
Moslem tomb. Over it is a wooden frame or cage hung with rags. The 
roof of the mosque is flat, without any dome. The masonry appears 
modern. 

Visited 25th July, 1881. 

Guerin, who does not appear to have heard of Cain's grave, speaks of a little mosque at 
Yukin consecrated to Neby Lot. Close beside this mosque is a grotto, in which Lot is said 
to have stopped after his flight from Sodom. There are also the prints on the rock of two 
feet, said to be the prints of Lot's feet. 

Khiirbet Zakukah (I v). — Heaps of stones, foundations, caves, 
and cisterns. 

K h u r b e t Z a t u t (L x). — Walls and heaps of stones. It seems to 
be a Byzantine ruin. 

El K ii r m u 1 (K x). — The largest ruin on the Sheet, evidently at 
one time a very important town. The ruins occupy the high ground round 
a valley-head, and extend north and south of it. They include a tower 
and two churches. The sides of the valley are steep and rocky, and here, 
below the town, is a fine reservoir of masonry measuring 1 1 7 feet by 
74 feet, and supplied by a spring coming out of a rock cave, and conducted 
along a rock-cut tunnel. This reservoir is probably the one mentioned as 
existing in 1 172 a.d. It was full of water in October, 1874. 

The ruins occupy the flat plateau above, and extend west of the head 
of the valley. 

The Castle (Palestine Exploration Fund Photograph No. 291) 
measures 63 feet north and south by 48 feet east and west outside. The 
northern and eastern walls are standing to the top of the second story, a 
total height of 24 feet. The walls are 7 feet thick, faced with ashlar well 
cut but rather small. The stones at the angles are drafted ; one measured 
2 feet by i foot 3 inches, with a draft 2 inches wide and very shallow, the 
face smooth-dressed. 

The tower had three windows on the east, on the level of the second 
floor. They are small and square outside, with arched recesses within. 
The roof is of the rubble and ragwork usually found in Crusading ruins ; 
the core of the wall is also of rubble. A staircase in the thickness of the 



{SHEET XXi:\ 



ARCHEOLOGY. 



373 




north wall led to the roof from the recess of a window ; In this side, on 
the lower story, are also two loopholes. In the north-east corner of the 
interior was a well. The window-arches are pointed, as is also the vault 
of the staircase. The southern and 
western walls are destroyed. The 
entrance was from the north into a 
court west of the tower, and thence 
by a small door in the west wall. 

This tower stands in an area 
measuring i8o feet east and west 
by "j-^ feet north and south, having 
a sloping masonry revetment, and 
probably once surrounded with a ditch now filled up. The bearing of the 
long side was 264° east. In that part of the area which is east of the 
tower were pillar-shafts, and at one end a semicircular foundation, 
perhaps part of a tower or chapel. North of the enceinte are founda- 
tions of a round tower 28 feet exterior diameter, the walls 4 feet thick, 
with steps leading down to it. About six courses of the sloping scarp 
are standing north of the great tower, forming an outer parapet-wall. A 
covered way appears to have connected the round-tower with the main 
enceinte. 

Churches. — The northern building, north-east of the tower, is 
']'] feet interior length, 40 feet interior breadth. The nave terminates in 
an apse 1 5 feet diameter ; the aisles in square recesses 7 feet broad. There 
was a small building added to the church on the north. (See Plan.) The 
walls are 3 feet thick. Pillar-shafts were measured i foot 8 inches in 
diameter, 8 feet 6 inches long. A lintel-stone 9 feet long, 3 feet high, was 
also found with three sculptured medallions on it. The soffit of the lintel, 
I foot 2 inches wide, was also ornamented with a cross in a circle. The 
bearing of this chapel was 84°. 

The second building, south of the tower, about 300 yards distant, 
measured 70 feet east and west by 40 north and south. There are 
curved stones which seem to have belonged to an apse, and there was an 
atrium to the west about 90 feet long, and a cistern cut in rock on the 
south. Only the foundations of these two churches remain. 

The remaining ruins are merely heaps of stones. 



374 



THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 



There are also caves like those at K h li r b e t 'Aziz, and rock-cut 
tombs. 

Visited October 29th, 1S74. 

Kiisr 'A n t a r (M u). — Foundations of a small square building, not 
apparently very ancient ; heaps of stones. 

K u s r I s 1 a i y i n (K v). — Under this head all the buildings round 
'A i n e d h D h i r \v e h may be described. The spring is conducted into 
a good masonry trough 18 feet by 3 feet inside. This trough was at the 
north-west corner of a Khan destroyed some forty years ago. Hardly 
any traces of the building remain beyond the platform, artificially levelled, 
on which it stood. 

There are also remains of a small chapel, bearing 94°. It appears to 
have had only one aisle to the south, and an outer passage on the north. 



Pou v€ d Road Am el Dlurweh- et Thhtaia- 




The diameter of the apse was 1 7 feet ; the total exterior length of the 
building 54 feet cast and west, the breadth 46 feet. The building seems 
probably to be twelfth century work, judging from the rude ragwork arch 
of the door on the north side of the nave. 

An inscription in Arabic and some other language is said by the 
natives to have once existed near the spring, but is now destroyed. 

South of the Khan is a rock-scarp, in which several channels are cut, to 
gather, apparently, the surface rain-water. In this scarp is a rock-cut tomb 
— a chamber 8 feet 9 inches to the back and 10 feet 6 inches across, with 
a bench on the right-hand wall 3 feet 8 inches broad. From this bench a 
/vo/ca runs in 2 feet 3 inches broad, 9 feet long. 

Visited October 20th, 1874. 



[SHEET XXI.] 



ARCH.EOLOGY. 



575 



Kiisr Thoghrct Rusheidiyeh (M v). — Heaps -of flint 
stones, apparently an ancient watchtower. 

Kiisr U m m Leimun (M u). — Vaults and foundations of a 
square building ; cisterns cut in rock and caves. 

M andin (K v). — Foundations, ruined walls and cisterns, apparently 
a ruined village. 

Mdrrash Barah (I v). — Caves, foundations, cisterns, and heaps 
of stones ; two rock-cut wine-presses are found near the place. 

El Mejed (I w). — Caves, cisterns, and pillar shafts; a ruined 
chapel seems to have stood there. 

Mugharet edh Dhukkaih (K w). — This cave, marked on 
the special survey of Hebron, is supposed to be the weekly praying place 
of the Patriarchs. The entrance has a masonry arch. The bench round 
the walls is of large boulders ; and numerous offerings — stones, pottery, 
lamps, etc. — are placed on it. The cave is swept constantly. It is 40 feet 
long by 20 feet wide, and is entirely rock-cut. 

Mugharet Masa (Palestine Exploration Fund Photograph 
No. 177) (M u). — A ledge of rock some 6 to 8 feet wide leads above the 
'A i n en N a t u f to the entrance of the cave, in front of which are two 




large blocks of rock some 7 feet high. The cave has three narrow 
entrances, with two cross passages, and these lead to a chamber 55 feet 
diameter, and 30 to 40 feet high. The walls are smooth, and seem to 



376 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

have been possibly worn out by water action ; it does not appear that 
any of the excavation is artificial. A very narrow passage leads in 
irregularly for about loo feet to a second small chamber about lo feet 
diameter, whence a side passage runs out for some 25 feet. There is 
again a passage at a level a few feet higher, leading westwards from the 
second chamber for 25 feet to a third round chamber, reached by a drop 
of about 14 feet. Out of the third chamber a passage leads north at a 
level of some 4 feet above the bottom, and runs about 100 feet north to a 
large chamber some 18 feet diameter, from which very narrow passages 
run out and terminate as shown on the plan ; there is a fifth chamber to 
the south-east of the fourth, and several ramifying passages. An 
important branch gallery runs away eastwards from the main passage, 
terminating in three chambers about 10 to 15 feet diameter. Another 
passage, narrower, and at a level higher than that of the main passage, 
runs north-west for 50 feet, and leads to a gallery running north and 
south 250 feet long. The greatest length of this curious cavern is 
550 feet, the passages are 6 to 10 feet high, the air is dry and good, 
but the place is full of bats, and the floor entirely covered with 
their dung. 

Visited and planned with tape and compass, November 4th, 1873. 

Miigharet SCifa (K v). — A cave in the face of a precipice, 
running in 10 paces, then turning to the left and running 40 paces, 
then again running in northwards 60 paces. At the further end is a pit 
about 20 paces across, and 10 to 12 feet deep. Another passage, now 
choked, used to lead from this pit. An iron ring is said to hang over it 
in the roof of the cave ; the average width of the cave is 7 feet, but at 
the further end it is broader ; the average height is some 1 5 feet. The 
cave descends gradually from the entrance to the back ; it has been used 
as a cattle stable, and is full of manure and of bats, and very dark. 

Visited October 21st, 1874. 

El M tin tar (K x). — The remains of a small colonnaded building 
surrounded by ruined walls. Caves, tombs, and cisterns. The building 
measures 73 feet east and west by 124 north, and south outside; the 
colonnade is in the north-east part, consisting of two rows, with three 
pillars in each, 8 feet centre to centre and i foot 6 inches diameter, the 
two rows 14 feet 4 inches apart, the bearing 249" true bearing. In the 



[SHEET XXI.] ARCHEOLOGY. 377 

south part of the building is a cistern and a square doorway leading to a 
cave, apparently a tomb. There are remains of a tesselated pavement of 
white limestone, the tesserae rather large. A cross was found on one 
stone, a winged tablet on another, and a medallion with a geometrical 
design 19 inches diameter on another; there appear to 
have been flat lintels to the doorways, and the general 
character is that of a Byzantine building. 

North of this building is a rock-cut cave, with a 
trench in front (compare K h li r b e t 'Aziz); and near 
this a rock-cut tomb, with a semicircular arch of good 




masonry to the door. The masonry in these ruins consists of stones of 
moderate size, i to 3 feet long, and about 2\ feet high ; in one place the 
horizontal joint is interrupted, which is often the case in Byzantine build- 
ings. (See Deir Serur, Sheet XI.) 
Visited November 4th, 1874. 

El IMuturrif (K x). — A square foundation 15 feet side, with a 
cave beneath. It is of roughly squared stones, and has a floor of slabs 
over the cave. It is a sacred place. 

Er Rahiyeh (K w). — A large ruin with caves and cisterns; 
appears to be an ancient site. 

Er Ram eh (K v). — Foundations, cisterns, tombs, and a well. 
One tomb was a chamber 8 feet by 9 feet 2 inches, with a door on the 
shorter side 2 feet wide. On the right wall two kokim, 6 feet 10 inches 
long, 2 feet wide. In the middle of the chamber is a place sunk 2 feet, 
2 feet 2 inches wide, and over 3^ feet long, perhaps intended for a grave. 
The ruins appear to belong to a former village. 

Rimet el 'A m 1 e h (K v). — Foundations. 

R a s el J e m j e m e h (K v). — A large cairn of stones, apparently 
an old beacon station. 

Ras Sirreh (J x). — Traces of ruins and rock-cut cisterns. 

Resm Ismain (I v). — Foundations of a single building, with 
cisterns. 

Resm Umm el Jemdjem (I v). — Foundations and heaps of 
stones. 

VOL. III. 48 



378 



THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 



Resm el Wawy(I v). — Foundations of a building, with a cistern. 

Rujm Baruk (L x). — An ancient watch-tower of rudely squared 
stones, with some caves near. 

Rujm ed Deir (K x). — Foundations of a square building, with 
a well. 

Rujm el Fahjeh (K w). — A square ruined tower of moderate 
hewn masonry, with a rock-cut cistern, apparently of some antiquity. 

Ruj m Hand ha 1 (I w). — A square foundation and pile of stones. 
A ruined watch-tower. 

Rujm Reiya (Lx). — Foundations of a large building, possibly a 
monastery. 

Rujm U m m K h e i r (L x). — Piles of stones. 
E s Simla (J x). — Walls, cisterns, caves, and tombs, principally 
broken ; but one well cut. It is a large ruin, and evidently an ancient site. 






^ CB , ■tf Sqojare 







a" fl ■ H ■ J a' ' I'' te 



. ' * * * * 




Ihtrk rur- Tofnh 



A courtyard, 23 feet 8 inches by 19 feet 6 inches, is cut in rock in 
front of the porch, which is 20 feet 9 inches wide and 8 feet to the back. 



[SHEET XXL] ARCH.^EOLOGY. zi9 

It is supported on two pillars, 14 inches diameter, and two pilasters, all 
cut in rock with very simple capitals. Over the pillars at 6 feet from the 
ground is a frieze with 9 medallions, divided by triglyphs. 

A door 2 feet 3 inches wide leads from the porch into a chamber, 
II feet 7 inches wide, by 9 feet 8 inches to the back. In the right-hand 
corner at the back is a recess, 2 feet wide, 16 inches to the back. On the 
right a door 2 feet wide leads into another chamber 6 feet square. 

Siair (L v). — The tomb of E 1 'A i s (Esau), south of the village, 
is in a chamber 37 feet east and west by 20 feet north and south, with a 
Mihrab on the south wall. The tomb is 12 feet long, 3^ feet broad, 
5 feet high, covered with a dark green cloth and a canopy above. An 
ostrich egg is hung near. North of the chamber is a vaulted room of 
equal size, and to the east is an open court with a fig-tree, and a second 
cenotaph rudely plastered, said to be that of Esau's slave. Rock-cut 
tombs exist south-west of this place. (See Section A.) 

Siret el Bellai (K v). — Square foundations and a large cave. 

Sutjeh (I w). — Foundations, cisterns, and a well. 

Et Taiyibeh (J v). — Ruins of a large square building, walls, 
tanks, and ' rock sunk ' tombs, apparently a ruined village. 

Tell e z Z i f (L w). — A large mound, partly natural ; on the north 
side a quarry ; on the south are tombs. One of these has a single 
chamber, with a broad bench running round ; on the back wall are three 
kokim with arched roofs, the arches pointed on the left side wall ; at the 
back is another similar koka. A second tomb was a chamber, 8 feet to the 
back, 9 feet wide, with three recesses, one on each side, one at the back ; 
they are merely shelves, 8 feet by 5 feet, raised some 2 feet. This tomb 
has a porch in front, supported by two square rock-cut piers. 

Visited October 24th, 1874. 

Tiiffuh (K w). — Evidently an ancient site; there are caves here, 
with trenches leading down to them, as at K h u r b e t 'A z i z, and the 
rock is quarried. An ancient road leads past the village. 

Umm el 'Amed (M v). — A ruin on a hill; foundations of good 
square stones, some pillar shafts, and tanks 10 to 15 feet wide, cut in soft 
chalky rock, and lined with stones, but much ruined. One shaft has been 

48—2 



3So THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

hollowed out for a drinking trough. The ruin appears probably to have 
been a monastery. 

U m m B u r j (I u). — A ruined village, with a central tower; ap- 
parently not ancient ; caves and cisterns round it, and a well. 

Umm Suweid (J u). — Heaps of stones, foundations, caves, and 
cisterns. 

Yutta (K x). — South of the village are several tombs; one has a 
shallow semicircular arch cut above a small square entrance. West of the 
village and of el M u t u r r i f is a very fine rock-cut wine-press. A 
second occurs north of the village. 



SHEET XXI.— SECTION C 

The official return of population is given by Consul Finn in 1S50-51, 
for the Hebron district (including Sheets XVI., XIX., XX., XXL, XXI I., 
XXIII., XXIV., XXV., XXVI.). It is as follows : 

Hebron, 3,670 male Moslems, or 11,000 souls, and 450 Jews. The 
villages of the district, which are all Moslem, 26,000 males, or 78,000 
souls, making a total of 89,450 souls. 

This estimate does not include the Bedawin, the two tribes of 
T a m i r e h and J a h a 1 i n occupying the desert on the eastern part of 
the Sheet. The first tribe is large, having 360 to 400 tents, or 1,000 men, 
some 3,000 souls. The Jahalin have about 100 tents, or 500 souls. 
The T a m i r e h own the country from Wady en Nar (Sheet 
XVIII.) to Wady Hiisasah. The Jahalin are bounded on the 
north by Wady el Ghar. The territory of the K i b n e h lies 
between (Sheet XXII.), with 50 tents, or 150 souls. 

The inhabitants of B e n i N A i m, called N a i m i y e h, are in the 
habit of descending in spring into the desert east of the village, where 
they live in tents and pasture their flocks. 

Traditions attach to several places on the Sheet. The Jews of 
Hebron still revere the tomb of Jesse in the Deir el Arbiin, and 
hold the tomb of Abner to be that called K a b r H e b r u n, near it. 
These tombs were shown apparently in the same place to Isaac Chelo, 
in 1334 A.D., and the tradition of Abraham's house at er Ram eh, 
now existing among the Hebron Jews, is also mentioned by Benjamin of 
Tudela (1163 a.d.). 

Mugharet edh Dhukkaah (see Section B) is supposed by 
Moslems to be visited every Friday by the Patriarchs, who pray there 
and then return to their graves in the Hebron Haram. 



382 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

Sheikh M a d h k u r, or M u n k u r, at the ruin of the name, is 
called Ibn es Sultan Bedr; some of his descendants still live at 
Beit Nettif, and erected the present building sacred to him. At 
the same place there is a tradition connected with the name of 'A i d el 
M a (or el M i y e h). It is translated to mean ' Feast of the Hundred,' 
and there is a story of loo persons there slain at a feast, and of a general 
massacre. South of this is the Medhbah en Neby Saleh, a 
bare piece of rock connected with a tradition of this prophet, who appears 
to have made some sacrifice at the place. The streaks of red in the rock 
are shown as the blood of the victim, which seems to have been a camel 
(Nakeh).-" 

* See also Beni N'aim, Section B. (p. 325). 



SHEET XXII.— SECTION A. 

Orography. — The present Sheet contains 98-6 square miles of the desert 
above the Dead Sea. The character of the country has already been 
described. (Sheet XXI.) The country is divided by two great gorges 
into three districts. Along the shore of the Dead Sea is a wall of precipice 
reaching up to the plateau above. At 'A i n J i d y the height from the sea 
shore to the top is 1,950 feet. A litde further north a conical marl peak 
rises over the precipices and forms a conspicuous feature in the scenery. 
This is called Ras esh S h u k f , and the top is 1,227 ^^^t above the 
Mediterranean, or 2,519 feet above the Dead Sea. The height of the 
precipices decreases gradually northwards, until near the north boundary 
they are only about 1,400 feet above the sea. 

The great gorge to the north, called Wady ed Derajeh, is 
formed by the junction of Wady Khureitun with the broad valley 
called Wady T 'amir eh, which falls in from the north about i^ 
miles from the shore. The gorge is precipitous for about 7 miles, 
and numerous smaller valleys drain into it. The district called e 1 
Hathrilrah, north of it, consists of sharp ridges, with broad flat 
valleys between, all quite bare and treeless, of white marl with bands of 
brown flint. The most conspicuous feature is the castellated ridge called 
K u r n el H aj r, rising some 1,400 feet above the valleys. 

The shore of the Dead Sea becomes broader opposite the mouth of 
the gorge, being a flat shingly e.xpanse, about a mile wide, with a sort of 
jungle near the precipices. To the north it narrows to about one-third of 
a mile, and is occupied by a cane-brake. 

The second district lies between Wady ed Derajeh and 
Wady el Ghar, which is called near its mouth Wady el 'Areijeh. 
This broad valley, about ^ mile wide, becomes precipitous about 5 miles 



3S4 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

west of the line of the cliffs, and forms a magnificent gorge, with cliffs 
1,500 to 2,000 feet high. The district north of it is a high rolling table- 
land, with numerous conical points projecting from it, the most remarkable 
being Ras esh Shukf. Immediately above the cliffs the country is 
more intricate, and the ridges are narrow, with many spurs. Above 
'A i n J i d y is a flat plateau, about a mile east and west, 2,000 feet above 
the Dead Sea. 

South ofWady el Ghar the country is of much the same character 
as north ; the most conspicuous feature being a narrow ridge with three 
tops standing up from the plateau about 800 feet. It is called K h a s h m 
Sufra es Sana. 



Hydrography. — Along the shores of the Dead Sea there are several 
springs, which may be noticed in order from north to south. 

1. 'A in el G h u w e i r. — A clear spring in the cane-swamp, 
96° Fahr. in temperature, near the shore. It forms a shallow basin with 
a stream to the sea. 

2. 'A i n et Trabeh. — A small spring oozing out of the ground in 
a cane-brake, close to the Dead Sea shore. Between the canes and the 
rocks is an underwood of bushes, with a few tamarisks. 

3. Sulphur Springs, north of Ras Mersed, are described by Dr. 
Tristram as bubbling up from the ground, 95° Fahr., and close to the sea. 
In February, 1875, they were dry, but the smell of sulphur was very 



strong. 



4. 'A i n S i d e i r. — A spring in the side of the precipice, apparently 
perennial. 

5. 'A i n J i d y (Engedi). — The spring comes out from under a huge 
boulder on a kind of terrace projecting beyond the precipice. 

A Nukb or artificial winding path cut in the face of the precipice 
leads down from the top of the cliffs to the spring, and thence winds down 
to the shore. The bank on which the spring comes out is 610 feet above 
the Dead Sea level, and 1,340 feet below the top of the precipice. The 
water pours down the steep sides of the bank into the flat ground forming 
the sea beach below. Canes grow near the spring-head and down the 
slope. The water is used for irrigation below. The temperature was 



[SHEET XXII.] 



HYDROGRAPHY. 



385 



85° Fahr. on a cloudy and cool day in February, 1875. Several large 
'Osher trees {Calotropis procerd) — the apple of Sodom — grow by the 




afe-- 



spring, with scattered lotus trees, acacia and tamarisk {Tamarix temn 
folius). (See further, Section B.) 

The shore below is flat, forming a sort of plain, ^ mile east and west, 
f mile north and south, which is cultivated near the water, and dotted 
with lotus trees. The stream from the spring forms a pool near the sea. 
The shore is pebbly, but north of the pool it becomes rougher, and is 
covered with large boulders. 

The following is Captain Warren's account of the scenery of Engedi : 

' Visits to this part of the Dead Sea had been hitherto made during the cold weather, and 
whether Franks could stand the heat in midsummer was quite a matter of conjecture ; we 
knew that the Bedawin abandon the lower shores at this season, and we went down fully 
prepared to beat a retreat if we found the heat too much for us. Many good friends 
endeavoured to deter us by evil prognostications, and conjured up horrors, by anticipation, 
on our road, sufificient to frighten a nervous person into a fever. 

' The ground about 'Ain Jidy belongs to the Rushaideh, an insignificant litde neutral tribe 
protected at present by the T'amireh ; and it was with a Sheikh of the latter tribe that we 
were to make our agreement ; he was to take us down to 'Ain Jidy and Sebbeh (Masada), 
and bring us home ; he would not undertake to go farther with us, as even Masada was 
beyond the Rushaideh's territory. It appears that the ground along the shore from 'Ain Jidy 
to Jebel Usdum is a sort of neutral ground, formerly claimed by the Jellahin, but, since their 
decay, under no control whatever. This road has been the highway for predatory bands 
passing north and south since the time of Abraham, and was just now considered particularly 
unsafe for Franks, unless escorted by a strong guard. 

' Of course we had to go through a considerable amount of coquetting with the Sheikh 
VOL. III. 49 



386 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

before he would come to terms ; but owing to the good offices of Mr. Wood, the acting 
Consul, the arrangements were completed within twelve hours. 

' We had in the meantime been getting ready our caravan ; and as we were going into a 
country utterly barren, we had not only to carry with us the whole of the corn for the journey, 
but also huge goat-skins for water, and spare mules to carry them. 

' We made the Frank Mountain our starting-point, where we found the tanks just running 
dry, and the water of the muddiest. Early next morning (Saturday, 6th July) we started, 
passing Tekoa, thence down Wady Hasasa, and arrived at the top of the 'Ain Jidy pass about 
4 p.m. 

'The view from this point was magnificent ; the sky was clear; we were 2,000 feet above 
the Dead Sea, and yet as it were hanging over it ; the sea below us appeared of an intense 
blue, with yet a curious milky film over it, with here and there dark moving spots passing 
along, as if floating islands ; the hills beyond were thrown by the setting sun into striking 
contrasts of light and shade, the rocks being of a rosy tint ; below, on the narrow strij) of the 
Ghor, a vivid green struck the eye, which one could almost conjure into the palm and other 
tropical trees we knew to be growing there. The hills themselves were not in one monotonous 
line, as seen from Jerusalem, but collected into masses of different heights, broken by deep 
and narrow gorges, above one of which Kerak was to be seen, the houses and battlements 
coming out most plainly in the glowing sunset. It is seldom that the atmosphere in summer 
is clear enough to allow of a view such as we saw that afternoon. AVe had to hurry on to get 
to our camp before dark ; the road down is very bad, but not dangerous ; it took us an hour 
to descend the 1,400 feet, and then we found ourselves on the little sloping spur, from the 
top of which 'Ain Jidy gushes, falling down by cascades into the sea some 500 feet lower. 
We had felt the heat increasing gradually as we descended ; and when we reached the 'Ain 
our thermometer (after sunset) stood at 95° Fahr., and we were still a good height above the 
sea (500 feet), the hot air from its shores coming up constantly in most disagreeable and 
stifling puffs.' — ' Quarterly Statement,' 1869, pp. 143 — 145. 

6. 'Ain el 'A r e i j e h. — A small spring in the gorge of that name. 

7. Hot Sulphur Springs resemble the last-mentioned, 88° to 
92° Fahr. in temperature. 

The wells on the Sheet are artificial reservoirs cut in the rock. 
(Compare Sheet XVIII.) 

Topography. — In addition to Engedi there is no place of interest in 
this desert. 



SHEET XXII.— SECTION B. 



ARCHEOLOGY. 



'A i n J i d y (O w). — Below the spring is a large mound (Tell el 
J u r n), and at the spring a modern ruined mill. The most remarkable 
ruin, however, is a platform on the terrace, just north of the spring. 
It is a square building, 12 or 15 feet side, and 3 feet high, built of large 
undressed blocks. (Compare Khiirbet Abu 'A m r, Sheet VIII.) 

Traces of old garden terraces are observable on the slopes of the 
bank below the spring. 

Visited February, 1875. 

Khurbet el Kuseir (N v). — Traces of ruins and of hermits' 
caves, or 'Christian tombs,' as the Arabs call them. There is also a 
large cave, Miigharet Mughussil el 'Addah. The site is in 
the side of a gorge. 

KulAt el Buardiyeh (O w). — A large fallen fragment on the 
side of the descent to 'A i n J i d y, apparently used by the Arabs as a 
mark in firing. 

Kiisr el 'Areijeh (O x). — A small tower of moderate-sized 
masonry at the mouth of the gorge. It does not appear to be very 
ancient. An aqueduct is visible, cut in the face of the rock above the 
tower, apparently coming from 'A i n J i d y. To the west in the 
gorge there are ancient rock-cut tombs. 



49—2 



SHEET XXII.— SECTION C. 

The Arabs on this Sheet are the T 'a m i r e h and J a h a 1 i n, divided 
by Wady el G h a r. (See Sheet XXI.) The Rushaideh are 
now a small tribe in the neighbourhood of 'A i n J i d y, and protected 
by the T a m i r e h. They were formerly an important tribe, but a 
great number were murdered by the Egyptian Government, and their 
tombs are still venerated in Wady el Mukeiberah. 

The H aj r Dabkan (N u) is a ledge of rock about 50 feet long 
and 12 or 14 feet high. Ed Dawari, ancestor of the Abu Nuseir 
Arabs (Sheet XVIII.) was making a pilgrimage to Jerusalem with his 
slave Dardya, when his camel fell down dead. He mounted this 
rock (some say by order of the Angel Gabriel) and commanded it to set 
off The rock rose in the air and took him as far as its present position. 
It is now a sacred place, with a cemetery of Abu Nuseir by it. 



SHEET XXIII. 

ARCHAEOLOGY. 

The ruins on this Sheet require description, but the country is merely a 
flat plain, like Sheet XIX. The only important place is the ruin of 
Jerrar, supposed to be the ancient Gerar. 

Baiket Abu Mailik (D x). — Ruins of a cattle-shed. 
Baiket es Sana (Ex). — Ruins of a cattle-shed. 

Khiirbet el Aseifiriyeh (D x). — Traces of an old town, 
ruined cisterns of rubble lined with cement, and scattered pottery and 
stones. 

Khurbet el Kutshan (C x). — Resembles the last. 
K h li r b e t el M e n d u r (D x). — Resembles the last. 
Khiirbet Shdrta (D x). — Resembles the last. 

Khurbet Umm Jerrar (C x). — The name applies to a hill-top 
on which are about a dozen cisterns, circular, 4 or 5 feet diameter, and 
6 or 8 feet deep when not filled up. They have domed roofs of rubble 
masonry. By one of them are remains of a trough, into which the water 
from the cistern was no doubt emptied. 

This description applies to all the cisterns In the south (Sheets XVI., 
XIX., XX., XXIII., XXIV., XXV.) built of rubble In the plain. The 
original date of the cisterns It Is not easy to determine. Small irregular 
flakes of stone are bedded in the cement, as in the work at Masada. 
(Sheet XXVI.). 

A few fragments of tesselated pavement and glass exist at this ruin. 

The ruin seems to fit in position with that described In the ' Onomas- 



390 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

ticon ' for Gerar (25 Roman miles from Eleutheropolis) ; but the modern 
name seems connected with the heaps of broken pottery which exist in 
the sides of the valley to a thickness of 6 or 10 feet. The pottery is red 
and hard, not like the black pottery now made at Gaza. It may perhaps 
be ancient. The true distance from Beit Jibrin in a straight line to the 
ruin is 30 English miles, which is greater than the 25 Roman miles of 
Eusebius ; but the fourth century distances in this district are only 
approximative. 

There is no water at the ruin, but in the great valley immediately 
south the Arabs obtain water at a very little depth below the surface by 
digging Hufiyir, or ' pits of water.' (See Gen. xxvi. 18.) 

Visited 28th April, 1875. 

Khurbet Umm RijI (D x ). — Traces of ruins, rubble cisterns, 
and fragments of pottery. 

Khurbet Zummarah (D x). — Resembles the last. 

El M u n k h e i 1 e h (D x). — A large mound on the plain, apparently 
modern. 

Tell Jemmeh (C x). — A large flat-topped bare mound, probably 
natural, on the side of the broad boundary valley. The scarps seem to 
have been artificially cut, and the mound is strewn with pottery. 



SHEET XXIV.— SECTION A. 

Orography. — This Sheet contains 290"i square miles of the country 
north of Beersheba. It is principally plain country. In the north-east 
corner of the Sheet are the spurs of the Dhaheriyeh hills, which 
run down to a plain extending northwards about 6 miles. 

Another long spur runs out west of the plain above mentioned, which 
is called Sahel Umm Butein, and reaches to within 3 miles of 
Beersheba. This ridge, called Khashm el Buteiylr, reaches a 
height of about 700 feet above the plain, the highest points being above 
the ' A i n K o h 1 e h. The total length of the ridge is about 8 miles. 

The plain consists of bare soft marly soil, much worn by torrents. 
The sides of the ridge vary from 10° to 30° of slope, and the hills are 
like those of the eastern desert. 

Hydrography. — The great boundary valley which runs past Beer- 
sheba has its head north of Hebron (Sheet XXI.), and runs to the sea 
near Gaza. It collects the water from a large area of country, and in 
winter the upper part of its course is filled by a running stream. The 
water flows to the sea beneath the surface, supplying the Beersheba 
wells and also the Arab Hufiyir lower down (Sheet XXIII.). 
Throughout the district water is found by digging to a greater or less 
depth ; but there are also a few springs in the western plain. 

'A i n K o h 1 e h, just below the hills, Bir Abu Khuff and 
Bir Khuweilfeh, are all large and deep spring wells, resembling 
those at Beersheba, and lined with masonry, worn like that of the Beer- 
sheba wells by the ropes of the water-drawers. Bir F u t e i s and 
Bir Zubalah are of the same character ; but Bir Suleiman 
Abu Sharib is only a masonry cistern dry in summer. 



392 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

The ' A y u n e s h S h e r i d h are a succession of springs all along 
the valley, about 50 in all, in a distance of 5 miles. 'Aylan es Sideh 
are two moderate-sized springs of brackish water (in autumn), with small 
pools. 

The Beersheba wells are described in Section B. 

Topography.— The district is mainly pasture land for the Arabs ; but 
a few ancient sites occur on the Sheet. 

Anab.— A town of Judah (Joshua xv. 50), mentioned with Debir 
and others on Sheet XXV., is apparently the ruin of 'Ana b. 

Ashan mentioned with Rimmon (Joshua xv. 31), may very 
possibly be the old ruin of 'A s e i 1 e h, which is i\ miles from the 
usually accepted site for Rimmon. 

Beersheba is the modern Bir es Sebd. 

B e r e d (Genesis xvi. 14) might perhaps be the ruin of B u r e i d e h, 
an ancient site on the present Sheet. 

En Rimmon (Nehemiah xi. 20) appears to have been the same 
as Rimmon (Joshua xv. 32), and may probably be the present ruin of 
U m m e r R u m a m i n. 

M a d m a n n a h (Joshua xv. 31) seems to have been in the territory 
of Caleb (i Chron. ii. 49), and might, therefore, with some probability, be 
placed at the ruin of Umm Deimneh. 

Sharuhen. — A town in the territory of Simeon (Joshua xix. 6) 
is called, apparently, in another passage Shaaraim (i Chron. iv. 31). 
The position suggests an identification with Tell esh Sheriah. 

Cultivation. — The only cultivation on the Sheet is on the hills in the 
north-east corner, where corn is grown. The Arabs, however, grow a 
liulc tobacco north-east of Beersheba. 



SHEET XXIV.— SECTION B. 



ARCH.KOLOGY. 




'A nab (J x). — An extensive ruin on a flat ridge. Caves, rock-cut 
cisterns, and wine-presses ; heaps of stones, most of them drafted, and 
fallen pillars were found. There are ruins of a church, which seems 
earlier than Crusading- times. The true bearing 
is I ro°. The south wall (exclusive of the apse pro- 
jection) measures 57 feet 6 inches outside. The west 
wall measures 48 feet ; two pillar bases remain in 
place, giving three bays in length for the church. 
The apse is 1 1 feet 7 inches radius inside. The 
church had a door on the west. Two courses of the 
south wall are standing above the surface. The 
stones are from i foot 10 inches to 3 feet 8 inches 
long, and i foot 10 inches high ; traces of drafting are visible on several. 
The stones in the apse are 4 to 5 feet long. One pillar is still standing, 
8 feet 9 inches high, and i foot 5 inches diameter. 

Visited 8th November, 1874. 

'Aseileh (I x). — Heaps of stones, a few of which are drafted, 
and caves on the ridge near the last. An ancient road passes near it. 

Deir el Ghawy(I y). — Caves, foundations, and heaps of stones, 
many of which are drafted. An ancient road leads to it, and there is a 
rock-cut wine-press near the ruin. 

Deir el Hawa (J y). — A ruined monastery on a high point. 
The foundations of a wall of hewn stone remain. Many of the stones 
are drafted. Inside the ruin are heaps of stones and a ruined cistern. 
VOL. III. 50 



394 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

An ancient road leads to the ruin. There is a rock-cut wine-press 
near. 

Deir Saideh (J y). — Foundations and hea^^s of drafted masonry. 

El J abry (I y). — Foundations, heaps of stones and caves. 

Jir el Terrakat (Fy). 

A ruin of this name not placed on the map was found by Gucrin about 4 miles S.E. of 
Khiirbet Futeis. It is an ancient quarry now serving as a place of refuge for the Bedawin. 
It has a square entrance doorway, and is excavated on the sides of a hill, forming a hall 
63 paces long by 35 broad. Great square pillars support the roof. 

Khiirbet Abu Jerrah (E x). — A modern ruined village of 
fifteen or twenty houses ; several ruined cisterns of masonry. The 
houses were of stone and mud. 

K h II r b e t Abu K h u f f (H x). — A spring of good water in a well 
of masonry, and heaps of stones, a few of which are well hewn. There 
are three or four small caves. 

Khiirbet Abu Rizik (H x). — Traces of a small ruin. 

Khiirbet Abu Rukeiyik (E y). — Ruined rubble cisterns, and 
a few small scattered stones. 

Khiirbet Abu Rusheid (H x). — Traces of a moderate-sized 
ruin. 

Khiirbet Abu Samarah (G y). — Scattered traces of a large 
ruin. 

K h II r b e t Abu T e 1 1 ii 1 el M e d h b a h (I z).— Mounds, heaps 
of stones, and a few Arab graves. 

Khiirbet Barrata (G x). — Ruined rubble cisterns and scattered 
stones. 

Khurbet Bir es Seba (G z). — The ruins on the north side 
of the broad valley are extensive. The houses would seem to have been 
built up with Hint stones — almost the only hard material to be found 
near — and these were probably set in mud or mortar, and are not hewn. 
Blocks of limestone of moderate size were, however, also found. There 
are remains of a tesselated pavement near the dry well, and an enclosure 
with remains of hard-burnt bricks, very thin, and somewhat resembling 
Roman brickwork, was found. Hard red cement was also observed. 



[SHEET XXIV.] ARCH.EOLOGY. 



395 



The foundations of a church are visible, the apse of which is distinguish- 
able. Broken cisterns for rain water are also found, in addition to the 
three wells. 

The Wells. — The principal or central well is 12 feet 3 inches in 
diameter, and 28 feet of the depth is lined with masonry. When visited 
it was only 37 feet to the water. The masonry is of stones, 8 inches to 
18 inches long. In the 15th course from the top a stone occurs, bearing 
what seems to be a tablet with wings (or handles), and on this is an 
Arabic inscription, in which the following appears to be clearly legible, 

505 - - - Allah Muhammed. 

probably giving the date of the masonry in the well {twelfth 
century). 

There are more than a hundred deep grooves (as counted) round the 
well mouth, which is flush with the surface, having' no parapet. Several 
W u s u m, or ' tribe marks,' are cut on the well, one being that of the 
Teiaha Arabs. 

The well is surrounded with rude square stone drinking-troughs, as is 
also the second. 

The second well to the west is only 5 feet in diameter, and 40 feet 
deep. The water in both is good and abundant. The masonry is dark, 
and consists of limestone ; the stones are cut to the arc of the well 
circumference. 

The third well to the east is dry. The masonry is remarkably neat 
and o-ood. The diameter is 9 feet 2 inches, the depth 23 feet ; it seems 
pardy filled up with large stones. 

A stout retaining wall has been built on the south side of the valley 
opposite the wells for a few hundred yards. 

Visited November loth, nth, 1874. 

As regards the number of the wells at Beersheba, Canon Tristram (' Bible Places,' 
p. 22) speaks of 'the seven;' Robinson describes two only. Guerin says that besides the 
two he specially describes others have been dug, but are now filled up. Palmer says that on 
the occasion of his visit two of the wells were filled with water. One was dug ; and of the 
other four which undoubtedly once existed there, traces can, be observed. Van de Velde 
seems to have seen the five lesser wells. 

The appearance of the ruins is thus described by Robinson : 

' We had heard of no ruins here, and hardly expected to find any, for none were visible 

50—2 



396 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

from the wells ; yet we did not wish to leave so important a spot without due examination. 
Ascending the low hills north of the wells, we found them covered with the ruins of former 
habitations, the foundations of which are still distinctly to be traced, although scarcely one 
stone remains upon another. The houses appear not to have stood compactly, but scattered 
over several little hills, and in the hollows between. They seem to have been built chiefly of 
round stones, though some of the stones are squared and some hewn. It was probably only 
a small straggling city. This very expression I wrote in pencil on the spot ; and was after- 
wards gratified to find that Eusebius and Jerome both describe it only as a " large village " 
with a Roman garrison. We could find no special traces of churches or other public build- 
ings, although one or two larger heaps of stones may probably have been such edifices. 
These ruins are spread over a space \ a mile in length along the northern side of the water- 
course, and extending back about \ of a mile. Fragments of pottery are scattered over the 
whole. On the south side of the water-course is a long wall of hewn stone under the bank, 
extending for several hundred feet, apparently intended to protect the bank from being 
washed away by the torrent. Probably gardens or some important building may have been 
situated on the bank above, of which, however, there is now no trace. On the same side are 
several heaps of stones, and the ground is also strewed with small fragments of pottery.' — 
'Biblical Researches,' 1838, pp. 301, 302. 

Khiirbet Bureideh (H x). — Caves and cisterns. 

Khiirbet 'Erk (D x). — A large ruin on the north bank of the 
valley. Heaps of small stones remain, and several ruined masonry- 
cisterns. 

K h ti r b e t F u t e i s (E y). — A large ruin on the north bank of the 

valley. 

' These ruins occupy a broken plateau on the south bank of the torrent. Masses of 
material strew the ground over an extent of 1,800 metres of circumference. Everything is 
entirely overthrown except ten round constructions, each surmounted by a little pointed 
cupola built of well-rounded stones. Probably these buildings were intended for the storage 
of grain. In the bed of the Wady there is an ancient well containing abundance of excellent 
water.' — (iurrin, ' Judea,' ii. 287. 

It will be observed in reference to the map tliat this ruin is on the north bank, not the 
south. 

K h u r b e t el H a j ' A u w a d (F x). — A few scattered stones. 

Khiirbet Mora (I z). — This was formerly an important site. 
The ruins occupy a low hill, and there are numerous wells and 
M c t a m i r (or granaries underground). The principal building is built 
of blocks of Ihnt conglomerate, 3 or 4 feet long, and 18 inches high. 
There is a large cave, supported on a central pillar of rock ; and there 
are several others, intended apparently as reservoirs. There is also a 
large bell-mouthed cistern, lined with rubble in cement. The houses 



[SHEET XXIV.] ARCH.EOLOGY. 397 

seem to have been some 10 yards square. Round the main ruin there 
are five small towers, called Kusiar el Mehafedhch, all built in 
flint, and making a circle of about i^ miles diameter. 
Visited November nth, 1874. 

Khiirbet el Jubbein (Hz). — Large cisterns, and traces of a 
moderate-sized ruin. 

Khiirbet K annas (H x). — Traces of ruins. Caves and cisterns. 

K h il r b e t el K a u w li k a h (F y). — Rubble cisterns ; four or five 
modern houses, and scattered stones. 

Khurbet el Kesih (F y). — A few scattered stones. 

Khurbet K h u we il feh, and Tell Khurbet Khuweilfch 
(H x). — An extensive ruin near Bir Khuweilfeh. Caves, cisterns, 
broken pillar-shafts, and traces of walls occur. The ruins extend along 
the valley, and on the higher ground. The well is large, lined with 
well-dressed stones, and resembling the Beersheba wells. The Tell has 
an artificially levelled platform, and seems to have formed a fortress. 
The water-supply is perennial. 

Khurbet el Lekiyeh (H y). — Traces of a large ruin, with 
caves and cisterns. 

Khurbet eJ Mujeidilat (H x). — Ruined cisterns of rubble 
and scattered stones. 

Khurbet el M u w e i 1 e h (G y). — Traces of large ruins, and a 
rock-cut cistern in ruins. 

Khfirbet el 'Omry (Hz). — Traces of ruins and cisterns. 

Khiirbet er Ras (H y).— A large ruin, with scattered stones, 
which are well-dressed. Three columns standing in line are found on 
the south side of the ruin, probably indicating a church. There are 
caves and cisterns, and a small square building of drafted stones about 
I foot long, with a column in the centre of the building. This building 
is about half a mile south of the ruin. 

Khiirbet esh Shelendy (H x). — A small ruin with well- 
dressed stones, and cisterns in the valley to the south-east. There are 
also caves, and a Roman milestone lies near the ruin. 



39S THE SURVEY OF WESTERX FALESTIXE. 

K h li r b e t T a t - R e i t (or D a t r e i y e h) (J y). — Foundations and 

heaps of stones. Some twenty cisterns, and a few scattered stones, 

with a marginal draft. The ruin stands on a hill, and has an ancient 

appearance. The walls and foundations are of solid masonry, with 
arches to the basements, and these seem probabl)- to be attributed to the 
Byzantine period. 

Visited November loth, 1878. 

Khurbct IMn m '.Ad rah (D x). — Traces of ruins, fragments 
of pottery, and ruined rubble cisterns. 

K h u r b e t V m m e 1 B a k r (G x). — A few scattered stones. 

Khiirbet Umm Bute inch (1 z). — Piles of stones. 

Khurbet Umm v \- R f 1 m a m i n (U y). — Heaps of well- 
dressed stones, many of which are draftinl. Rock-cut cisterns ; several 
caves, and a rock-cut wine-press. In the highest part of the ruin are 
remains of a building of large well-dressed masonry. There are also 
several large lintel stones, and part of a stone with a device apparently 
representing the seven-branched candlestick. These remains seem 
probably to belong to the Byzantine period. 

Khurbet Umm Suwaneh (I xV — A small ruin, with small 
stones, and a few cisterns on the slope of the hill. 

Khurbet el W u l n (11 z). — l-'oundations and heaps of stones. 
Several well-cut stones were seen, and a scmi-pillar shaft. 

Khurbet Zak (H x). — A large ruin, with a great many caves 
and cisterns, and traces of walls, situate on a low liill. 

Khurbet Zubalah (G x). — Traces of a large ruin; remains of 
modern walls and cisterns. 

Resm Abu Henna (I x). — Two caves, and a few scattered 
stones. 

Resm A b u J e r w a n (H y). — A heap of stones. 

Resm el I\I i k s a r (II x). — Traces of ruins. 

Resilm el Butciyir (Hz). — Traces of ruins. 

R u i m v\ 11 u m m u s (J x). — I'oundations and drafted masonry ; 
two cisterns, a rock-cut wine-press, and heaps o{ stones. 



[SHEET XXIV.] ARCILEOLOGY. 399 

Rujm Jureideh (J x). — Walls, foundations, several drafted 
stones of moderate size, and two or three cisterns. 

Rujm K u t e i t (I x). — Foundations and heaps of stones. 

Tell Abu Hareireh (Ex). — A large Tell on the north bank 
of the valley. It is a mound without traces of masonry. There is a 
sacred building on the top, with a few scattered stones round it, and a 
great deal of broken pottery. There is a tomb of the Sheikh inside ; 
the building covered with a cloth, and decorated with rags and votive 
offerings. Abu Hareireh was one of the companions of the Prophet. 

Tell Khuweilfeh (H x).— See K h u r b e t Khuweilfeh. 

Tell es Sakaty (H z). — A small mound, perhaps natural. 

Tell es Seba (Hz). — A large mound, which is conspicuous 
from all sides. Traces of ruins exist on the top, and an Arab cemetery. 

In the valley to the north are the ruins of a masonry dam, probably 
connected with a former system of irrigation. The masonry is rude. 

Tell esh Sheriah (F x). — A large mound on the north bank 
of the valley. Broken pottery and a few small unhewn stones are found 
on the top. In the valley is a well-cut trough of basalt. 

Tell Umm Butein (I z). — A small hillock, perhaps natural. 

Umm Deimneh (J y). — Heaps of stones, foundations, and two 
or three caves. 



SHEET XXIV.— SECTION C. 

The district between the two ridges of the Ghurrah (Sheet XXV.) 
and Khashm el Buteiyir, bounded by the hills on the north, and 
by the Beersheba valley on the south, belongs to the Kedeirat Arabs. 

The Teiaha, whose Wusm or tribe mark is II, two vertical strokes, 
are found north-west of Beersheba. 

The ' A z a z i m e h are bounded on the north by the Beersheba 
valley, on the east by the D h u 1 1 a m, and on the west by the 
Te rabi n. 



SHEET XXV.— SECTION A. 

Orography. — This Sheet includes 2087 square miles of the country 
immediately above the Beersheba Desert, and including part of the 
Dead Sea Desert. 

The spurs running out of the Negeb plateau (Sheet XXI.) are 
divided by the great W a d y K h ti 1 i 1 into two districts. 

The eastern ridsfe runs from the nei<Thbourhood of K u r m u 1 
(Sheet XXI.) to Tell Mdin, where the level is 2,887 feet above the 
sea. Thence it runs for 3 miles south to Kanan el Aseif (3,002), 
and hence south-west for 1 2 miles, gradually falling and terminating in 
the prominent hill of el G hurrah, a square-topped hill some 1,800 
feet above the sea. A spur from this long chalky ridge runs past the 
prominent and pointed hill called Tell es Saweh. The whole of 
this district, south of Kanan el Aseif, consists of the knife-edged 
ridges, with conical tops, found in the Dead Sea Desert, but the country 
is less intricate, and the valleys more open. The hills recede on the 
west, and an open down extends near Wady el Butm. (See 
Sheet XXIV.) 

East of the watershed the country is a desert, with long rolling spurs 
and open valleys — a pasture-land inhabited by Arabs. The average 
elevation is 1,500 to 1,700 feet above the sea, and the drop from the 
watershed eastwards is sudden, and produces precipices in places (as at 
Khiarbet et Tuany). 

Wady Seiyal, the boundary valley, has its head in the open 
plain at Tell 'A r a d, and is broad and open, with a high ridge to the 
north. 

Only a small portion of country on this Sheet lies west of Widy 
K hull ]. The hills are here about 2,000 feet above sea-level, of soft 

VOL. Ill, 21 



402 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

limestone, which is, however, harder than the marl found in the desert. A 
little scrub covers them ; and on the slopes, which gradually fall towards 
the downs north of Beersheba, there are scattered thorn-trees {Zizyphus). 
The slopes above Wady el Khulil are steep, and the ground is 
much intersected ; but a sort of llat plateau is formed above, round 
the village ofedh Dhaheriyeh. 

HvDROGRAriiY. — The country is almost entirely watered by cisterns 
and deep wells. In the eastern desert this is entirely the case. 

The fine wells in the plain at el Meshash and Tell el INI i 1 h 
are noted under that head. (See Section B.) 

Topography. — There are two villages on this Sheet, both belonging 
to the district of Jebel Khulil. (Sheet XXI.) 

Edh Dhaheriyeh (J x). — Is a large village of semi-ruinous 
appearance, the houses built principally of stone, with ancient materials. 
There is an old tower in the village. (See Section B.) The position is 
very conspicuous, as the village stands high on a flat ridge, with open 
rocky ground all round it. To the south, by the threshing-floor, is a 
sacred place, with two good-sized trees. Here the Survey Camp was 
fixed in October, 1874. The water-supply is from cisterns. There are 
rock-cut tombs east of the village, and rock- cut wine-presses on the 
surrounding hills. The houses are built in front of or over caves 
similar to those found in the ruined sites of this district. Some of the 
caves have masonry arches in front. 

Many ancient roads lead from the village to Gaza, Hebron and Beer- 
sheba, and to the east, all marked by remains of pavement and side-walls. 

This village contained some 300 to 400 persons in 1874 ; but in 1877 
it was deserted, in consequence of the encroachment of the Arabs into 
the country of the fellahin. 

Edh Dhaheriyeh is probably the site of the ancient Debir. 
The name has the same meaning, ' back,'- due to its position on 
the ridge. The position seems to be suitable, being between Dannah 
(possibly I d h n a h), Socoh (S h u w e i k e h), Anab ('A n a b), and 
Eshtemoa (e s S c m u a), places which precede and follow it in the 
list. (Joshua xv. 49). 



{SHEET XXF.] HYDROGRAPHY. 403 

Es Semui (K x).— A village of moderate size, standing high. 
On the north is an open valley, and the modern buildings extend along 
a spur which runs out west from the watershed. The ground is rocky 
on the hills, but the valleys are arable land. There are remains of an 
ancient castle in the village, and other fragments. A church is said once 
to have existed here, and the ruins to the west show that the town was 
once much larger. To the south there are olives in the valley. To the 
north there are rock-cut tombs on the hill-side ; the water-supply is from 
cisterns. The inhabitants number some 400 to 500 souls. 

The northern boundary of the lands of S e m u a is marked by a 
tree and a stone. The stone (H a j r e s S a k h a i n) is a large block in 
the valley by the road-side, 1,600 yards from the modern village. The 
tree is on the hill, f mile west, and is called 'The Father of Limits.' There 
are smaller stones between the two, marking a boundary which runs 
east and west. This boundary is of interest, because e s S e m u a is 
supposed to be the ancient Eshtemoa (Joshua xxi. 14), which was a 
Levitical city, and the modern boundary may be supposed to be identical 
with the old Levitical boundary, being about 3,000 cubits from the 
possible extent of the old town, as marked by cisterns and traces of 
ruins. 



Besides the above villages several sites of interest are found on this 



^t> 



Sheet. 



A n i m (Joshua xv. 50) a town mentioned next on the list to 
Eshtemoa, is probably the present ruin of G h u w e i n. In the 
' Onomasticon ' (s.v. Anab), a town Anea is mentioned as a large place in 
Daroma, 9 miles south of Hebron, and again (s.v. Anim) a second 
Anea is mentioned near the other, and east of it, and is said to have 
been entirely inhabited by Christians. Ghuwein is about 1 1 English 
miles south of Hebron ; but most of the distances in this part seem 
incorrectly given in the ' Onomasticon ;' there are two sites, east and west, 
as noticed in the ' Onomasticon.' 

Arad (Joshua xii. 14) is placed in the 'Onomasticon' 20 miles 
from Hebron, 4 from Malatha. Tell 'Arad is 16 English miles 
from Hebron, and 7^ English miles from Tell el M i 1 h. 

51—2 



404 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

Jattir (Joshua xv. 48), a place in the same group with 
others on this Sheet, mentioned next to Socoh (S h u w e i k e h), is 
probably the ruin of 'Attir. In the ' Onomasticon ' the same place is 
mentioned as near Malatha (Tell el M i 1 h), in Daroma, and all its 
inhabitants are said to have been Christians. 'Attir is 10 English 
miles from T e 1 1 e 1 M i 1 h. 

Jeshua, a town of Judah (Neh. xi. 26), mentioned with Moladah, 
Beersheba, etc. This is perhaps the important site of S i w e h, on the 
edge of the Beersheba Desert. 

Maon (Joshua xv. 55), mentioned with Carmel (Sheet XXL), 
is the present Main. In the 'Onomasticon' it is mentioned as east 
of Daroma. 

Socoh (Joshua xv. 48), mentioned with others on this Sheet, 
is the present Shuweikeh. 

Zanoah (Joshua xv. 56), mentioned with Maon, Carmel, and 
Ziph, is possibly the ruined site of Z a n u t a. 

In addition to these Biblical sites two others must be noticed. 
Malatha is mentioned in the 'Onomasticon' (see Jattir and Arad) 
in a position which suggests the identity of Tell el Mil h." 

The Penance Mountain of St. John Baptist is 
mentioned by Bertrandon de la Brocquiere in 1432 a.d. (' Early 
Travels in Palestine,' Bohn series, p. 289.) It was shown to this 
traveller on his way from the Valley of Hebron (Wady Khtilil) to 
Gaza, on a mountain. This seems to point to the hill and cave near the 
main road, where Wady Khiilil comes out into the Beersheba 
plain, to which place the name Mukiitit Ahya, ' place of separation 
of St. John Baptist,' is now given by the peasantry. 

Roads. — There are many ancient roads in this district, with the 
side-walls and paving traceable. The main line from Malatha (Tell 

* Tell el Milh is generally identified with the Biblical Moladah (Joshua xv. 26), but there 
is an objection to this on account of the guttural, which is not likely to have replaced the 
dental. A more probable identification would be to place the City of Salt (Joshua xv. 62) at 
Tell el Milh. 



[SHEET XXV.] ROADS. 405 

el M ilh) to Hebron ascends the long ridge north of the former place, 
rising gradually 1,650 feet in 10 miles. It runs from the latter point 
(near Rujm es Sue if) northwards, and just west of the watershed, 
crossing the heads of several flat and open valleys, and gaining the flat 
o-round near S u s i e h. There are ancient ruined watch - towers 
(marked R) along the course. An ancient line also follows W a d y el 
K h u 1 i 1 on the west side, and as above noticed, ancient cross-roads 
radiate from edhDhaheriyeh. 

Cultivation. — A little corn is grown by the villagers, but most of 
the district is pasture-land. 



SHEET XXV.—SECTION B. 



ARCH/EOLOGY. 



'A nab es Sughireh (I x). — Caves, cisterns, foundations, heaps 
of stones, some of which are drafted. The masonry seems to be of 
Byzantine period. 

Ed D e i r (J x). — Caves, heaps of stones, some of which are 
drafted. A rock-cut wine-press, and remains of a chapel. There is a 
conspicuous tree at the ruin. The chapel is 48 feet long, not including 
the apse, and measures 21 feet broad outside, the walls 4^ feet thick, 
the bearing 92°. 

Deir Rafat (K x). — Foundations of a monastery, a cistern, and 
cave. 

Deir esh Shems(J x). — Caves, foundations, remains of a 
ruined village. Drafted stones, and ruined houses. The ruin stands 
on a hill-side. An ancient road passes beneath it on the south, and 
by this there is a large wine-press cut in rock. There are several 
cisterns, and caves, one having a flight of steps, descending in a sort of 
shaft, 9 feet deep, 4 feet broad, and 23 feet long — the vestibule of a cave 
now blocked up. 

Deir Zantata (J y). — A large enclosure of rough unhewn stones, 
and foundations of two small buildings inside. A fold seems to have 
been here made out of old materials. 

Dereijat (K y). — Traces of ruins and caves. 

Edh Dhaheriyeh (J x). — The village is undermined with 
caves. Compare Khiirbet 'Aziz. (Sheet XXI.) In the centre is a 
tower of good masonry, not drafted. One of the stones is 9 feet long. 



[SHEET XXV.] 



ARCHEOLOGY. 



407 



and I J, feet high. Nine courses remain, reaching up to a bevelled 
set-back in the wall, 17 feet from the ground. The vaults have round 




arches, with narrow key-stone and broad haunch-stones. The walls are 
6 feet thick, and the stones built in as headers occasionally forming 
thoroughbonds. 

The building measured outside 48 feet 8 inches north and south, and 
54 feet 2 inches east and west. The interior is divided into two vaults, 
north and south. The southern has a passage. 



feet wide, 17^ feet long, leading to it 



on 



the 




There 



south, the vault being 17 feet long and 13 broad. 

The north vault consists of two chambers. An 

entrance leads down by steps from the east into 

the passage ; and in the east wall there is a recess 

at the north end of the passage, 10 feet long by 

4 feet broad (north and south), with an arch and a well beneath. 

are loopholes in the west wall of the building. 

This tower appears to be older than the Crusading period, probably 
being early Christian or Roman work. 

There is a large cave north of the village, 1 70 feet long, and near it 
on the south is a very large wine-press, while below on the east are 
several rock-cut tombs. 

South of the village, near Sheikh Ahmed el Ghamiry, there 
are other tombs, rude caves, without locttli, but with the door well- 



4o8 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

finished and small. There are also several wine-presses. The largest 
wine-press had a shallow chamber, 17 feet 10 inches, by 15 feet 3 inches, 
and three smaller ones ; the smallest 2 feet 6 inches square ; the largest 
of the three, 5 feet 4 inches by 1 1 feet. 

There are many rock-cut cisterns all round the village ; and to the 
north is Umm ed Deraj, an ancient quarry. 

Visited November 21st, 1874. 

Ghuwein el Foka (K y). — Caves, cisterns, foundations of 
houses, with drafted masonry, apparently Byzantine. 
Guerin calls this place Ghuwein esh Sharkieh. 

Ghuwein et Tahta (K y). — Resembles the last, but is a 

smaller ruin. 

Guerin calls this place Ghuwein el Gharbieh. 

El Khurabeh (K y). — Caves, foundations, and many rock-cut 
cisterns. . 

Khurbet el As fir (K y). — Foundations, and heaps of drafted 
masonry. No cisterns were found. A Roman road passes the ruin. 

Khurbet 'A 1 1 i r (J y). — Foundations, and heaps of stones. A 
great many caves. A ruined masonry tomb ; several fallen pillar-shafts 
and cisterns. There is a Kubbeh at the ruin, which stands on a 
knoll. Many of the caves have masonry arches to the doors. A large 
building remains, four courses of the wall being left. Below the ruin on 
the hill-side is a large oil-press. (Compare Khurbet et Tuany.) 

Khurbet Beiyud (L y). — Traces of ruins. 

Khurbet Bir el 'Edd (L x). — Traces of ruins, and a cistern. 

Khurbet ed Dawaseh (I y). — Foundations of a building. 

Khii^irbet Dcir el Loz (J x). — Foundations, and heaps of 
stones. 

Khiirbct el Emireh (K y). — A very small ruin, part of 

Khurbet el K u r e i t e i n. 

Khurbet el Fekhit (L x). — Traces of ruins, and a cave. 
Khurbet Janbah (L y). — Traces of ruins. Foundations and 
heaps of stones. 



{sheet xxv7\ arcileology. 409 

Khurbet Jedeibeh (L y).— Traces of ruins. 

K h a r b c t K u e i w i s (L x). — Traces of ruins. 

Khurbet Kuhaleh (K z). 

These ruins, consisting only of a few little houses overthrown, with some rock-cut maga- 
zines, were seen by Gudrin between Dereijal and Makhul. 

Khurbet el Kureitein (K y). — Traces of a large ruin and 
caves. Apparently a large town. 

Robinson, who saw this ruin from a distance, but did not visit the place, suggested the 
Kerioth of Joshua xxv. 25, unless the latter is to be read with the next name, as Reland 
suggests. 

Guerin says that the ruins cover an extent of at least 180 metres in circumference. The 
direction of many streets can still be distinguished. The houses, whose remains are strewn 
everywhere over the ground, appear to have been constructed of materials regularly cut ; most 
of them had caves or cellars below them, cut in the rock. He also observed at the western 
end of the site the ruins of a Christian church, forming a rectangle, lying east and west. 
Heaps of well-cut stones marked its outline. It was 30 paces long by 1 7 broad, and was 
preceded by a square atrium 37 paces on each side. 

Khurbet IMdin (L x).— See Tell Khurbet Mam. 

Khtirbet Menazil (K y). — Caves, cisterns, foundations, and 
heaps of stones. 

Khurbet el Merkez (L y). — Traces of ruins. Foundations 
and heaps of stones. 

Khurbet el Meshash (I z). — There are remains here of an 
important site in the valley below the high hill of el G h li r r a h. The 
site is quite hidden. There are remains of walls, built principally of 
blocks of flint conglomerate. (Compare el Haura, Sheet XXIV.) 
There are two good masonry wells, which were full of water, even in 
November before the rains, resembling those at Tell el M i 1 h. 

Visited November iith, 1874. 

Khurbet el Milh (J z).— See Tell Khurbet el M i 1 h. 

Khurbet Muaiyid (K y). — Foundations of buildings by the 
road, apparently ancient 

Khurbet Salantah (I y). — Heaps of flint conglomerate. 

Khurbet Saweh (J z). — A prominent hill-top, crowned with 
ruins, consisting of foundations and heaps of stones. The hill is 
VOL. HI. 52 



410 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

surrounded by a wall built of large blocks of flint conglomerate. Other 
ruins of similar kind exist in the valley beneath. 

Khiirbet Shuweikeh (J x). — A large ruin, apparently of a 
village ; several ruined houses remain, and foundations. There are caves 
and rock-cut cisterns, and drafted stones of good size lie in the ruins. 
The ruin stands on a low hill ; to the west in the valley there are two wells. 

Khtirbet et Teibeh (L y). — Traces of ruins. 

Khurbet et Tuany (L x). — Foundations and walls; a circular 
masonry well, and rock-cut tombs now blocked. A lintel stone 6 feet 
long was found with a winged tablet on it. Near the ruin was a round 
olive-press, 7 feet diameter, 10 inches deep, with a rim 5 inches thick. 
It was cut in a sort of sunken platform of the live rock, with a socket for 
a pole or pillar sunk in the centre of the press. 

Khurbet Z a n u t a (J y). — Heaps of stones and foundations ; fallen 
pillars, caves, and cisterns on a hill. The wall of a building is standing 
in a line 15° west of north. It has five pilasters, 
which stand on a podium or stylobate, and project 
^ , , I inch. Their shafts are 1 7 inches broad. The total 

Scale j^ ' 

" length of the wall is 23 feet. It appears to be the 
entire length of one side of a monument, like that 
near e s S e m u a. Three courses of the wall are 
standing throughout ; and in part towards the north five. Between the 
second and third pilasters from the north there is a niche in the wall 
with a domed roof, ornamented with cockle-shell pattern. The niche is 
19 inches wide, 8 inches deep, and 2 feet 4 inches high inside. The 
bottom is on the top of the third course of stones ; the niche faced east 
approximately. The masonry is of well-cut ashlar, of square proportions, 
and not drafted. 

Close to the building on the south there is a cave. Remains of the 
north wall of the building are traceable. There was apparently another 
niche between the third and fourth pilasters on the west wall, the stones 
of which lie near. There are many stones, about \\ feet high, lying 
near, and corbel-stones, probably part of the roofing. The stones are 
occasionally very narrow for their height. The vertical joints are 
carefully broken. 



-JS:: 


&p 








\_SBEET XXV.'] ARCH.-EOLOGY. 4" 

The ruin is extensive. South of the above described building are 
remains of a good-sized mosque, and outside it are two pillar shafts i8 
inches diameter. There are many caves with arches in front of their 
doors. 

In the south-west part of the ruins is the corner of a tower foundation, 
which was 30 feet square, with walls 3 feet thick. The walls have a 
bevelled set back of 6 inches at the third course from the ground. Many 
of the stones have a rough irregular draft, with the boss rudely dressed. 
The length of the stone is from 3i feet to i^ feet. In the south wall of 
the tower a stone was seen 3 feet 7 inches long, i foot 1 1 inches high, 
with two bosses. 

These ruins seem probably of Byzantine period, but there are remains 
of a village probably destroyed in recent times. 

14th November, 1874. 

Khiireibet Inbeh (K x). — Traces of ruins. 

Kuseif eh (K z). 
This place is, properly speaking, without the limits of the map. It is placed upon it, 
however. Gudrin visited it and found that it must have been a place of some importance, 
because there were the ruins of three churches, all built upon the same plan, viz., a rectangle 
divided into three naves with three apses at the east end. 

Kiisr Khallet el M a r d li m (I x). — Foundations, caves, cis- 
terns, and drafted stones. 

M a k - h u 1 (J y). — Caves on the hill-side. 

Ra-fat (K x). — Ruins of a village. Foundations, caves, wells, 
heaps of stones. A ruined inosque. The ruins appear to be of Byzantine 
date. To the south is a rock-cut tomb. 

Rujm el Bakarah (M x). — A large heap of stones on a hill. 

Rujm Ibn Basma (K y). — A large ruined watch-tower of 
large unhewn stones. 

Rujm el Humra (K x). — A watch-tower of masonry, unhewn. 
The wall has a sloping revetment. 

Rujm el Kherazmiyeh (L y). — A heap of stones — an Arab 
beacon or land-mark. 

Rujm en Nias (K x). — Ruined watch-tower like the next. 

52—2 



412 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

R u j m e s S u e i f (K y). — A large watch-tower of large unhewn 
masonry. 

Rujm Umm el 'Arais (L x). — A pile of stones. 

Rujm Umm el Humeitah (K y).— A ruined watch-tower 
like the next. 

RuJLim Umm el Kharrubeh (K y). — Foundations of two 
ancient watch-towers, east and west of the road. 

Es Semua (K x). — The village is full of ancient remains. 
Foundations built of stones, 4 feet to 8 feet in length. Two periods of 
building are observable ; one of large masonry, the other of small well- 
cut ashlar, such as was used by the Crusaders in the twelfth century. 
Some of the smaller stones have a shallow draft like those in the castle of 
K iirmul. (Sheet XXI.) In the centre of the village are remains of 
a castle, the masonry small and not drafted. This does not appear to be 
earlier than the Crusading period, and is perhaps more modern than even 
that period. 

Some of the large masonry is drafted with an irregular draft and boss, 
rudely dressed, resembling Byzantine work. 

Two lintel stones were found, now used in modern buildings. One 
was 4 feet 3 inches by 2 feet, and had a pattern cut on it representing a 
vine-branch, with leaves and grapes ; below are remains of other designs, 
flanked by a kind of vase in higher relief. 

The second was some 10 feet long, and 2 feet 3 inches high. The 
sculpture represented two niche arches, with internal cockle-shell pattern. 
This was flanked by rude pilasters in very low relief, forming the jambs 
of the gate. 

West of the village, low down in the valley, is a very fine tomb, with 
a pointed masonry arch before its door. The chamber was 10 paces 
square, with a diwan, two paces broad, round the walls. The tomb 
seems to have been lined with masonry. The arch is 8 feet 2 inches 
span, with nine voussoirs ; and beneath are pilasters, i foot broad, with a 
plain capital. 

North of the town is another tomb cut in rock, with a row of stones 
above, apparently the foundation of a building over the sunk court in 
front of the tomb, the court being 10 paces wide. 



[sheet XXV.'] 



ARCHAEOLOGY. 



413 



The larger masonry seems probably of Byzantine date ; and in one 
place there is a lintel with a relieving arch above — a Byzantine arrange- 
ment found in all the early monasteries. 

South of Semiia are remains of a building (called el Be nay eh), 
resembling that already described at K h ia r b e t Z a n li t a. It appears 
to have been 20 feet square, and the walls are standing to a height of 
13 feet 4 inches to the capitals of its pilasters. There were four steps 
leading down on the west, and probably the flight ran round the building. 

The south-west corner of the building remains, with three pilasters 
projecting 6 inches, and 2 feet 6 inches wide across the base. The wall 
is 3 feet thick, and throughout of good ashlar. The pillars stand on a 



'.' " —7 




-1 ^'^...^•\.,.^' 



^:^Sig^»^>*— t.:a 




MeteuJU oft*ilasOr 



projecting course or stylobate i foot 10 inches high. The capitals are 
curious, and appear to be Byzantine. They are i foot 9 inches high, 
and 2 feet 8 inches across the top. The cornice above has almost 
disappeared ; it had a cord moulding on it. The building had a vaulted 
masonry roof, now fallen ; rubble and soft mortar were used. 

A similar building existed further west. The foundations only, with 
the steps, are visible. In this case three arches are visible inside, one at 
the foot of each wall. These seem to belong to three rock-cut locu/i, or 
chambers under the three walls of the building, the door of the buildincr 
occupying the north wall. It appears, therefore, that these buildings, 
like that at Khurbet Medieh (Sheet XIV.), and Teiasir 
(Sheet XII.), are built above sepulchres, and, like the rest, they seem 
most probably attributable to the early Christian period.'"" 

Visited and planned, November 5th, 1878. 

* Several similar tomb-towers, attributable to the third century a.d., have been found 
East of Jordan. 



414 



THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 



S Ci s i e h (K x). — This ruin has also been at one time a place of 
importance, and is one of the largest in the district. It is divided by the 
main road into an eastern and western quarter, and in each there is a 
public building of importance. 

The western building measured 123 feet along a line 77° west, and 
51 feet at right angles. It is divided into various chambers, with a 




passage running north and south, 43 feet from the east end, and a 
vestibule 1 2 feet wide, running north and south at the east end and at 
the west end. The passage had three doors to the east, leading to a 
chamber 35|- feet north and south by 36 feet east and west, with a well 
inside 6 feet 6 inches diameter in north-west corner of the chamber. 



1^: 



% 



W\ 


^if 




s; 


^ 













5J 





On the east a door led to the chambers, of which there were two, each 
31 feet east and west. 

The three eastern doors were 4 feet, 6 feet, and 4 feet wide. They 
had lintels above, well cut, with mouldings, which appear Byzantine. 
The doors are flanked by pilasters, which probably supported a vaulted 
roof to the passage. 



\SHEET XX Vi] 



ARCH.EOLOGY. 



415 




The eastern door from the passage has two pillars, i foot 6 inches 
diameter, flanking it ; this door is 6 feet wide. Another door had 
cantalevers beside it, 2 feet 3 inches high. A lintel stone, 6 feet by 
2 feet 7 inches was also found, on which a winged tablet in low relief is 
cut. A capital, 18 inches diameter, much defaced, but with acanthus 
leaves, was also sketched. 

The masonry of this building is well dressed, the stones about 
2\ feet high, and 3 feet to 4 feet long. The 
masonry in the well is curved to the required 
arc of the circumference. There are several 
caves near the building, with masonry en- 
trances having semicircular arches. 

The eastern building is much more ruined, 
but of similar character ; remains of cradle- 
vaulting are observable, and there are three 
lintel stones about 5 feet long, one having an illegible inscription on 
it, the others traces of designs in low relief, like the 
designs found on most of the lintel stones in the ruined 
monasteries. 

In the north-east corner of the town are remains 
of a tower with drafted masonry, having a rustic boss 
to the stones. In the south-west corner are some 
very large undrafted stones, one 9 feet 4 inches long by 2 feet 6 inches 
high. 

Visited October 29th, 1874. 

Tell 'A r a d (L z). — A large rounded natural hill, with traces of 
ruins. 

Tell Main (L x). — A mound some 100 feet high. On the west 
are foundations, caves, and cisterns, and foundations of a tower about 
20 feet square. The masonry in this tower is large, with a broad 
irregular draft and a rustic boss. One stone was 3 feet 8 inches long, 
2 feet 9 inches high, the draft about 3 inches wide. There is also a 
round well-mouth, 5 feet diameter, cut out of a single stone. 

Visited October 29th, 1874. 

Tell el Milh (J z). — A large and important site, with a high 




41 6 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

conspicuous Tell, the summit of which is covered with Arab graves ; to 
the south are many mounds, on which are hewn stones of good size, and 
blocks of flint conglomerate, of which the town seems to have been partly 
built. To the north are two wells, one dry, the other 40 feet deep, and 
containing water, even in November before the rains. The water was 
brackish. 

Visited November nth, 1874. 

Tell et Tuany (L x). — A commanding hill-top, with a cairn of 
stones on the top. 

Umm el Kusab (I x). — Heaps of stones, and two cisterns. To 
the south-east is an enclosure, probably a fold. 

Umm es Seir (J y). — A cave and a ruined enclosure with one 
cistern, apparently a fold. 

Umm S i r a h (I y). — A large fold of unhewn stones. 



MASAD A 

Ge?iii-iil I'hin. 
Scale 



Sao -top 3t>o WO too 




SHEET XXV.— SECTION C. 

The Arab tribes on this Sheet are the D hull am, whose country 
includes the Sahel Farah, and all from Tell 'Arad to Tell el Milh, and 
southwards into the desert ; and the Jahalin, whose country extends 
north-east from Tell 'Arad. (See Sheet XXII.) 

The ridge of el G h u r r a h separates the K e d e i r a t and the 
D hull am, who also march with the 'Azazimeh on the west. (See 
Sheet XXIV.) 



VOL, in. 53 



SHEET XXVI. 

Sebbeh (N y). — This magnificent fortress was carefully planned 
with a tape and prismatic compass. The plateau is 410 feet above sea- 
level, or 1,700 feet above the Dead Sea shore. It is, roughly speaking, 
lozenge-shaped, measuring 2,080 feet along its length north and south, 
1,050 feet east and west. On each side are steep precipices, the plateau 
being isolated by two gorges, and being, in fact, a piece broken away 
from the main cliff. 

At the north-end of the fortress there is a round tower, about 30 feet 
diameter, and 70 feet below the top of the plateau. The wall of the tower 
is very thick, with two rings of ashlar and rubble within. Below this 
again is another square outwork, on the face of the cliff. 

The mountain is surrounded by a wall of rude unhewn masonry, of 
moderate size. This seems to have had chambers within it. The length 
is 4,880 feet, which is not very far from Josephus's estimate of 7 fur- 
longs. (B. J. vii. 8.) 

There are two ascents to the mountain. One on the east, the other 
on the west. The eastern ascent is in a semi-ruinous condition, but the 
side wall is visible down the precipice. This ascent was successfully 
accomplished by Captain Warren, R.E., in July, 1867. (See ' Quarterly 
Statement,' October, 1869, p. 145.) Josephus gives a length of 30 fur- 
longs for this ascent (called the Serpent), which would give about the 
same gradient with the N u k b at 'A i n J i d y. (Sheet XXI I.) 

The western ascent was easier, and is now yet more practicable, in 
consequence of the bank, or causeway, raised by Sylva at the time of the 
Roman siege. A bank of soft limestone here adheres to the precipice — a 
narrow ridge reaching up from the open ground on the west. On this 
promontory (called 'White Promontory' by Josephus) an artificial 



mr' 






< 4 






IJ 




^R ■^-^~5'i_' 



{SHEET XXVI.] ARCHAEOLOGY. 



419 



mound, some 300 feet high, has been raised, and on the mound is a wall 
of unhewn blocks, forming a sloping ascent some 70 feet high. 

On arriving at the summit the boundary wall is seen lying in ruins 
with heaps of stones. The entrance is through a gateway facing south. 
The gateway has an outer round arch, 5 feet 2 inches span, with a low 
rise, and an inner pointed arch, 4 feet 6 inches span. (See Palestine 
Exploration Fund Photographs Nos. 2S6 and 287). The masonry is of 
fair size, but not well set, and has a modern appearance. The tribe-mark 
of the Rushaideh Arabs is cut on the masonry in several places, 
as well as those of the J a h a 1 i n. Both tribes claim property in the 
supposed buried riches in the ruins. 

There are numerous niches in the surrounding wall north of the gate. 
(See Palestine Exploration Fund Photograph No. 288.) 

The buildings on the summit seem to belong to two periods, one being 
perhaps that of the original Herodian times, and the other a Christian 
period. In the early period the work is of large undressed blocks, set 
apparently without mortar. The later work is of dressed masonry of 
moderate size. 

Near the north end of the fortress is a small vault, with a round 
arched roof of small well-cut masonry ; the keystone is narrow and the 
haunch -stones broad, the intermediate voussoirs having a gradually 
increasing width towards the haunch-stones. The north angle is occupied 
by a block of buildings, the walls standing to a height of 2 or 3 feet, 
consisting of rough stones of good size packed with small ones, without 
mortar. The block measures 320 feet east and west, by 96 north and 
south, and includes 12 long narrow passages, 10 feet wide and 96 feet 
long. North of this block is a second like it, divided from it by a narrow 
lane running east and west. The second block seems to have had seven 
of these long parallel passages. The whole work is very rude, and 
suggests a line of parallel huts with perhaps wooden or cane roofs. 
Immediately south of these ruins are walls and a large ruined rock-cut 
cistern with a ruined building west of it 80 feet square. 

North of the two blocks above described is a mound occupying the 
angle of the rock, with foundations of a tower, which is rounded on the 
north side and about 80 feet square. 

Immediately south of the western ascent to the plateau is another 

53—2 



420 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

large block of ruins, consisting of heaps of large fallen stones. It 
measures i6o feet east and west by 200 feet north and south. The 
position is exactly that in which Herod's palace is described by Josephus. 

There are several other ruins dotted about the plateau as shown, 
including si.x rock-cut tanks, and one of masonry, with steps leading 
down into it. This is near the south angle, and measures 17 paces by 
24 paces. The floor is paved with chips of stone. Some of the rock 
trenches are cemented, some are not ; they are 7 to 1 5 feet deep. There 
is also a deep well on the west side north of the masonry tank. 

The stone used in these buildings is the coarse brown limestone of 
the cliffs round the fortress. 

Towards the south part of the plateau there is a curious semicircular 
tower or apse, the west wall being a straight line, the bow towards the 
east. Both sides of the west wall have rows of niches like those on the 
north wall of the fortress. 

The Christian remains include a chapel and a cave. 

The chapel stands in the south-west corner of a courtyard, which 
measures 80 feet east and west, and 51 feet 10 inches north and south, 
outside measurement. The chapel itself measures 50 feet 6 inches outside 
east and west, including a vestibule, on the west, 7 feet 8 inches wide 
inside, with walls 3 feet thick. The chapel and vestibule both measure 
22 feet north and south. The chapel apse on the east is 13 feet 7 inches 
in diameter. The bearing of the south wall was 89° 30' true bearing. 
There is a west door and a south door. On the north, just east of the 
apse, are two windows, 2 feet 6 inches wide each ; there is also a door 
leading to a side chamber 1 1 feet 8 inches square inside, with a window 
on its east wall and two on its north wall. 

The inside of the chapel is cemented with fragments of pottery 
arranged in patterns in the cement. The masonry of the walls is 
irregular in the length of the stones. The apse-stones are well finished 
with a toothed instrument. The windows have round arches with a 
narrow keystone. The roof of the apse is a half dome. The walls are 
standing high on all sides, but the roofs are gone, except that of the apse. 

About 1 50 yards south-east of the chapel is the cave, cut in the soft 
rock. The entrance is from the east. The first chamber measures about 
1 5 feet either way, and leads into a second, about 6 feet east and west by 



[SHEET XX I'L] ARCHEOLOGY. 421 

10 feet north and south. On the back wall of the outer chamber, right of 
the door, is an inscription in red paint, with crosses, evidently Christian. 
A rude sketch of a pomegranate or some such llower flanks the inscription 
on the left. 

+KYPIQKOC+ 

The character somewhat resembles that used in the Mediaeval ruins round 
Jericho. (Sheet XVIII.) 

In the north face of the rock there are many caves, which appear to be 
now inaccessible. 

The Roman investment of Masada remains to the present day in a 
very perfect condition. The wall is traceable all round the fortress, and 
the two large camps, one east, one west of the fortress, are almost perfect, 
together with six small forts on the wall in the plain. 

The length of the investing wall is about 3,000 yards. On the north, 
north-east, and north-west, the line runs in the plain ; on the east, west, 
and south it is carried along the brink of precipices, which are as high as 
or higher than the rock of Masada. In the plain the wall is some 1,500 
or 1,600 feet below the plateau in the rock. The eastern camp is near the 
plain, the western is on a bank raised above the plain. Both are some 
litde distance (about 200 yards) behind the investing wall. 

The wall and the camps were built up of unhewn stones, without 
mortar, and have gradually fallen in heaps of stone. 

Visited March 5th, 1875. 



APPENDIX. 



On Captain Conder's return in April, 1881, in order to conduct the Survey of Eastern 
Palestine, he was delayed for two or three months before being able to cross the Jordan. He 
made use of this delay to examine certain points which seemed to require further investiga- 
tion in the western country. The result was a series of short papers, which appeared in the 
'Quarterly Statement' for i88i. Those of them which bear upon the Survey are here 
reproduced. 

' I.— Tyre. 

' It is generally agreed that the original city stood on the islands and reefs which were 
separated from the shore by a channel, filled up by the mound which Alexander the Great 
constructed during the course of his famous siege of Tyre. Two islands originally existed, 
and are traditionally believed to have been connected by a mound, constructed by Hiram, 
the contemporary of Solomon. A careful inspection seems to lead to the conclusion that 
very little, if any, subsequent change has occurred since this connecting mound was made, 
and that the smaller island, which then lay south of the main reef, is represented by the pro- 
montory which projects at the sea corner of the present headland, enclosed by the Crusading 
walls. That the reefs presented in the middle ages the same outline as at present seems to 
be clearly indicated by the line of the twelfth century fortifications, which rise close to the 
chffs from the flat ledges of rock existing everywhere, both on the west and on the south. 
The promontory, representing the smaller island, rises some 30 or 40 feet above the sea, and 
is bounded by cliff's of soft sandy limestone above the flat reefs. There are no indications of 
any artificial alterations on these cliffs, and it seems very improbable that the action of the 
sea can have materially diminished the area of the island, for on the south, as will be seen 
immediately, the remains of the Egyptian harbour are clearly traceable, while all along the 
west the reefs have been hewn, with great patience and ingenuity, so as to form a series of 
small harbours, landing-places for boats, and shallow docks, etc., salt-pans, which are probably 
attributable to the early Phcenician period of Tyrian prosperity. In one place only on the 
west is the line of reefs broken, by a little round bay with a fine sandy beach measuring some 
70 yards in depth, and perhaps 100 yards across north-east and south-west. It is probable 
that the original channel, dividing the small southern island from the larger one, here ran out 
on the west. On the south also there is a corresponding bay, hut much shallower, measuring 
about 200 yards east and west, which may define the limits of the smaller island on the east. 



424 



THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTIAE. 



The area thus limited appears originally to have included about four or five acres. On this 
islet stood a temple, which the Greeks called that of Jupiter Olympius. A sarcophagus 
measuring 7 feet by 5 feet 10 inches and 2 feet 5 inches in height (outside dimensions) lies 
on the smaller island. It is quite plain, and cubical in shape, with a pillow for the head of 
the corpse cut inside at one end. 

' The western flat reefs, below the Crusading walls, extending to the north-west end of the 
larger island, present many points of interest. Fragments of the mediceval fortifications, 



ISIDONIAN HARBOUR 




it ,-' 



>-^i'^ 






faooFext/ 



TYRE (eS SUR). 



rubble masonry bonded with pillar shafts of granite and syenite, lie fallen upon them. The 
rise of the tide (about 18 inches) brings the water, on a calm day, almost on a level with the 
reefs, and in stormy weather they must be partially covered. In the summer, however, safe 
landing-places, and channels for small boats, occur in every direction, many bearing signs of 
having been artificially enlarged and altered, while in other parts there are remains of an 
ancient concrete i)avcmcnt, full of fragments of pottery, which seems to have been spread 
over the sharp and uneven ridges, to form an open quay close to shore. In one place there 
is a basin some 3 feet deep and 40 to 50 yards long, surrounded on all sides by the reef. It 
has no entrance, but a boat could be easily dragged over the narrow rock-mole on the out- 
side, and the basin would thus form a rude dock for the smaller craft in sumrner-time. North 
of this, on a somewhat higher level, are the basins called Burak es Salib, " Pools of the 



APPENDIX. 425 

Cross " — four large salt-pans divided by cross-walls of rock some 3 feet thick. One of these 
pools measured 35 feet by 22 feet, the depth being about 3 or 4 feet apparently. These 
excavations were full of sea-water, but are no longer used as salt-pans. Many smaller pans 
exist close by, and in other places along the reefs, resembling those at 'Athlit, which are 
still known by their proper name, el Mellahah. 

' Near the north-west angle of the reefs there is a heap of fallen pillar shafts, which, though 
quite black externally, show, when broken, a fine pink granite. They are some 2 feet in 
diameter, and look at first sight like the remains of a small shrine on the reef, but possibly 
they may have been collected by the Crusaders for use in the walls, or for the construction of 
a jetty, like those which they formed at CKsarea, Ascalon, etc., and even at Tyre itself in the 
Egyptian harbour, and tliey may thus have been left unused in their present position. 

' The above observations along the reefs seem to indicate that the Phoenician port 
included, not only the two main harbours on north and south, but also a series of quays, 
landing-places, and small harbours, on the west. On the east the accumulation of blown 
sand on the mound of Alexander has rendered the extent of the original site doubtful ; but 
it seems probable that the line of the Crusading walls on this side, founded as they probably 
are on rock, would mark approximately the limits of the island. Within this line — which is 
indicated by the position of the Algerine Tower in the orange gardens on the south-east, and 
by the small medieval tower on the north-east of the city, which contains a well, and is partly 
built of rustic masonry, such as the Crusaders used — the ground is everywhere covered with 
fragments of broken masonry and pillar shafts. The inhabitants use this open space, east of 
the modern town, as a quarry, digging down to a depth of 10 or 15 feet, and excavating good 
building stones. Small gems, Cufic and Byzantine coins, and other antiquities, are often 
found, belonging apparently to the early Christian period ; and a hoard of gold coins is said 
to have been lately discovered, but of what epoch I was unable to learn. 

' The total area which seems thus to have been enclosed, within the insular site formed 
by joining the two islands, is little short of 200 acres; and considering the small size of all 
the famous cities of Phoenicia (Sidon, Byblos or Aradus, the latter only occupying 100 acres), 
this appears amply sufficient for the site of a town even of the importance of Tyre. 

' It would not be difficult to sink shafts beneath the superficial excavations now made by 
the townspeople, and results of interest might probably be expected at a depth of some 
30 feet ; but, in any further explorations at Tyre, it would seem clear that the only place 
where excavation would be likely to succeed is in that part of the site which lies east and 
south-east of the present town, within the area of the Crusading walls. 

' As regards the necropolis of ancient Tyre, we made an interesting discovery. The 
modern graveyard occupies the ground north of the smaller island, and in this part there is a 
cliff, bounding the little bay already mentioned on the south-west side of the larger island. 
About 6 feet above the beach is a narrow cleft, which has been, I believe, recently broken 
through or enlarged by the fellahin. We squeezed into it with difficulty, and found within a 
grotto, which had been pointed out to us under the name Mugharet el Mujahed, " Cave of 
the Champion." There seems little doubt that it is an ancient tomb, a domed cave about 
8 feet by 10 feet, and 11 feet high. A shaft exists above, the roof being covered in with flat 
slabs of stone, which were all in place. No sanvpJiagiis remains, and, unless the shaft has 
been at some time or other opened and again closed, no sarcophagus can ever have been 
placed in the chamber. There is on the north-east side a flat shelf or step, measuring 5 feet 
6 inches by 2 feet 2 inches, on which, perhaps, the sarcophagus or coffin may have rested. 

VOL. Ill, 54 



42 6 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

No remains of wood or bones were noticed on the floor. The roof of the cavern is probably 
some 20 feet below the present surface of the ground on the top of the cliff The discovery 
of this tomb, with the shaft arrangement which distinguishes the Phoenician from the ancient 
Jewish tombs, seems to indicate the possible existence of an old Phoenician cemetery, in the 
cliffs under and near the modern graveyard ; and this may account for the puzzling circum- 
stance that the island city had no apparent necropolis. Remains of sunk places in the rocks 
immediately south of the cave may, perhaps, represent other tombs which have been destroyed 
in quarrying, but it is possible that some of these are salt-pans. In accordance with the 
ordinary conservatism of the East, I may, perhaps, suggest that the features of modern Tyre 
preserve ancient Phoenician localities ; that the necropolis is unchanged ; that the site of the 
great temple is indicated by the ruined cathedral ; and that the Eurychoros, or " wide-place," 
may have been identical with the broad Meidan, which is now found inside the line of the 
Crusading walls, and west of the modern town or village. The necropolis of Tyre was sought 
by Renan at the important cemetery in the hills east of the plain at a distance of nearly 2 miles ; 
but it seems probable that, although in later times the rich may have hewn their sepulchres 
on the mainland, the older tombs, at the time when (according to Pliny) a strait, 700 passus 
broad, divided the island from the shore, would have been hewn in the cliffs of the reef, and 
still exist buried some 20 feet beneath the modern graveyard. 

'The Egyptian Harbour. 

' The opinion of Renan and other writers appears to be that the ancient southern harbour 
of Tyre is no longer traceable ; and it is stated by Professor Socin that the supposed mole, 
on the south side of the town, was more probably the boundary of a piece of land artificially 
reclaimed from the sea. We gave considerable attention to this question during our recent 
visit. Lieutenant Mantell and I examined the mole and the harbour by swimming across it 
in various directions, thus ascertaining the depths, and closely inspecting the portions furthest 
from land; and the conclusion at which we arrived was different from that of the authorities 
mentioned, being to the effect that the harbour is distinctly recoverable, and that the only 
changes which have taken place are due to the wilful blocking up of the inlets to the port 
and to the filling in with stones of portions of the interior, over which stones the sand has 
now drifted, and i)artially silted up the harbour. Even in the narrowest part there is still, 
however, an anchorage for small boats, which we found lying close to shore ; while the water 
was far beyond our depth in that jiart of the port lying nearest to its western entrance. 

' It should be remembered that the ancient ports along the Syrian coast, including the 
famous Phcenician harbours, are extremely small. The harbour of Sidon includes 20 acres ; 
the Sidonian or northern port at Tyre only occupies 1 2 acres. The harbour at Cassarea, and 
that inside the reef at Jaffa, are equally unfitted for the requirements of modern navigation ; 
and it seems never to have occurred to the Tyrians to construct works connecting the various 
rocks in the two great reefs, which run out southwards and northwards beyond the actual 
harbours, although the existence of these reefs was no doubt the determining cause in fixing 
the site of the island city, as safe anchorage in the open roadsteads was thus obtained, from 
whichever direction the wind blew on shore. Strabo (xvi. 2) speaks of the Egyptian harbour 
as open, referring probably to the reef which runs out southwards, but the space enclosed 
within the southern mole is nevertheless equal to the area (12 acres) of the Sidonian 
harbour. 



APPENDIX. 427 

' The southern harbour we planned carefully. It is divided in two by a pier which runs 
out from land, and which, in calm weather, is visible at a depth of 2 or 3 feet below the 
surface, but is now covered by the silt and by sea-weed. The southern mole runs out west- 
wards from the land, at the extreme south-east angle of the ancient city, as defined by the 
Crusading wall. 

' It consists of ancient concrete full of large pieces of pottery, and had two paths paved 
with concrete, each about 4 feet wide, with a wall some 6 feet thick between them. The 
length of this mole is about 500 yards ; the western and eastern ends are clearly defined ; and 
Lieutenant Mantell walked along a good portion which lies under water, between the e.xtre- 
mities, and found in one place three fallen columns on the line of the wall. 

' The pier from the shore divides the harbour into two portions, the western measuring 
about 400 feet north and south, by 500 feet east and west, while the eastern measures 
400 feet at its widest, opposite the shallow bay previously noticed, which is enclosed in the 
harbour, while on the east the harbour narrows to a point between the cliffs and the mole. 

'There are two entrances at least to this port, through the mole, one being 50 feet wide. 
They have been partially filled with great blocks thrown down apparently from the wall on 
the mole, but we were obliged to swim across each. Other entrances no doubt also occurred 
in the part now under water, but the main adit was from the west, where is a gap in the reef 
which runs between the mole and the shore of 140 feet. This entrance is skilfully con- 
structed with an inner traverse, formed by a small tongue in the reef, so that the approach is 
completely defended from the waves outside. The water is here still very deep, but large 
blocks have been thrown down to close the entry, and the harbour is too small, and too much 
silted up, to be of any present value. 

' Having carefully planned this harbour (which is, however, I believe, shown on Gaillardot's 
" Survey of Tyre "), we were unable to come to any other conclusion than that it represents 
the Egyptian harbour. The reefs which run out 600 yards or more, in continuation of the 
rocks through which the western entrance is cut, break the force of the sea, so that a calm 
open roadstead is formed within, in which a small barque was lying at the time of our visit. 
Without reference to the history of Alexander's siege at Tyre, I am unable to remember what 
was then done by his ships to the southern harbour. It is possible that the filling in of the 
port may, however, have been accomplished by the notorious Fakhr ed Din, who ruined the 
harbours of Acre and .Sidon, and who seems to have had a special aversion to maritime 
structures ; there appears, however, no more reason to doubt that the Egyptian harbour still 
exists, than to question the identification of the equally small Sidonian harbour north of the 
present town of Tyre. 

' The Temple of Melkarth. 

' I have suggested above that the Christian church at the south-east angle of the modern 
town may stand on the site of this famous temple. Melkarth ("the King of the City ") was 
the Tyrian sun-god, identified by the Greeks with Hercules ; and t is worthy of notice that 
from the site of the cathedral (which probably replaced the older basilica said to hold the 
bones of Origen), a clear view is obtained of the great centre of sun-worship, Mount Hermon. 
The ruined cathedral stands on the highest part of the larger island, in a position marking as 
nearly as possible the centre of the ancient city ; and the ruined apses are directed towards 
Hermon. The fact that Christian churches were originally built on the sites of heathen 

54—2 



428 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

temples (as at Rome, Constantinople, or Jerusalem) is too well ascertained to need more 
than a passing notice ; and in the case of Tyre we find, lying within the Crusading building, 
various enormous granite shafts, two being double, with diameters of 3 feet 6 inches, the 
length of the blocks being 26 feet. Such monoliths are entirely unlike any work of the 
Crusaders, and the rude marble bases and capitals lying in the ruins are too small to have 
been placed in connection with them. The shafts must have been employed as piers from 
which the vault ribs sprang, and would have had a clumsy and unsuitable appearance even 
then in contrast with the small masonry and delicate mouldings of the Gothic structure. The 
material of these huge shafts is a fine red granite, which must have come from Egypt ; and 
the Crusaders are little likely to have imported such stones, as they were always on bad terms 
with the Egyptian Saracens. Such monoliths are, however, still to be found at Jebeil (Byblos), 
and in other Phoenician towns, and it seems far more probable that the Phoenicians, who by 
religion and commerce were so intimately connected with the Egyptians, would have brought 
the pillars to adorn their great temple, which no doubt faced the rising sun on a line not far 
different from that of the orientation of the Christian basilica. 

' The church has been already described by other explorers. We noted some smaller 
grey syenite shafts and a pillar base with the Greek cross, flanked by four globes, and having 
the A and n below, the material being a good white marble. This stands in situ on the 
south side of the central apse. We also found a marble capital of Gothic design, and both 
of these details were sketched and measured. The ancient font which was visible some years 
since has been, however, removed. I noticed that the windows of the apses show two 
periods of construction, the original " dog tooth " moulding, which ran round them inside, 
having been rei)laced in the upper part with small stones. 

' The ashlar is of small size throughout, and the centre of the walls of rubble, as usual in 
Crusading buildings. The material is a soft sandy limestone from the neighbouring cliffs. 
Only a few masons' marks are visible. 

' We copied the inscription which occurs at the foot of the wall, outside the north apse on 
its north. It is already known, but was seen under a good light. 

PONTHN 
OnOMH 
O . . 01 . . N 
KPHTH2 

' It is said that during the excavations of Sepp in 1S74, a set of sacerdotal robes, a silver 
cup or chalice, with rings and other treasures, were discovered in the cathedral. 

' I made inquiry as to the festivals of St, Barbara and St. Mekhlar, said by Professor Socin 
to preserve the cultus of Melkarth, but found no one accjuainted with either name. The 
Maronite church is called after Our Lady, and the Greek after St. Thomas. St. Catherine is 
also worshipped in the town. These churches, with their little belfries, and the minaret of the 
single mosiiuc, break the sky line in the long row of badly built cottages which constitute 
modern Tyre. There are also one or two better houses with red-tiled roofs. The little 
Sidonian harbour was full of small craft ; the walls of the buildings along its mole, with 
heavier masonry below and smaller above, are decidedly attributable to the twelfth century, 
as the upper stories of the towers present round arches, such as are never used by the modern 
native builders. 



APPENDIX. 429 

' Various antiquities were presented to us, and I purchased a small yellow glass coin or 
medal, of which two were offered. It represents the sun-god with his whip standing in his 
chariot drawn by four horses, and was said to have been found in an excavation near the 
cathedral. 

' Pal^tyrus. 

'In describing Tyre, Pliny ("Hist. Nat.," v. 17) gives it a circumference of 19 miles 
including Patetyrus, the place itself extending 22 stadia. 

' The latter estimate would agree fairly with the area above described as probably occupied 
by the island city, but if the 19 miles were distributed along the plain between the Nahr el 
Kasimiyeh (which Abu el Feda identifies with Leontes) and the springs of Ras el 'Ain, as 
has been proposed, I believe, by M. Renan, we should have to suppose a city almost one 
quarter as large as London, and quite without parallel in any other town of Syria. Strabo, on 
the other hand, mentions Palxtyrus as existing 20 stadia south of Tyre, and having a stream 
flowing through its midst, without in any way indicating a large suburb extending over the 
plain. 

' A careful examination of the ground between the Kasimiyeh River, the hills east of Neby 
M'ashuk, and the springs of Ras el 'Ain on the south, seems to me to point clearly to the 
conclusion that no such extensive suburb ever existed, and that there is only one site within 
the area where an ancient town of any extent can have stood. Such ancient sites are clearly 
indicated in Palestine by various sure signs, such as the grey soil, the numerous thistles, the 
growth of the yellow marigold, the remains of pottery, cement, and glass, which mark the 
crumbling mounds long